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laboureth to make doubtful things certain, and not those which labour to make certain things doubtful.
Of a Calendar of Popular Errors. General doubts, or those differences of opinions, touching the
principles of nature which have caused the diversities of sects
152 Thus have we now dwelt with two of the three beams of man's knowledge; that is “ Radius directus," which is referred to nature, “Radius refractus," which is referred to God; and cannot report truly because of the inequality of the medium : there resteth “ Radius reflexus," whereby man beholdeth and contemplateth himself.
HUMAN PHILOSOPHY, OR THE KNOWLEDGE OF MAN(O) 153 1. The knowledge of men deserves more accurate investigation,
because it touches us more nearly. 2. The knowledge of man is to man the end of all knowledge:
but of nature herself a portion only.
All partitions of knowledge should be accepted rather for lines and veins, than for sections and separations; that the
continuance and entireness of knowledge be preserved. 3. Division of human philosophy.
1. Man as an individual.
MAN AS AN INDIVIDUAL.
Discovery. 1. The art of ascertaining the state of the mind from the appear
ance of the body, as physiognomy, &c.
(0) See note (O) at the end.
2. The art of ascertaining the state of the body from the appear
ance of the mind, as exposition of dreams, &c.
155 1. The discovery of the mind from the appearance of the body. 2. Aristotle has laboured physiognomy as far as relates to the
countenance at rest; but not when in motion. 3. The lineaments of the body disclose the general inclinations
of the mind : the motions its present dispositions.
A number of subtle persons, whose eyes do dwell upon the faces and fashions of men, do well know the advantage of this observation, as being most part of their ability.
Impression. 1. It is the science of the relative action of the body and mind
upon each other.
1. This has been enquired as a part of medicine.
not derogate from the soul's dignity.
is sometimes led by his servants and yet without subjection. 3. The action of the mind on the body. 1. Physicians have ever considered “ accidentia animi,”
as of great importance. 2. The power of imagination as well to help as to hurt
is a subject neglected, but deserving enquiry. It cannot be concluded that because there be pestilent airs, able suddenly to kill a man in health, therefore there should be sovereign airs, able suddenly to cure a man in sickness, 3. There should be an enquiry of the seats and domiciles
which the several faculties of the mind occupy in the body and the
* See the very words of Bacon in page 157, and query as to its application to the subject of craniology.
The divided State of Man
1. The body.
OF THE BODY.
Health. 1. Man's body is of all things most susceptible of remedy, but
this remedy most susceptible of error. 2. No body is so variously compounded as the body of man. 1. The variety in the composition of man's body is the
cause of its being frequently distempered. The poets did well to conjoin music and medicine in Apollo : because the office of medicine is but to tune this curious harp of man's body and to reduce it to harmony. 2. The variety in the composition of man's body has made
the art of medicine more conjectural; and so given
scope to error and imposture. The lawyer is judged by the virtue of his pleading, and not by the issue of the cause. The master of the ship is judged by the directing his course aright, and not by the forlune of the voyage. But the physician, and perhaps the politician, hath no particular acts demonstrative of his
ability, but is judged most by the event. 3. The quack is often prized before the regular physician. 4. Physicians often prefer other pursuits to their own professions.
You shall have of them antiquities, poets, humanists, statesmen, merchants, divines, and in every of these better seen than in their profession ; and no doubt upon this ground, that they find that mediocrity and excellency in their art maketh no difference in profit or reputation to
wards their fortune; for the weakness of patients, and sweetness of life, and nature of hope, maketh men depend
upon physicians with all their defects. 5. Diseases may be subdued.
If we will excite and awake our observation, we shall see in familiar instances what a predominant faculty the
subtilty of spirit hath over the variety of matter or form. 6. Medicine has been more laboured than advanced. 7. Deficiences of medicine.
1. Want of medical reports.
3. Hasty conclusions that diseases are incurable. Sylla and the triumvirs never proscribed so many men to die, as they do by their ignorant edicts.
4. A neglect to mitigate the pains of death.
attain their end.
168 1. Cleanliness was ever esteemed to proceed from a due reve
rence to God, to society, and to ourselves. 2. Artificial decoration is neither fine enough to deceive, nor
handsome to please, nor wholesome to use. *
* In the Treatise De Augmentis, this passage is thus altered:
Adulterate decoration by painting and cerusse, is well worthy of the imperfections which attend it; being neither fine enough to deceive, nor handsome to please, nor wholesome to use.
We read of Jesabel that she painted her face : but there is no such report of Esther or Indith.
168 1. It means any ability of body to which the body of man may
be brought. 2. Division. 1. Activity.
2. Swiftness. 2. Patience.
1. Hardness against want.
2. Endurance of pain. 3. General receptacle for acts of great bodily endurance. 2. The philosophy of athletics is not much investigated. 3. The mediocrity of athletics is for use; the excess for osten
Their chief deficience is in laws to repress
them. It hath been well observed, that the arts which flourish in times while virtue is in growth, are military; and while virtue is in state, are liberal; and while virtue is in declination, are voluptuary. *
• In Bacon's Essay on Vicissitude of Things, he says,
In the youth of a state, arms do flourish; in the middle age of a stale, learning; and then both of them together for a time: in the de
clining age of a stałe, mechanical arts and merchandise. Lloyd, in his Life of Sir Edward Howard, says, almost in the same words,
In the youth of this state, as if all others, arms did flourish; in the middle stale of it, learning ; and in the declining (as covelousness
and theft attend old age) mechanic arts and merchandise. Q. 1. Is this observation founded on fact?
Q. 2. Supposing it to be founded on fact; what are the causes ? -Does commerce lower the character? Is the service of mammon at variance with the service of God?
Q. 3. Supposing the mechanical arts and merchandize hitherto to have accompanied the decline of states, may they not both be traced to excess of civilization, instead of being supposed to flow from each other?