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Having been shut up in the
Burn (imper.) down the ships.
To indulge in sleep.
And the revered senate.
Useless in arms.
The deeds of mortals (adj.).
II. EXERCISES IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE
After the preliminary exercises on the fifth and sixth feet, those on the first half of the line naturally follow. The first two feet may be either dactyls or spondees, but the first is preferably a dactyl. In
these exercises the caesura will come after the first syllable of the third foot and thus complete the first half of the verse.
Read over carefully the rules for the first, second, and third feet (pages 24, 25).
(Same model as above but with or without elisions.)
Thence the others hasten.
But he from his couch
This he snatched from the
Nor was the deceit (pl.) concealed.
III. EXERCISES IN BROKEN VERSE
In the following exercises each line contains the required number of syllables and correct words for a hexameter verse. It remains for the student to see how he can arrange these words so as to make them scan correctly.
The first step will be to mark all the quantities, taking care to note whether or not a vowel, short by nature, may become long by position.
It will be better to begin the arrangement of the words by selecting the words suitable for the fifth and sixth feet.
Where there is more than one choice, that order should be adopted which is best from the standpoint of smoothness and harmony.
Dum lacus delapsa nisu inani defecit.
Hic non abdidit divitias nigrantibus antris.
Ecce lilia tibi tollunt caudice se viridi.
Atria querelis femineis ululata trepidant.
Et nomina fecit numeros tum stellis navita.
IV. EXERCISES IN THE COMPLETE HEXAMETER
The next step will be to translate the thought contained in an English sentence into Latin, and then to arrange the same, by a selection of the proper words and correct order, so as to form a hexameter
Two things must be carefully observed: make your Latin sentence express exactly the thought; do not introduce a word not implied in the English sentence.
The best method of procedure will be to write in
Latin the sentence, and to mark all the quantities. Decide upon the words for the fifth and sixth feet. Then arrange the others. If the words chosen do not make the line, synonyms and phrases should be selected from the Gradus. For this reason, when translating the line, it would be well to put down several words at least for the nouns, verbs, and adjectives.
Phrases and clauses should be kept distinct, so that words belonging to a part of a sentence within a semicolon, colon, period, and even a comma sometimes, should not be intermingled.
In these exercises all sentences are complete in the single verse.
1. The green herbs were the first bread for mortals. 2. Meanwhile the woods (arbusta) resound with the hoarse cicadas.
1. A thousand days, two thousand days, and he is not
2. As dark night wraps the world in its hollow shade.
1. The angel of the Lord ordered us to relate these words.
2. Pallor is on the lips: disease in the whole body.
1. Anger (pl.), rage, and crimes hateful to the heart.
2. There is a cave in the center, thick with osier and brauches.
1. He himself rushed along and scattered the dogs and like a madman
2. His eyes gleamed with fire, and his neck stands forth rigid.
1. How quickly the earth loses its purple hues (sing.). 2. Scorn pleasures; pleasure bought with sorrow gives harm.
3. Everyone forsooth is fond of his own pursuits.
1. The iron ring is worn by constant use.
2. Behold the branches bent down by the weight of the apples.
3. Behold the rivulets gliding by with pleasing murmur.
1. On one side the lofty woods resound with the lowing (pl.) [of the cattle].
2. Autumn gives the fruit; but summer rejoices in the flowers.
3. He was the first to intrust seeds to the untried earth. 4. And he himself was the first to skilfully make the plough.
1. In the meantime he creeps with tottering steps through the city.
2. The hunter knows well where he may set his snares for the stags.
3. Time brings everything, likewise time bears everything away.
4. The passing years despoil us of everything.