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This brings me to the second principle violated: "Proceed from the simple to the more difficult." The infraction of this, is manifest. Would you compel a child of eight years to lift a hundred-pound weight for the purpose of strengthening his body? Why then do you require him to lift a hundred-pound mental weight for the purpose of strengthening his mind? What would be the effect on the body in the first instance? What, then, must be the effect on the mind in the second?

A very forcible argument against this method occurred in one of our city schools not long since: A class,- most of whom could recite fluently the remarks contained in their books on latitude and longitude,- being asked at what place on the earth's surface there would be no latitude, replied, almost unanimously, "At the poles." Yet most of the class were considered by the teacher well prepared. There was one exception, however, which excited my risibles to a painful degree. A little girl, being asked to give the definition of latitude, replied, "Latitude is distance from the equator neither north or south." This definition, observe, is strictly correct, with the exception of one letter; but the introduction of that one letter, unfortunately, somewhat diminishes its value.

Taking it for granted, then, that the principles of Pestalozzi are correct, it is manifest that the arrangement generally adopted in the teaching of geography is unphilosophical and irrational. Now what arrangement can be found which shall not violate any principle, and which shall, the most truly, educate the child? One, it seems to me, which shall proceed from the most simple subjects of physical geography —as being, itself, the simplest of the three branches-through the more extended subjects of political geography, taking up mathematical geography as it is needed. First would come mountains, rivers, lakes, valleys, etc.—all those subjects which may be taught by means of pictures, without reference to maps or globes. Next to these we should wish to take up the more extensive ones of oceans and continents. These, however, cannot be taught by pictures without conveying false ideas of their size, as compared with islands and lakes. A globe, then, is necessary; but before using a globe, the child must understand why it is made of a spherical shape. Here comes in the subject of the form of the earth,- then continents and oceans, next the political divisions of the continents; but, to study these properly, the subject of their representation on maps and globes

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must be understood, and here comes in the subject of latitude, longitude, division by circles, &c. From this point we may go on regularly with political geography.

As to the revolution of the earth on its axis and round the sun, and the consequent change from day to night, and from winter to summer, I would leave the consideration of those subjects until such time as the mind of the child should be ready to receive them without injury. This time, with the former, would be when he had completed his eleventh year, and with the latter, not before he had completed his thirteenth or fourteenth.

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To go back now to the first part of this course: How may the subject of the simpler physical divisions of the earth be scientifically taught? Take this one, for example a lake. We will suppose the lesson in the giving of which the principle to be borne in mind is, "Develop the idea before giving the term "-to be in the hands of a teacher who endeavors in all things to make her teaching conform to what study and reflection have told her is right. By showing a picture of a lake, she easily gets from the children that it is "a piece of water with land all round it." Writing this description of the picture on the board, she asks how the sentence may be somewhat improved. They will probably give "surrounded" in place of "all round," and if they do not give "body" in place of "piece," the teacher herself gives it. Now they have the idea of a lake expressed in good language. The teacher gives the term, and one more item of knowledge is added to the children's stock; - an item acquired, not by the exercise of memory alone, but by the exercise of the perceptive faculty, of their common-sense, and by calling on their previous information. With the other subjects she proceeds in a similar manner, until she arrives at the form of the earth. This subject, usually passed rapidly over, by requiring the children to commit to memory the statement contained in their book, is one, it seems to me, which affords an unusually good opportunity for strengthening the reasoning faculties.

The children may apply knowledge gained from previous information, and may be led to form a correct opinion of the shape of the earth before any statement of the actual fact is made by the teacher. How? I will endeavor to illustrate. Holding an orange before the class, the teacher takes a short lead-pencil, a key, or any other small object which may be at hand, and placing it on the side opposite the

class, so that just the point is visible over the convexity of the orange, asks, what part of the pencil they see. "The point," is readily given. Moving it further on, she asks, "Do you see more or less of it now?” continuing in this way till the whole of the pencil becomes visible. Next she takes some plane surface, and placing the pencil upright on it, asks how much of it can be seen" The whole." Moving it farther on, she repeats the question. Still, "The whole." "Then why," she asks, "is it that when I move it toward you on the orange, you see, first the point, gradually more and more, finally the whole, while on the slate you see the whole at once?" "Because the orange is round and the slate is flat," will be soon obtained. She makes use of a few more illustrations, in each case requiring the children to account for the gradual appearance of the pencil. After firmly fixing in the minds of the children the proposition, "If we are on one side of a round body, and anything is moved toward us from the opposite side, it will come into view gradually," she develops the converse of the proposition by using any familiar illustration, drawing the idea from the children clothed in any words they may suggest.


Now she proceeds to apply these propositions to the form of the earth, taking the proof of the appearance of an approaching vessel. After the gradual manner in which it comes into view has been stated, she goes back to the converse of the proposition just proved, asking, "If the ship comes gradually into view, what must be the shape of the body over which it is moving?" "Round." "And what is the body over which it is moving?" "The earth." what is the shape of the earth?" The children will be forced from their previous observation to reply, "Round," but not, probably, with a very firm conviction of the truth of what they utter. The teacher, without corroborating their assertion, next places a ball so that it will cast a shadow on the floor; asks the shape of the shadow; shows by experiment that only a round body will cast a round shadow. Then she tells the class that sometimes the earth gets between the sun and the moon, just as the ball gets between the sun and the floor, and asks what would then be seen, probably, on the "A shadow." "Yes, and this shadow is round. Does this," she inquires, "make you more nearly certain that you were correct in thinking the earth round?" The answer will be in the affirmative, and after allowing a few of the class to state again their reasons for holding such an opinion, the teacher corroborates it.


One difficulty remains, however, viz.: the kind of roundness,— whether the earth be spherical or circular. To elucidate this point, the teacher holds a cent-or, better, some larger circular object-in different positions, leading the children to notice and state that sometimes the shadow cast is round and sometimes not; then leads them in a similar manner, to notice and state that, in whatever position a ball is held, it still casts a round shadow. Next, giving the information that the earth always casts a round shadow, she asks which of these objects it might be supposed to resemble in shape. "The ball."

Now the class have all the ideas necessary for a good definition; one or two well-directed questions will draw out that definition, and the subject is finished. Is it not much better thus to allow the truth to dawn gradually on the minds of the children; to awaken doubts as to the correctness of their preconceived impressions on the subject of the earth's figure; by proceeding cautiously from step to step, to make these doubts deepen into conviction, and then, and not till then, when they are awake to the subject and ready to believe, to say decidedly "You are right, the earth is round?" \

Has there not been much more intellectual growth here, than can possibly take place in the minds of children whose firmly fixed opinions are suddenly met and rudely overthrown by the statement, on authority too high for them to doubt, "The earth is round." Probably, after gazing at it a few minutes in mute surprise, they mentally ejaculate,― at least, those who have been fortunate enough to retain any degree of originality of thought,-"Well, I suppose it is, if the book says so," and forthwith proceed to prepare for the inevitable parrot-like repetition of the fact. Is not this a step, nay, a prodigious stride, towards that much-to-be-dreaded, always-to-befought-against habit of mind, taking on trust, learning by rote?

After the subject of the form of the earth has been taken up, the next in order would be Continents and Oceans. The first would be easily taught, by directing one or more members of the class to point out on the globe the two largest bodies of land entirely surrounded by water, represented there; asking if there are any bodies equal to these in size. A negative answer being obtained, the children are asked for a description of what they have just observed, which will probably be given, after a little questioning, something in this wise: "A body of land, larger than any island, entirely surrounded by

water." As they now have the idea, nothing is wanting to complete the lesson but the term, which is given by the teacher.

Oceans would be taught in a similar manner, and, as with this subject, the considerations of the natural features of land and water concludes, we are ready for the next subject in order-The Political Divisions of the Continents.-Massachusetts Teacher.



Forty minutes allowed for exercises in Geography and History, and forty-five minutes for all others except Spelling.


[The examples may be worked out first on slates, and then copied on paper, if pupils prefer to do so; but all the copying must be completed within the time specified. The solutions should be copied on the paper in full, so that the Committee may see the process as well as the answers. No books, nor helps of any kind, allowed on the desks, and none to be used during the Examination. All communication to be avoided. Pupils to receive no information from teachers, or others, respecting any of the questions. Every pupil to write at the top of each paper his name, name of teacher, grade to which he belongs, and name of school. Each answer should be numbered to correspond with the number of the question. At the close of the time specified, every paper will be taken up, whether completed or not.]

1. Express decimally 2 per cent.; 4 per cent.; 6 per cent.; 12 per cent.; l per cent.;

2. A man has a capital of $20,000. He loses 50 per cent. of his capital in wheat speculations, and 50 per cent. of the remainder in stock speculations. How much money has he left ?

3. 5000 is 25 per cent of what number?

4. Define the terms 'At Par,' 'Above Par' and 'Below Par;' and give an illustration of a sale of stocks below par.

5. Find the amount of $5,600 at interest 3 years, 6 months and 18 days, at 12 per cent. per annum.

6. What is the present worth of a note for $224, due two years hence, discounting at the rate of 6 per cent. per annum?

7. Find the compound interest of $400 for 2 years, at 7 per cent. per annum.

8. Write a proportion, and tell which terms are means and which are extremes.

9. Find the missing term in 72 : ( ) : : 56: 112.

10. How many pounds of coffee at 4 shillings per pound must be given in exchange for 30 pounds of butter at 2 shillings and 6 pence per pound.

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