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of ether in the exhausted receiver of an air-pump, se great a degree of cold was produced in a summer's day, that water was converted into ice. This discovery he applied to the solution of a number of phenomena, particularly a singular fact, which philosophers had endeavoured in vain to account for, viz. that the temperature of the human body, when in health, never exceeds 96 degrees of Farenheit's thermometer, although the atmosphere which surrounds it may be heated to a much greater degree. This he attributed to the increased perspiration, and consequent evaporation produced by the heat.
In a letter to Mr. Small of London, dated in May 1760, Dr. Franklin makes a number of observations, tending to shew that, in North America, north-east storms begin in the south-west parts. It appears, from actual observation, that a north-east storm, which extended a considerable distance, commenced at Philadelphia nearly four hours before it was felt at Boston. He endeavoured to account for this, by supposing that, from heat, some rarefaction takes place about the Gulph of Mexico, that the air further north being cooler rushes in, and is succeeded by the cooler and denser air still further north, and that thus a continued current is at length produced.
The tone produced by rubbing the brim of a drink. ing glass with a wet finger had been generally known. A Mr. Puckeridge, an Irishman, by placing on a table a number of glasses of different sizes, and tuning them by partly filling them with water, endeavoured to form an instrument capable of playing tunes. He was prevented by an untimely end, from bringing his invention to any degree of perfection. After his death some improvements were made upon his plan. The sweetness of the tones induced Dr. Franklin to make a variety of experiments; and he at length formed that elegant instrument which he has called the Art monica
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in the summer of 1762 he returned to America. On his passage he observed the singular effect produced by the agitation of a vessel, containing oil floating on water. The surface of the oil remains smooth and undisturbed, whilst the water is agitated with the utmost commotion. No satisfactory explanation of this appearance has, we believe, ever been given.
Dr. Franklin received the thanks of the assembly of Pennsylvania, “ as well for the faithful discharge of his duty to that province in particular, as for the many and important services done to America in gen. eral, during his residence in Great Britain." A compensation of 50001. Pennsylvania currency, was also decreed him for his services during six years. · During his absence he had been annually elected member of the assembly. On his return to Pennsylvania he again took his seat in this body, and continu. ed a steady defender of the liberties of the people. · In December 1762, a circumstance which caused great alarm in the province took place. A number of Indians had resided in the county of Lancaster, and conducted themselves uniformly as friends to the white inhabitants. Repeated depredations on the frontiers had expaserated the inhabitants to such a degree, that they determined on revenge upon every Indian. A number of persons, to the amount of 120 principal inhabitants of Donnegal and Peckstang or Paxton townships, in the county of York, assembled; and, mounted on horseback, proceeded to the settlement of these harmless and defenceless Indians, whose number had now reduced to about twenty. The Indians received intelligence of the attack which was intended against them, but disbelieved it. Considering the white people as their friends, they apprehended no danger from them. When the party arrived at the Indian settlement, they found only some women and children, and a few old men, the rest being absent at work. They murdered all whom they found, and amongst others 198
LIFE OF, the chief Shahacs, who had been always distinguished for lsis friendship to the whites. This bloody deed excited much indignation in the well disposed part of the community.
The remainder of these unfortunate Indians, who, by absence, had escaped the massacre, were conducted to Lancaster, and lodged in the gaol, as a place of security. The governor issued a proclamation, expres. sing the strongest disapprobation of the action, offer. ing a reward for the discovery of the perpetrators of the deed, and prohibiting all injuries to the peaceable Indians in future. But, notwithstanding this, a party of the same men shortly after marched to Lancaster, broke open the gaol, and inhumanly butchered the innocent Indians who had been placed there for security. Another proclamation was issued, but had no effect. A detachment marched down to Philadelphia, for the express purpose of murdering some friendly Indians, who had been removed to the city for safety. A number of the cicizens armed in their defence.The Quakers, whose principles are opposed to fighting, even in their own defence, were most active upon this occasion. The rioters came to Germantown. The governor fled for safety to the house of Dr. Franklin, who, with some others, advanced to meet the Paxton boys, as they were called, and had in: fluence enough to prevail upon them to relinquish their undertaking, and return to their homes.
The disputes between the proprietaries and the as. sembly, which, for a time, had subsided, were again revived. The proprietaries were dissatisfied with the concessions made in favor of the people, and made great struggles to recover the privilege of exempting their estates from taxation, which they had been indų. ced to give up.
In 1763 the assembly passed a militia bill, to which the governor refused to give his assent, unless the as. sembly would agree to certain amendments which be proposed. These consisted in 'increasing the fines, and, in some cases, substituting death for fines. He wished too that the officers should be appointed altogether by himself, and not be nominated by the people, as the bill had proposed. These amendments the assembly considered as inconsistent with the spirit of Jiberty." They would not adopt them; the governor was obstinate, and the bill was lost.
These, and various other circumstances, increased the uneasiness which subsisted between the proprietaries and the assembly, to such a degree, that, in 1764, a petition to the king was agreed to by the house, praying an alteration from a pirofirietary to a regal gover'nment. Great opposition was made to this measure, not only in the house but in the public prints. A speech of Mr. Dickenson, on the subject, was puba lished, with a preface by Dr. Smith, in whichi great pains were taken to shew the impropriety and impolicy of this proceeding. A speech of Mr. Galloway, in reply to Mr. Dickenson was published, accompanied with a preface by Dr. Franklin ; in which he ably opposed the principles laid down in the preface to Mr. Dickenson's speech. This application to the throne produced no effect. The proprietary government was still continued.
At the election for a new assembly, in the fall of 1764, the friends of the proprietaries made great ex. ertions to exclude those of the adverse party, and obtained a small majority in the city of Philadelphia:Franklin now lost liis seat in the house, which he had held for fourteen years. On the meeting of the assenbly, it appeared that there was still a decided majority of Franklin's friends. He was immediately appointed provincial agent, to the great chagrin of his enemies, who made a solemn protest against his appointment; which was refused admission upon the minutes, as being unprecedented. It was, however, published in
the papers, and produced a spirited reply from him, just before his departure for England.
The disturbances produced in America by Mr. Grenville's stamp act, and the opposition made to it are well known. Under the marquis of Rockingham's administration, it appeared expedient to endeavour to calm the minds of the colonists ; and the repeal of the odious tax was contemplated. Amongst other means of collecting information on the disposition of the people to submit to it, Dr. Franklin was called to the bar of the house of commons. The examination which he here underwent was published, and contains à stri. king proof of the extent and accuracy of his information, and the facility with which he communicated his sentiments. He represented facts in so strong a point of view, that the inexpediency of the act must have appeared clear to every unprejudiced mind. The act, alter some opposition, was repealed, about a year after it was enacted, and before it had ever been carried into execution.
In the year 1766, he made a visit to Holland and Germany, and received the greatest marks of attention from men of science. In his passage through Holland, he learned from the watermen the effect which a dimu. nition of the quantity of water in canals has, in impeding the progress of boats. Upon his return to Eng. land, he was led to make a number of experiments ; all of which tended to confirm the observation. These, with an explanation of the phenomenon, he communicated in a letter to his friend, Sir John Pringle, which is contained in the volume of his philosophical pieces.
In the following year he travelled into France, where he met with no less favorable reception than he had experienced in Germany. He was introduced to a number of literary characters, and to the King, Louis XV.