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primitive or summary philosophy, as the main and common way, before we come where the ways part and divide themselves.

This science is as a common parent, like unto Berecynthia, which had so much heavenly issue,

Omnes caliclas, omnes super alta tenentes.

NATURAL RELIGION

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152 1. It is

That knowledge or rudiment of knowledge concerning God, which may be obtained by the contemplation of his

creatures. 2. The proper limits of this knowledge are that it sufficeth to convince atheism

128 3. It is not safe from contemplations of nature to judge upon questions of faith

129 Men and gods were not able to draw Jupiter down to the earth;

but contrariwise, Jupiter was able to draw them up to heaven." 4. This is not deficient, but not restrained within proper limits. 5. Of angels.

It is no more unlawful to inquire the nature of evil spirits, than to inquire the force of poisons in nature, or the

nature of sin and vice in morality. 6. Enquiries respecting angels are not deficient.

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 1. Division.

1. Speculative or inquisition of causes.
2. Operative or production of effects

131 If then it be true that Democritus said, That the truth of nature lieth hid in certain deep mines and caves : and if it be true likewise that the alchemists do so much inculcate, that Vulcan is a second nature, and imitateth that dexterously and compendiously, which nature worketh by ambages and length of time, it were good to divide natural philosophy

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into the mine and the furnace; and to make two professions or occupations of nutural philosophers, some to be pioneers and some smiths; some to dig, and some to refine and

hammer 2. Connection between cause and effect

131

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SPECULATIVE NATURA LPHILOSOPHY. 1. Division.

1. Physic.

2. Metaphysic. 2. Of the impropriety of using new words for new ideas. 3. Of the meaning of the words physic and metaphysic 134

PHYSIC, 1. Physic contemplates the efficient cause what is inherentin matter and transitory

135 2. Physic is situate between natural history and metaphysic 135 3. Division of physic. 1. As it respects nature united

135 1. The doctrine of the contexture or configuration

of things. 2. The doctrine concerning the principles of

things 2. As it respects nature diffused. 4. It is not deficient*

136

METAPHYSIC.

Formal Causes. It enquires into formal and final causes

136 1. Inquiry whether forms are discoverable.

1. Their discovery is of the utmost importance.

They are ill discoverers that think there is no land, when
they can see nothing but sea.
2. Plato discovered that forms were the true objects of

knowledge.
Plato beheld all things as from a cliff.

* In the Treatise De Augmentis there is, in this place, a considerable addition.

.

.

2. By keeping a watchful and severe eye upon action and use, forms may be discovered

137 3. The forms of nature in her more simple existence are first to be determined

137 4. Physic makes enquiry of the same natures as metaphysic, but only as to efficient causes

163 5. This part of metaphysic is defective. 6. The use of this part of metaphysic.

1. To abridge the infinity of individual experience.

Thal knowledge is worthiest, which is charged with least multiplicity; which appeareth to be Metaphysique ; as that which considereth the simple forms or differences of things, which are few in number, and the degrees and co-ordinations whereof make all this variety. 2. To enfranchise the power of man by faciliating the

production of effects.

Of Final Causes

. 140 1. The enquiry of final causes is not deficient, but has been mis

placed.
1. The investigating final causes in physics has intercepted

the true enquiry of real physical causes.
To say that the hairs of the eye-lids are for a quickset
and fence about the sight ; or that the firmness of the skins
and hides of living creatures is to defend them from the ex-
tremities of heat or cold; or that the bones are for the
columns or beams, whereupon the frames of the bodies of
living creatures are built ; or that the leaves of trees are
for protecting of the fruit ; or that the clouds are for the
watering of the earth; or that the solidness of the earth is
for the station and mansion of living creati res, and the like,
is well inquired and collected in Metaphysique ; but in
Physique they are impertinent. Nay, they are indeed but
remoras and hindrances to stay and slug the ship from fur-
ther sailing; and have brought this to pass, that the search
of the physical causes hath been neglected, and passed in
silence.

2. Of the errors in antient philosophy from mixing

formal and final causes

141 Not because those final causes are not true, and worthy to be inquired, being kept within their own province; but because their excursions into the limits of physical causes

hath bred a vastness and solitude in that track, 2. There is no repugnance between formal and final causes 142 3. These opinions confirm divine providence.

Mathematic

142 1. Reason for classing it as a part of metaphysic. 2. From the nature of the mind to wander in generalities, mathematics have more laboured than any

other form. 3. There is no difference in mathematics

144 4. Division of mathematics : Ist, pure; 2d, mixed.

Pure Mathematics. 1. It is that science wbich handles quantity determinate, merely

severed from axioms of natural philosophy, and is geometry or arithmetic

144 2. Pure mathematics cure many intellectual defects.

If the wit be too dull, they sharpen it ; if too wandering, they fix it ; if too inherent in the sense, they abstract it. So that as tennis is a game of no use in itself, but of great use in respect it maketh a quick eye and a body ready to put itself into all postures ; so in the mathematics, that use which is collateral and intervenient is no less worthy than that which is principal and intended.

Mixed Mathematics

144 1. Its subject is some axioms or points of natural philosophy,

and considers quantity determined, as auxiliary and

incident to them, as perspective, music, architecture, &c. 2. They will increase as nature is more disclosed.

OPERATIVE NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, 1. It is the production of effects.

2. Division.

1. Experimental.
2. Philosophical

3. Magical. 3. Of the analogy between this division and the division of speculative natural philosophy

172 4. The knowledge of physical causes will lead to new particulars.

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.

lead to

Magical. 1. Natural magic is defective

146 2. Appendices hereto are,

Ist. A calendar of inventions.
2d. A calendar of discoveries which

may
other inventions

148 The invention of the mariner's needle, which giveth the direction, is of no less benefit for navigation than the in

vention of the sails, which give the motion. 3. Conclusion of natural philosophy, speculative and operative.

The voice of nature will consent, whether the voice of man do or not. And as Alexander Borgia was wont to say of the expedition of the French for Naples, that they came with chalk in their hands to mark up their lodgings, and not with weapons to fight : so I like better that entry of truth which cometh peaceably, with chalk to mark up those minds which are capable to lodge and harbour it, than that which cometh with pugnacity and contention.

: 149

Of Doubts 1. Division of doubts.

1. Particular.

2. Total. 2. Particular doubts.

1. Uses of registering doubts.

2. Of the evil of continuing doubts. That use of wit and knowledge is to be allowed, which

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