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Here who is the subject of the second proposition and also connects it to God, the subject of the principal proposition. This sentence might be changed to: "God is acqainted with our most secret thoughts, for He knows all things."

Let us inquire what is the property of the relative which constitutes its conjunctive power. I think if we pay attention to it we shall find such a power in the fact, that it identifies its antecedent more strongly than other pronouns.

Its conjunctive power then is its identifying power. Let me illustrate, "Men have entered the town and men steal." I have here stated two facts in two separate sentences, and although both sentences have men for their subjects, it is not shown that the men who entered the town are the thieves. "Men have entered the town and they steal." Here the inference is stronger, but it is not conclusive, that the subjects of both sentences are the same persons. The inference is not sufficiently strong to justify dropping the connective and. But if we say "men have entered the town who steal," the identy becomes conclusive, and the and is dropped. The relative who supplies the place of the noun man or the pronoun they, and the conjunction and; nay, it does more; for while in the use of man or they in the second proposition the identity is only implied, in the use of who it is rendered certain.

The relatives then represent the beings denoted by the antecedents in a vague and indefinite manner, expressing neither their nature, their qualities, nor the person under which we regard them in discourse. Hence they are, properly speaking, neither nouns, pronouns nor adjectives, but as they make of the whole conjunctive proposition a sort of adjective, which qualifies the noun in the principal proposition, some grammarians have given them the name of "conjunctive adjectives."

The proper place, as a general rule, for the relative is immediately following the noun it represents. Thus: "men who steal have entered the town." A neglect of this rule often causes ambiguity, as in the following sentence: "The brave old ship was finally wrecked upon a rock near home which had withstood the ocean for many years." It is evident that the relative clause was intended to qualify ship, and should have been placed next to it.

Sometimes the sense only will determine which word is antecedent to the relative, as in the following sentence: "Solomon, the son of

David, who was king of Israel," &c. As both were kings it is impossible to tell which is antecedent; but if it be written thus: "Solomon, the son of David, who built the temple," or, "Solomon, the son of David, who slew Goliath," we know at once by the historical facts, to which the relative refers.

The relative pronouns are generally considered to be four: who, which, what and that, with their compounds. What is sometimes improperly called a compound relative. It is no compound, but a simple neuter relative, and was formerly in good use as such; but which has now so nearly replaced it, that the use of what in its originål sense as a neuter relative is inelegant, as: "The dagger what stabbed Cæsar."

In the changes which language is constantly undergoing, what has come to be used mostly in sentences where the antecedent is not expressed. In the sentence "This is what I mean," what is a true relative.

Which is now called the neuter of who, but etymologically it is not so. It is a compound word and was equivalent to a demonstrative and, the adjective like or equal. Its original sense is now nearly lost but it is still used with less latitude than that.

In the older writers who and which are both used to refer to persons, but there is a shade of difference in their meanings. While who, in referring to persons, simply identifies, which not only identifies but classifies. In the Lord's Prayer-" Our Father which art in Heaven "I think which is used in its original signification. It contains the idea of likeness, and the translators of the Bible doubtless thought the importance of the expression was sufficient reason for using the most definite and appropriate word. If who had been used it might possibly have referred to an earthly parent who had passed from earth, but the relative which (like that) expresses the character of Him whom we address as Father, and discriminates between an earthly fatherhood and a Heavenly fatherhood.

It is not pretended that this meaning of which can be perceived in all instances, but in this prayer, the reference seems to be more to the relationship than to the person. The Dean of Canterbury remarks upon this word as follows: "From our Lord's own use so frequently of the term 'your Heavenly Father,' I think the translators were right in fixing the reference to the relationship, rather than to the person only."

The word as is sometimes said to be a relative pronoun, but for no good reason that I am able to discover. A relative power is claimed for it in such sentences as the following: "He received into his school as many scholars as were qualified." This is an eliptical expression, and because the relative is omitted, (as those were which were qualified,) as is said to supply its place and should be called a relative. But does it supply the place of the relative any more than it does the other omitted words? If we are to call as a relative where the relative is omitted after it, then we must also call another conjunction, than, a relative when the sentence is slightly changed, thus: "He received into his school more scholars than (those were which) were qualified."

The fact is, it is not safe or proper to call either as or than a relative pronoun because the relative happens to be omitted after them. In an advertisement which appeared a short time since the following sentence occurred. "Whoever will give information as shall lead to the conviction, &c." Here as is used in the place of which, but such expressions are not to be imitated.

After what has been said of relative pronouns, the connecting adverbs are easily disposed of. It is not the proper office of adverbs to connect. They are used to give greater force to words expressing quality or action. The adverb expressed in one word is not a necessary part of speech, for there is no advebial idea that cannot be expressed by a preposition and its complement.

Many adverbs have been developed from relative pronouns, and in their relative origin lies their connecting power. The words when, where, why and how, are equivalent to a preposition and a relative pronoun, thus: the time in which, the reason for which, the manner in which.

If what has been said of the connecting power of relative pronouns be true, it will be easily seen why the adverbs mentioned above have a connecting power. They are pronominal in their origin, and still retain some of their original nature. They may properly be called relative adverbs.

There are a few other adverbs compounded of other parts of speech which have some connecting power, but it is not necessary to discuss them.

This completes, for the present, my remarks on the connectives.




RIGHTE learned is ye Pedagogue,
Fulle apt to reade and spelle.
And eke to teach ye parts of speeche,
And strap ye urchins well.

For as 't is meete to soake ye feete,
Ye ailing heade to mende,
Ye younker's pate to stimulate,
He beates ye other ende!

Righte lordly is ye Pedagogue
As any turbaned Turke;

For well to rule ye District Schoole

It is no idle worke.

For oft Rebellion worketh there

In breaste of secrete foes,

Of malice fulle, in waite to pulle

Ye Pedagogue his nose!

Sometimes he heares, with trembling fears,

Of ye ungodly rogue

On mischief bent, with felle intent

To lick ye Pedagogue!

And if ye Pedagogue be smalle,

When to ye battell led,

In such a plighte, God sende him mighte

To break ye rogue his heade!

Daye after daye, for little paye,

He teacheth what he can,

And bears ye yoke, to please ye folke,

And ye committee-man.

Ah! many crosses hath he borne,

And many trials founde,

Ye while he trudged ye district through, And boarded rounde and rounde!

Ah! many a steake hath he devoured
That, by ye taste and sight,
Was in disdaine, 't was very plaine,

Of Daye his patent righte!

Fulle solemn is ye Pedagogue

Among ye noisy churls,

Yet other while he hath a smile

To give ye handsome girls;

And one,-ye fairest maide of all,

To cheer his wayning life,

Shall be, when Springe ye flowers shall bringe,
Ye Pedagogue his wife!


Ever since that divine declaration, "By the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat thy bread," man has been governed, to a great extent, by the law of necessity. He seems to be so constituted, that necessity alone will bring all his energies into action, and the world, as if in harmony with this principle, is not wanting in the means to task his efforts.

Nursed in the home of plenty, guided and guarded by parental wisdom and parental care, he looks out upon his future course of life, as a stream that flows unruffled by storms and unobstructed by barriers; and yet he scarcely steps within the area of active business life, before a troop of unexpected difficulties beset him. But difficulties develop resources. From this truth has sprung the aphorism Necessity is the mother of invention." It gives strength to the arm, vigor to the intellect, and courage to the heart; indeed it brings every energy into action. What but the perils of the situation gives the sailor boy, high on the shrouds, such agility and firmness? What, but the fleetness of his game, gives swiftness to the foot of the hunter?


As the telescope of the astronomer compels the reluctant heavens to draw aside their curtains, and reveal to his sight those glittering gems, whose light has never before visited the eye of mortal, so the difficulties which ever surround the man of enterprise, bring out new developments of human character, and reveal traits that were never before recognized in the human soul.

Man is not a mere machine with certain graduated powers, capable only of accomplishing a given amount in a given length of time. He is rather a being endowed with immortal, unlimited energies, which, like a chord that vibrates loudest when hardest struck, rise

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