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Conditional expressions are generally preceded by conjunctions, and such expressions often contain the subjunctive mood. Conjunctions, however, do not govern the subjunctive mood because they are simply conditional, but because in the particular mood which they accompany there is an element of uncertainty. Conditional conjunctions are therefore of two kinds-those which express a condition as a fact, and one admitted as such; and those which express a condition as a possible fact, and one which may or may not be true. The first kind requires the indicative mood, as, "If the vessel is ready (a fact) we shall sail, to-morrow." The second kind requires the subjunctive,


"If the wind be favorable (an uncertainty) we shall sail to-morrow." In the first sentence since might be substituted for if. Since the vessel is ready.

The following method for ascertaining which mood is to be used, is given by Dr. Latham. "Insert immediately after the conjunction one of the following phrases, "as is the case," or "as may or may not be the case." When the first expresses the meaning of the speaker, the indicative is the mood to be used, but when the second, the subjunctive. "If, as is the case, the vessel is ready." "If, as may or may not be the case, the wind be favorable," etc.

This rule is often violated, because many seem to suppose that every conditional sentence, should contain the subjunctive mood.

Many instances of the use of the subjunctive for the indicative are found in the Scriptures, example: "If ye then be risen with Christ.” There seems to have been no doubt in the mind of the Apostle, for on its truth, he grounds the exhortation which follows. The original also, justifies the use of the indicative, "If, (since,) then ye are risen with Christ."

In the sentence, "Tho' I be absent in the flesh," the verb in the Greek is indicative, as it evidently ought to be in English, for there is no uncertainty. "The bias seems formerly to have been very much in favor of the subjunctive mood after conditional particles, but now it is in favor of the indicative, whenever the idea will admit it. There is another office of conjunctions which is generally left unexplained. It is that of relationship. We have seen that prepositions show the relations which the words in a proposition bear to each other. We shall also see that conjunctions show the relations which propositions bear to each other. One proposition may be opposed to that which precedes it, it may depend upon it as a necessary condition, or

it may serve as the complement of it. Each of these characters must be denoted by its appropriate sign, which shall indicate the nature of the relation between the propositions. Let us take some examples, "The serpent beguiled me and I did eat." Here are two propositions. The word and which joins them belongs to neither; it merely connects them and shows that the act expressed by the first sentence was the cause of the act expressed by the second, or that the eating was the consequence of the beguiling.

"The ground was well tilled but the harvest was poor." Here are also two propositions. The word but connects them, but it belongs to neither. It indicates a contrariety and shows a result different from what would naturally be expected.

"You will obey the rules if you wish to please me." Here if shows the conditional relation which exists between the propositions. "I know that the good will be rewarded." In this sentence that indicates that the second proposition is the complement of the first.

The word that in such connections is called a conjunction, but, as I have said, it is pronominal in its origin. In the sentence given above, it is really a pro-sentence and represents the clause "the good will be rewarded. This peculiar use of that seems to have arisen thus: A thought prominent in the mind of the speaker, and about which he wishes to say something is uttered; then he introduces that as a substitute for the expression, and makes it the subject or object of his principal verb, thus :

The good will be rewarded, that is certain.

The good will be rewarded, I know that.

This mode of expression imparts a certain amount of emphasis. By degrees that came to be placed before the clause it represents, and is now said to connect it to the other proposition, thus :

That the good will be rewarded is evident.

I know that the good will be rewarded.

It is not the purpose of these articles to discuss particular words, but to point out the general characteristics of the different classes of connectives. I will, however, mention a few, that have some peculiarities.

It has been said that the conjunction of comparison, than, came originally from a pronoun through the adverb then. Let us see how it was developed from then.

"John is wiser than his brother (is wise.)" Here it is asserted that "his brother" is wise, then John is wiser, or, If John is wiser, then his brother can only be wise. Now omit the predicate of the second clause, as it is natural to do, and change e to a in then, which would very likely be done in pronouncing it, and we have “John is wiser than his brother."

The combination "as well as," though now written as separate words, forms a connective similar in meaning to and, but stronger." "We believe in the generally good character of the man, as well as in his innocence of the present crime."

And would not here supply the place of "as well as," as it would only place the two terms on an equality, while "as well as" takes it for granted that we believe him innocent of the present accusation, and throws a certain amount of emphasis upon the first part of the sentence, by calling special attention to the fact, that we believe in his generally good character.

The phrases "as good as," "as far as," &c., are of a similar character.

"John is as good as his brother."

In this sentence the first as is not absolutely necessary, as the last as is sufficient to form the connection, but it unites with the last one, and seems to make the connection stronger. The first proposition ends with good, and the first as seems to be placed before good, that may be heard before the sentence is completed, and thus hold the attention of the hearer by indicating that something more is to be said. It is not pretended that this arrangement was made arbitrarily, but that it grew up naturally.


There are some compound words which are used as connectives, such as howsomever, notwithstanding that, forasmuch that, insomuch that, and another class composed of an adverb and a propositian; such as thereupon, whereunto, &c., which are equivalent to, upon which, unto which, &c. These are sometimes used by way of variety, but are not considered conducive to elegance. Some writers call them the “drawling conjunctions." Lord Shaftsbury denominates them "the gouty joints of style;" and Dr. Campbell adds, "If these are the gouty joints of style, the viz.'s, the i. e.'s, and the e. g.'s may not unfitly be termed its crutches."

Another article on the connecting adverbs, and the relative nouns will complete this discussion.




WHEN FRANCIS WAYLAND died, a great teacher ceased from among men. The world at large knew him, and will remember him as an eminent preacher and author; but his highest claims to the consideration of mankind rest upon his work and character as a teacher. It was in the teacher's chair that his greatest influence was exerted, and among his pupils his most impressive and enduring marks were made upon his country and his times.

Francis Wayland began his career in teaching, at twenty-one years of age, as a tutor in Union College, where he had graduated four years before. He never worked in the ranks of the primary teachers; but this serious lack in his apprenticeship was, in a large degree, compensated by the intimacy to which he was admitted with that great Nestor of American teachers, the venerable Nott. As a preparation for his work he had not only a thorough collegiate education, but also a three years' course of medical studies, and a year's study of theology, under that great theologian and great teacher, Moses Stuart, of Andover.

Thus richly furnished with various knowledge, young Wayland was still more richly endowed in rare mental and moral characteristics, which could not fail to make him eminent as an educator. There was a most earnest, consciencious devotion to duty in him that stopped at no obstacles, and went tirelessly on to its great ends, courting no applause and fearing no disfavor. Duty in its own name, and by virtue of its own inherent authority and divineness, was sacred to him. He followed it with the steady tread of a veteran soldier following his leader. I doubt whether Francis Wayland ever knew a duty he did not perform, or at least heartily attempt. To the tasks that conscience assigned him he brought all the powers of which he was master, and exerted them cheerfully and faithfully to the end. And it was a Christian devotion - the love of Christ inspired and sustained it.

To these high moral and practical intellect. He seemed to perceive as

qualities he added the gifts of a most sound He was He was a great master of common sense. if by an instinct where the clear and the practical in any discussion ended, and where the vague and the doubtful began; and, though not destitute of acumen for metaphysical debate, he resolutely avoided its unsatisfying subtleties, and clave to

the "truth which holds good in working." sought the practical rather than the theoretical.

As an educator he

Finally, there was in him a great capacity for work-downright, earnest, tireless work. This demonstration seems to have caught the attention of every observer, and some say, in sadness, he fell a victim. to his incessant industry. "He had no faculty for relaxation," said one who knew him best. Activity such as his would have made even a common mind great. To his life it lent wide power and fruitfulness. With these four cardinal qualifications-large learning and experience, great devotion to duty, a grand, practical intellect, and a love of work,-how could he fail to be eminent as a teacher of youth.-Michigan Teacher.



I am reluctant to close this long and complicated report of details and statistics, necessary to be made, and yet, from their character, tiresome to most except school officers and teachers, without a final appeal to the legislators who will be called upon to act on its suggestions and recommendations.

Previous to the lessons. taught us by the great war just closed— in suffering, and doubt, and blood and tears—the great fundamental truths of our school system had grown to be glittering generalities for gracing political speeches or Governors' messages. These truths are now felt as a solid reality by the States on the other side of the continent; and under all the burdens of their debts, incurred in saving the nation, they are striving to make their public schools more effective by more liberal provisions for their support. I am painfully conscious that our schools, while accomplishing something, fall far short of the great work which is pressing upon them. They need both judicious legislation for their government, and liberal taxation for their support. It is a matter of deep regret to all thinking men, that some of our citizens who represent the greatest wealth of the community are engaged in a crusade against taxation for the support

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