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from that traffic. It is true, that about the year 1599, Andreas Libarius, a learned Physician and Philosopher, made various experiments on the subject, at Rothenburg on the Tauber. But his efforts were attended with but little fuccess till several Princes and men of rank interfered in the business. John Philip, Elector of Mentz, was the firit, if I am not mistaken, who laid the affair to heart. This Prince caused many mulberries to be planted, and silk worms to be reared at Hockheim and at Wurtzburg in Franconia. He gave annual premiums to the children of such peasants, as had collected the greatest quantities of filk. Frederick, Duke of Wurtemberg Neustadt made a similar establishment at his residence. Prince Charles of Lichtenstein imitated his example: He planted mulberries at Felds. berg, where so many filk worms were reared as yielded a considerable yearly profit. Daniel Kraft, ani inquisitive and diligent man, made himselt famous for his success in managing those insects, and it is to him that the city of Dresden owes is filk manu. facture. But no person in Gerinany was so earnest in the bufiness as the Court of Berlin. Frederick I. planted many mulberry trees at Potsdam, Kopenick, Spandau, and cther plac's, where great quanti. ties of fik worns were reared and a manufaa ure established, the direction of which was at first entrulo ted to certain individuais. hut after vards :o the A. cademy of Sciences at Berlin. Frederick Williamı followed the foouteps of his fit'er win an ar dour and zeal truly laudable. For this purpose he ordera ed large plantatiocs of mutserries, and encouraged his subjects by rewards to mak, thein. (le like. wife e ablihed a manufacture of ribrands at Char. lottenburg, for the maintenance of which certain merchanrs advanced confiderabie fums.
The inhabitants of China likewise trade in filks; .
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of theirs, they even make paper, but it is so fine and thin, that it bears the ink only on one side.
The traffic in bees and in the wax and honey which they make is very considerable. It is well known that bees are sold in hives. If no accident happens to them, they maltiply so fast that each hive generally produces two swarms a year. These are two colonis fent forth to people two new hives. Suppose a man should purchase these two swarms at two florins for the first, and one florin for the second, the following year, if things succeeded well, each hive would give him two swarms which might be fold för double of what he originally gave, while he still preserved the first two hives. If one should calculate how many (warnis would be produced from the two ori. ginal hives in a few years, one would see what profit may arise from these little animals. I pass over in filence the honey and wax which the hives would af. ford at the same time, though likewise very profitable.
In the countries where locusts are eaten, they are carried regularly to market, and sold as birds are with us.
There are insects likewise which furnish the most beautiful colours. Such is the Cochineal ( Cocrus Cafli) which Dyers use for dying red. The Cochineal is a small worm which Mr Edward Tyfon thinks
is a species of Scarabæus. It is of the size of a
it is of a scarlet red colour ; it passes though its
puntia spinosa fructu sanguineo, (Cadus Opuntia.) These worms suck the fine red fruit of this tree, and acquire its colour. When these infects have at. tained thuis natural size, the Indians make a smoke to windward of the tree, and spread a linen cloth below it covered with quick-lime. When the animals are stupifii d with imoke, the tree is faken to make them fall in the quick lime which inítantly kills them. They are then dried in the Sun and kept for sale.
There is found both in Poland and Germany an insect (Coccus Polonicus) which yields a very fine carmine colour. This infect attaches itself to the plant called in Latin, Polygonum minus cocciferum, (Scle. ranthus perennis.) There hang from its roots litrle. veficits, sed internally, called by the vulgar St John's blood. When the root and vesicles of this plant are exposed to the Sun, there come out little flies which may be considered as belonging to the genus of ichneumon. They have white wings, and at the hinder part they have two beards of the fame colour clolly joined together. All the rest of the body of the infect resembles carmine, and accordingly it is from this animal we procure it. '
It is to an infect likewise that we are indebted for the finest crimson colour. This little animal (Coccus ilicis) is found in small round vesicles, of the size of a pea, which grow on the leaves of the Ilex aculcata cocci glandifera (quercus Ilex.) It is a species of very hard oak, which the celebrated Mr Rohr calls the scarlet oak. The vesicles are gathered before they open, and to prevent the liule flies from getting away, these vesicles are sprinkled with vinegar. These trees are found chiefly in Spain; bnt they are said to grow likewise in England and in different parts of Germany; as in
the the Province of Bareith in Silesia and in the forests of Saxony. It would be worth while to investigate the matter, and to examine at the same time the feason in which these vesels are filled with flies. A greater number of these trees might then be cultiva. ted, the insects gathered, and we might find at home, at little expence, what we send so far, and pay fo high to obtain. The peasant and his master would then be equally benefited, the one by selling the in. fects he had gathered, the other by the tax which might be laid on the traffic.
Besides the two kinds of plants, on which these insects are found, diligent Naturalists have discovered others, with red vefTels at their roots: Undoubt. edly there would likewise produce a red colour, like the others. It needs only to be tried by experiment, whether their cultivation would be worth the while.
I add, in order to finish this article, that there is a sort of Bees in the Indies, considered by some as winged ants, which are likewise of great ufein dying. They make a sort of wax, called gum lac; which is ufed in dying red.
The wax made by bees has several uses, which ought not to be passed over in silence. The antients wrote upon it. They made little plates of wood, like the leaves of our pocket-books, with a raised border all round, to prevent the wax from running off Melted wax was then spread on these plates, and made smooth, so that they wrote upon it with a point, nearly in the same manner as our engravers write on copper. A few years ago I saw an antiqui. ty of this kind, in the town house of Arnad. These tablets are no longer in ule, both because what was written could be easily effaced and because paper is to inuch more fit for the purpose. I shall ay
nothing of the use formerly made of wax, in defend. ing dead bodies from putrefaction, but confine myself to the uses ic serves in the present times. It is mixed with pitch, in order to stop up chinks and crevices, through which water gets into casks. It is likewise used to prevent air and rain from getting in, to the woupds of trees, whether made for engrafting, or accidentally. It was formerly used in sealing let. ters, and other ihings of that nature, and various colours were given to it. Now a days, when we are acquainted with a better fort of wax, common people no longer use it; but magistrales and persons in power still impress their feals upon it, and attach them to public instruments and papers of importance. Wax was likewise antiently used in painting ; any colour was given it at pleature; portraits were made of it, which were afterwards hardened by means of fire, many works in relief were likewise fabricated of wax, and even the whole human figare has been for. med of it. But as that was expensive, it was only persons of distinction who ccald prveure them. A. mong the Romans, it was those persons only who had exercised the curule cffices who had the Right of Statues. These the Poes call ceræ, because they were of wax, In the year 1714, I saw a Berlin, a magnificent specimen of this in the king's cabinet. It was the portrait of his majesty, Frederic king of Prussia. The workmanship was so exquisite, and the features so striking, that at firit Sight one could not help laying, “ there is the king.” The great like. wise use candles made of wax.
It is well known, that there are several animals which, like living barometers, prediat changes of the seasons. Infects have the fame faculty. At the approach of winter they conceal themícives, and when the grasshoppers aypear, they announce to us the summęs. We may expect a form or heavy rain,
anliounce and when