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The Mind. 1. Division : Ist. As to the origin of the mind. 2d. As to its
The Origin of the Mind
170 1. To this appertains the consideration of the origin of the soul
and its faculties. 2. This subject may be more diligently enquired than it hath
been in philosophy: but it is referable to divinity. 3. Appendices to this knowledge : 1. Divination. 2. Fascination.
Artificial Diviration. 2. Artificial is a prediction by argument, concluding upon signs
and tokens. 3. Division : Ist. Rational. 2d. Superstitious. 4 Rational artificial divination is when the argument is coupled
with a derivation of causes.
The astronomer hath his predictions, as of conjunctions, aspects, eclipses, and the like. The physician hath his predictions of death, of recovery, of the accidents and issues of diseases. The politician hath his predictions; “O urbem venalem, et cito perituram, si emptorem invenerit !". which stayed not long to be performed, in Sylla first, and
after in Cæsar. 5. Superstitious artificial divination is when there is a mere
casual coincidence of the event and prediction.
Such as were the heathen observations upon the inspec-. tion of sacrifices, the flights of birds, the swarming of bees ; and such as was the Chaldean astrology, and the like.
Q. 4. Supposing the opinion to be founded on fact; will not the, evil now be prevented by the art of printing ?
6. Artificial divination is not proper to this place, but should be referred to the sciences to which it appertains.
Natural Divination. 1. It is a prediction from the internal nature of the soul. 2. Division: Ist: Native. 2d. By influxion. 3. Native divination is grounded on the supposition that the
mind, when withdrawn and collected into itself, and not diffused into the organs of the body, hath, from the natural power of its own essence, some prenotion of future things: as in sleep, ertacies, propinquity of death, &c.
172 4. It is furthered: by abstinence. 6. Divination by influxion is grounded upon the supposition that
the mind, as a mirror, takes illumination from the fore
knowledge of God and spirits. 7. Divination of influxion* is furthered by abstinence. 8. Native divination is accompanied by repose and quiet: divi
nation by influxion is fervent and impatient.
172 1. It is the power of imagination upon other bodies than the
body of the imaginant. 2. Of the erroneous opinions upon fascination. 3. Enquiry how to fortify the imagination. 4. The only defect in this subject is as to not distinguishing
THE USE AND OBJECT OF THE FACULTIES OF MAN 173 1. Division of this knowledge: Ist. Relating to the understand
ing. 2d. Relating to the will. 2. The understanding produces decrees; the will actions.
* Query, Whether divination by influxion is not descriptive of the feeling which influences the benevolent and orderly class of society called Quakers?
+ Here, in the Treatise De Augmentis, is an extensive addition upon Voluntary Motion-Sense and Sensibility-Perception and Sense - The Form of Light.
This Janus of imagination hath differing faces; for the face towards reason hath the print of truth, but the face towards action hath the print of good ; which nevertheless are faces,
" Quales decet esse sororum.” It was well said by Aristotle, “ That the mind hath over the body that commandment, which the lord hath over a bondman; but that reason hath over the imagination that commandment which a magistrate hath over a free citizen;"
who may come also to rule in his turn. 3. Observations upon the imagination.
Poesy is rather a pleasure or play of imagination, than a work or duty thereof.
Of the Understanding. 1. Knowledge respecting the understanding is to most wits the
least delightful; and seems but a net of subtlety and spinosity; but it is the key of all other arts.
As knowledge is “ pabulum animi ;” so in the nature of men's appetite to this food, most men are of the taste and stomach of the Israelites in the desert, that would fain
have returned “ ad ollas carnium.” Division
176 1. Invention. 2. Judgment. 3. Memory 4. Tradition,
176 1. Division.
1. Of arts and sciences.
2. Of arguments. 2. The art of inventing arts and sciences is deficient.
This is such a deficience as if, in the making of an inventory touching the state of a defunct, it should be set down, that there is no ready money. For as money will fetch all other commodities, so this knowledge is that which should
purchase all the rest. And like as the West-Indies had never been discovered, if the use of the mariner's needle had not been first discovered, though the one be vast regions, and the other a small motion ; so it cannot be found strange if sciences be no further discovered, if the art itself of inven
tion and discovery hath been passed over. 3. Proofs that the art of inventing arts and sciences is deficient. 1. Their logic does not pretend to invent sciences or axioms
177 Men are rather beholden to a wild goat for surgery, or to a nightingale for music, or to the ibis for some part of physic, or to the pot lid that flew open for artillery, or generally to chance, or any thing else, than to logic, for the invention of arts and sciences.
It was no marvel, the manner of antiquity being to consecrate inventors, that the Ægyptians had so few human idols in their temples, but almost all brute.
Who taught the raven in a drought to throw pebbles into an hollow tree, where she espied water, that the water might rise so as she might come to it? Who taught the bee to sail through such a vast sea af air, and to find the way from a field in flower, a great way off, to her hive ? Who taught the ant to bite every grain of corn that she burieth in her hill, lest it should take root and grow ? 2. The forms of induction which logic propounds is dedefective
179 To conclude upon an enumeration of particulars, without instance contradictory, is no conclusion, but a conjecture ; for who can assure, in many subjects upon those particulars which appear of a side, that there are not other on the contrary side which appear not? As if Samuel should have rested
upon those sons of Jesse which were brought before him, and failed of David, who was absent in the field. 3. Allowing some axioms to be rightly induced, middle
propositions cannot be inferred from them in sub
ject of nature by syllogism. Here was their chief error; they charged the deceit upon
the senses; which in my judgment, notwithstanding all their cavillations, are very sufficient to certify and report truth, though not always immediately, yet by comparison, by help of instrument, and by producing and urging such things as are too. subtile for the sense to some effect comprehensible by the sense, and other like assistance.
But they ought to have chargeu the deceit upon the weakness of the intellectual
ироп the manner of collecting and concluding upon the reports of the senses. 4. Bacon's intention to propound the art of inventing arts and
sciences by two modes: ist. Experientia literata. 2d. Interpretatio naturæ.*
INVENTION OF SPEECH OR ARGUMENT
183 1. It is more properly memory with application than invention.
We do account it a chase, us well of deer in an enclosed
park as in a forest at large. 2. Modes of producing this recollection : 1st. Preparation. 2d
Preparation. 1. It is the storing arguments on such things as are frequently
discussed. 2. It consists chiefly of diligence.
Aristotle said the sophists “ did as if one that professed the art of shoe-making should not teach how to make a shoe, but only exhibit, in a readiness a number of shoes of all fashions and sizes." But yet a man might reply, that if a shoemaker, should have no shoes in his shop, but only work as he is bespoken, he should be weakly customed.
Our Saviour, speaking of divine knowledge, saith, that the kingdom of heaven is like a good householder, that bringeth forth both new and old store.
* The Experientia Literata is contained in the Treatise De Aug. mentis; and his Interpretatio Naturæ, constitutes his Novum Organum.