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of all the world; and that through these avenues the wealth of Europe and of the East has been scattered over our land, fertilizing it to its farthest borders.
ORIGINAL BUSTS AND PORTRAITS OF WASHINGTON.
Artists who painted and modelled Original Portraits of Washington.
Charles W. Peale, of Philadelphia. 1. Charles W. Peale, born 1741, painted 14 original portraits
from the life, from 1772 to 1795 inclusive. That done in 1772 is in the possession of George W. P. Custis, of Arlington. That of 1781, in the Baltimore Museum. Those of 1783, 1786, and 1795, in Philadelphia Museum. One of 1783, in Annapolis State House. The others unknown.
Houdon, of Paris. 2. Houdon modelled his bust by a cast from the life in plaister, Mount Vernon, in 1783.
J. Wright, of Philadelphia. 3. Mr. Joseph Wright painted his portrait at the Head Quar
ters, Rocky. Hill, New-Jersey, in 1783, now in the possession of Mr. Powell, Chesnut-street, Philadelphia, at the same time with Mr. Dunlap.
Wm. Dunlap, of New-Jersey. 4. Mr. William Dunlap, born in 1776, painted his portrait at
Rocky Hill, New-Jersey, then Head Quarters, in 1783, at the same time with Mr. Wright, now in possession of Mrs. Van Horne, at Rocky Hill.
Pine, of England. 5. Mr. Pine painted his portrait in 1778, now in the possession of Henry Brevoort, Esq. New York.
Trumbull, of Connecticut. 6. Colonel John Trumbull, born 6th June, 1756, painted his
whole length portrait in 1790, now in the City Hall of New York.
Ceracchi, of Rome. 7. Signor Ceracchi, modelled two busts; one the size of
life, cut in marble, now in the possession of Richard Mead, Esq. Philadelphia; the other of colossal size, a cast of which, identical with the original, is in the possession of the Academy of Fine Arts, New-York. Vol. I, No. VI.
Robertson. 8. Archibald Robertson, born 8th May, 1765, painted his por
trait in 1792, in his own possession, 79 Liberty street, NewYork.
Wertmuller, of Sweden. 8. Mr. Wertmuller, painted his original in 1793; in possession of Cornelius Bogert, Esq. Jamaica, Long-Island.
Savage. 10. Mr. Savage painted and engraved the Washington family about the year 1794.
Where the original is deposited is unknown; it was about 20 years since in his Museum, New-York.
J. Peale. 11. Mr. James Peale, brother of C. W. Peale, born 1750,
painted two originals; the date, &c. of the first unknown; but the second was painted in 1795, now in his own possession, Philadelphia.
R. Peale, son of C. W. Peale. 12. Mr. Rembrandt Peale, (born February 22, 1778,) in 1795,
at the age of 18, made an abortive attempt whilst his father was painting Washington, to paint him also.
Shurpless. 13. Mr. Sharpless painted two small portraits in crayons, one
in profile, the other a more front view, in 1796 ; one of them is in the possession of Judge Peters of Philadelphia. Note. The above tally with each other, with very trifling differences; no more, however, than might have been expected from the various points of view in which he was taken, the various styles in which they were executed, the difference of light and shade, and, more particularly, the various periods of his life in which he sat to the above artists; for Washington in his youth did not look as he did in his latter days, any more than any other man does. When he sat for his last portrait to Stewart, he no more looked the man of former
and have ing lost his teeth, he was totally disfigured by a most formidable set of artificial ones, which made him ever after
appear like another person; hence the occasion of all the dissatisfaction about his resemblance. We doubt not, in the least, that Stewart has given us a correct likeness of the man, when he sat to him, although totally differing from all other portraitsso that those who wish to view Washington as President, may look at Stewart's; but such as wish to behold him in his prime,
must view the earlier portraits, especially by those artists of most merit. Indeed, we consider them all (the originals) more or less alike, but certainly there are some greatly superior to others; and we hope it will not be looked upon as invidious when we specify the busts of Houdon and Ceracchi, the portraits of Trumbull, Robertson, Pine, and Stewart, as the best we have seen, with regard to likeness, according to the periods to which they were done.
G. Stewart, of Newport, Rhode Island. 14. Mr. G. Stewart painted his original portrait in 1796, at
Philadelphia, several copies of which, perhaps equal to the original, (at least by himself) are in the possession of various individuals. One of them belongs to Mr. Pierpoint of Jamaica, Long-Island. Mr. Stewart's portrait (being the last Washington sat for,) has been engraved by Heath, and is in every one's eye ; few persons ever imagining he had more looks than one, this has been looked to as the only standard for Americans to behold Washington from ;-but it is, in reality, very different from the above-mentioned originals.
Remarks. We shall add a few remarks on the chief characteristics of those sculptured and painted portraits of Washington which were done from life, by artists the most respectable for talents, and which he actually sat for ; premising with a few introductory reflections.
It was a wise decree of Alexander the Great, that none should paint his portrait but Apelles, and none but Lysippus. sculpture his likeness; we feel the want of such a regulation in the case of our Washington, whose countenance and person as a man, were subjects for the finest pencil, or the most skilful chisel. But we are cursed as a nation in the common miserable representations of our Great Hero ; and with the shocking counterfeits of his likeness by every pitiful bungler that lifts a tool or a brush, working solely from imagination, without any authority for their misrepresentations and deceptions, and bolstered up by every kind of imposture.
This evil has arisen to such a height, that it is necessary, for something to be done with a view to rectify the public sentiment, on this point, now so warmly agitated, so as to undeceive posterity. For these reasons we have drawn up this list of artists, who painted and sculptured him from life, as far as is ascertained ; and give the various circumstances under
which they executed their likenesses, that the public may know where to find the trụe standard, of what were genuine likenesses of Washington, at the respective periods of his life in which they were done; with a comparative view of those originals most worthy of confidence, which we necessarily limit to six of the best artists, who took his likeness at those periods of his life most interesting to us; and which at the time they were done, met the decided approbation of the most competent judges, no one ever imagining it necessasy to procure a set of certificates, as to their authenticity or genuineness for verisimilitude, with which spurious or imaginary impositions are bolstered up:—Therefore,
1. If we wish to behold the countenance of Washington in his best days, we must look at the bust of Houdon ; who gives the air of the head and costume of the hair of the day, but with closed lips; in his best manner, and of whose competency to the task he undertook there can be no doubt.
2. If we wish to behold his complexion, and expression of the eye with an averted aspect; let us look at Pine's portrait in military uniform ; the excellence of the painting, and its correspondence with the other genuine originals, speaks volumes as to its character.
3. If we wish to behold Washington, not only in bis countenance, but the full display of the air of majesty and figure of the man, with eye averted, we shall find it in Trumbull's brilliant whole length.
4. If we wish more particularly to see the graceful play of the lips in the act of speaking, and the peculiar expression of the mouth and chin at the same moment, we shall see it in Ceracchi's colossal bust.
5. If we wish to behold Washington, when he began to wane in his latter years, when he lost his teeth, but with full vivacity and vigour of eye, looking at the spectator, we must behold Robertson's; it is somewhat remarkable that Robertson and Stewart only make him look at the spectator.
6. If we wish to see President Washington, as delineated from the life, in 1796, by one of the first portrait painter's of his day, let us look at the original picture in the possession of the artist, G. Stewart, now in Boston. The head only is finished in this picture. The drapery has never been added.
This last differing so essentially from all other portraits, has been the cause of all the dissension about Washington's likeness; although we have not the least doubt the artist gives us a true representation of the man when he sat to him ; and thus we explain why we ought to receive all these originals as cos
rect likenesses at the time they were done, for it is impossible that one picture can represent him with his teeth, without them, and with a new set of formidable ones, at the same time.
From whence we conclude, that it is a self-evident absurdity to speak of one picture, as being a standard likeness of Washington ; for it must take three originals at least to give a tolerable idea of his looks at three different periods of his life ; and the three only competent for this purpose are those of Trumbull, the best by far of those done whilst he had his own teeth; that of Robertson, when he wanted his teeth; and lastly, that of Stewart, when he had this want supplied by a set of artificial ones.
It is particularly requested, that should any person be in possession of a well authenticated original likeness of Washington, other than above specified, he will be so good as to communicate it to the secretary of the American Academy of Fine Arts, New York, by letter, or otherwise. American Academy of Fine Arts, New-York,
Sep. 20th 1824.
A word of defence in favour of that much abused and long-suf
fering people, the Medical Experimentalists, usually denominated Quacks.
It is a common, but a just remark, that none are so unsparing in their invective, so inveterate in their hatred, and so bitter in their persecution, as professional enemies. Perhaps no class of men can better testify to the truth of this observation than the denounced, degraded and despised fraternity of Quacks. Every epithet of abuse that the ingenuity of malice can invent, or the rage of jealousy inspire, has been heaped, with merciless aggravation, upon those unlucky wretches who have dared to evade the requisitions of the doctorate, or have sought to usurp the rightful prerogatives of the regular physician. It is easy to see the source and secret of this violence. It is easy to see that the acknowledged merit and growing reputation of the empiric, has brought down upon his devoted head the angry anathemas and furious vengeance of the dogmatist. The active and enterprising mountebank has overleaped the puny walls that are intended to guard the sanctuary of medicine from the approach of unhallowed feet, and the pollution of unconsecrated hands; and his more legitimate brother, the initiated priest of the temple, seeks, like another Romulus, to strike the intruder to the ground, and to kill him