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inevitable. Here months, years, and ages have sunk together in silence, like the waves of the ocean in a whole climate of calms: here time has left his glass unturned, for seventeen hundred years.
Beyond the gate of Pompeii, and on either side of the entrance, are the tombs : they occupy a long space; some are beautiful, as that of Mammia the priestess, of the Arria family, and of the Gladiator. Among these very tombs, and along the road, are placed circular seats for the public accommodation, and, as the inscriptions testify, they were often erected by private munificence. There was always something, to our feelings, very touching in this arrangement : here the Roman citizen, at the close of day, walked forth to contemplate that matchless bay, rendered more lovely by the warm tints of an Italian sky. A Roman contemplated these monuments of his ancestors with no gloomy sentiments. . A sudden gust of affectionate remembrance, might sometimes find the lachrymatory in his hand, as he bent over the cinerary urn; bot that past, he looked to his children, and cherishing every lofty sentiment in their young bosoms, bade them reward the cares of a Roman matron, and emulate the public virtues and devotion of those ancestors whose ashes were arrayed in honorable remembrance around the sepulchral vault. Such a system must have had a strong and powerful effect upon the character of a people; and we think is too ordinarily passed over in silence and neglect. If such was the impression afforded by such a scene--if such was the magnificence of the tombs of a small Roman colony, what must have been the moral interest, the sublimity, the glory of the Appian way, as it carried you into the precincts of imperial Rome, crowded on either side with the tombs of the Metellas, the Livias, the Scipios ?
Our author talks of a villa which has been baptized with the name of Cicero, and warms of course at the idea. There is no reason, beyond the vagary of some antiquarian dilettante, for supposing that building Cicero's villa--though he certainly had one here.-Further on he tells you (page 117.) he saw the villa of Marcus Arrius Diomedes, Cicero's friend forsooth! that his skeleton was found with necklaces and coins in the hand. We know that that gossipping guide-book kindly told him this nonsense.—Now Cicero died forty years B. C. or about a hundred and nineteen years before the eruption which destroyed Pompeii
. And we believe it will be admitted that our friend Diomedes, though living in a fine climate, had no immunity from ordinary wear and tear of the constitution, as Dr. Kitchener calls it. We are also entertained (page 104,) Vol. I. No. IV.
with an account of the villa of Polybius, the historian. We are afraid our author's credulity bas led him into a mistake. This writer was born full two hundred years B. C., and though he lived to a good old age, died about a hundred and twenty years before the destruction of Pompeii. To say the least, these are pretty strong presumptions against any such position. The street-scribes or public writers of letters, &c. attracted the attention of our traveller; and he adds, “they are a description of persons I believe found no where else.” A very little reading would have shown him that they are to be found all over the Levant—that these persons are not only seated in the crowd. ed lanes of Constantinople, but in the capacious plazas of Mexico. A similar remedy ought to have been applied to his remark, that the ruins at Pæstum are “the only specimens in existence, of the severe old Etruscan style." We are not quite sure that we understand what he means by the Etruscan style ; but we can answer for it, that the columns are of the old Doric, and worthy to be compared with the Parthenon itself, or the celebrated temple at Girgenti, which all belong to the same imposing and magnificent order. But we inust leave Naples, and sympathizing with our traveller in his fear of the robbers, we must follow him to the gate of St. Johns and finally see him installed in the Swiss Hotel. After a comfortable night's rest, and some doubts whether he was in Rome-he rises on the 8th of February, and with a “traveller's guide” in one hand, and a “map of Rome" in the other, proceeds, with an Englishman whom he met on the road, to examine the Roman lions. This inspection continues for three weeks—which would afford time only, in our opinion, to get a general idea of the city, instead of that wondrously detailed (we cannot say, accurate) information which is eked out into more than 130 pages.-We shall take the liberty of passing over all this-it may all be read for five pauls in the "itinerario istruttivo" of the immortal Vasi, who tells you, in his preface, that Rome is a magnificent and celebrated city,—“Roma, --città celebre e magnifica." Our author, however, does not always follow Vasi, for, (page 286) the equestrian bronze statue of Marcus Aurelius is called the “supposed statue of Constantine.” This statue is as fully ascertained, as the authenticity of the fasti consulares, or the scite of the capitol. Again, (page 333) he calls Canova the “ Apelles of modern times !” This is a discovery since our day; he has been called the rival of Phidias, bụt we were not aware that like another Michael Angelo, Canova had not only asserted his triumphover the lifeless marble,
but drawn à double victory from varied, more brilliant, but not more expressive efforts of the pencil.
On the road to Florence, our traveller met the Austrian army on its march to Naples, about to establish another “ Capo di Lazzaroni," and in the cant of the day, to add new support to the "altar and the throne." Well may the poor Italian address his country in that affecting language, “Deh! fusse tu men bella, o almen più forte.”
The account of his journey is agreeably written, and quite interesting. The falls of Terni had a new, but discordant addition made to their scenery--the bright gleaming of arms was seen joined with the soft colours of the sun, reflected back from the spray of the cascade—a hostile army was arrayed on the heights, and in daily expectation of making its first assault on liberty. The road seems to have been crowded with these minions of despotism, and it is probable, from this circumstance, that a much stronger resistance was expected than unfortunately was afterwards shown. Why it was not, we have never yet been satisfactorily informed. Our author passes the lake Thrasymenus, and of course visits the battle ground. He thus commences his account:“When Hannibal after the battle of Canne, was marching to Rome,” &c. Now, this error, if it arose from carelessness, is quite unpardonable ; if from ignorance, is still more so, in a traveller who ought to be well acquinted with the history of the country which he is examining. However, let us leave this disagreeable subject. The ground was explored, but it seems without much satisfaction. The pass which the consul is said to have siezed,” could not be found; our author thinks it probable that the road, instead of running along the lake, and being flanked by the hills, which are gentle elevations, ran over them, pursuing some of the little ravines, and then the battle would have been fought at Sanguinetta, a mile or two from the lake. We hope that we may trespass a little longer on the reader's patience, to show the welli known accuracy of Livy, and to correct the misapprehensions of the author. The road, after running along the shore some distance, from which the hills immediately ascend, diverges from it, and runs into a champaigne country. With respect to the pass, Livy does not mention it; but if necessary, it may be found in the narrow road between the lake and the elevations at its side. The description in Livy's 22d book, we were struck with, at the time we were on this spot--its accuracy serves you as a guide to this very day. “Et jam pervenerant ad loca insidiis nota, ubi maxime montes Cortonenses Thrasymenus subit, via tantum interest perangusta velut ad ipsum de
industria relicto spatio : deindc paulo latior patescit campus, inde colles assurgunt. Ibi castra in aperto locat, ubi ipse cum Afris modo Hispanisque consideret. Baleares cæteramque levem armaturam post montes circumducit: equites ad ipsas fauces saltus, tumulis apte tegentibus, locat; ut ubi intrassent Romani, objecto equitatu, clausa omnia lacu ac montibus essent. Flaminius quum pridie solis occasu ad lacum pervenisset inexplorato, postero die, vix dum satis certa luce angustiis superatis, postquam in patentiorem campum pandi agmen cæpit; id tantum hostium quod ex adverso erat aspexit : ab tergo ac super caput decepere insidiæ." The whole narration is admirable. We cannot
farther. It is useless to tell what one sees in four days in Florence --impertinent to tell what one may see in that magnificent and delightful city; and unjust to notice the errors which a traveller makes, in giving detailed accounts of that upon which he could only bestow a most hurried glance. Pass we over then the account of the Gallery (referring our readers always to the guide-book, of which this is an extract) the museum, the Boboli gardens—to a criticism of our author, on architecture, ir which we, by no means agree :
“One regrets to find in Florence in the midst of so many remains of wealth, a strong tincture of the taste of barbarians. The palaces have already been mentioned ; many of which, in every point of view, present as little architectural beauty, as the gloomy walls of a fortress. The cathedral and several churches, though farge, and in many respects fine buildings, are covered with black and white marble, so arranged as to form a thousand square and oblong figures of no meaning and no use. While fine specimens of the ancient style remain, it argues ill of their taste to find them preferring the trifling complications of barbarian edifices. It is indeed gloomy: it seems to indicate that there is a natural bad taste in man; and certainly tends to raise our ideas of the genius that first ascertained the true principles of architecture, and combined in all their purity the elements of the Grecian style. Page 419.
Again, speaking of the Duomo at Perugia, he says ;
“ The cathedral, here called the “Duomo,” is a large church, and has some of its windows ornamented with barbarous stained glass; while the Public Palace is furnished with many small and crowded arcades which break the wall. I am aware of the veneration with which such specimens of bụilding are regarded in many of the northern countries of Europe: yet the Gothic style, that unworthy successor--nay, that base supplanter-of the pure taste of Greece, must always be viewed with unmingled disgust, in such situations as are calculated to remind one of its intrusion. Whereever the Romans extended the conquests of their arms, they carried the models of Rome-composed of the simple elements of beauty and magnificence: but the northern hordes swept away all traces of them, to prepare for the whimsical combinations--the phantastic jumble-of clustered columns, pointed arches, and coloured glass, which they called architecturePage 375.
• We certainly join him in his administration of Grecian Architecture, as far as our knowledge of it goes.
We certainly regard the ruin at Pæstum as the finest and most imposing effort of the architect we ever saw. But we believe no person who has ever seen the gay and florid Duomo at Milan, the grave and impressive Cathedral at Rouen, and the solemn and sublime Minster at York, can doubt whether the Gothic style (by whatever name it is called) does not delight the eye as well as affect the heart, and deserve an elevated stand in the combinations of architectural beauty and effect. We might also remark, if it were not too well known, that it is doubted by many eminent scholars and antiquarians, whether the Goths did bring with them to the south, that' style which bears their name. It has been supposed by many, to be oriental in its origin—it is found in the East, in Naples, in Bologna, in Florence, as well as in northern countries--adhuc sub judice lis est. In regard to the Cathedral of Florence, it is enough to say, that Michael Angelo thought it worthy all admiration, and dying wished to be buried within sight of the dome designed by Brunellesco. There is a gloomy grandeur about this noble pile, which in our opinion St. Peter's itself does not possess. The facade of the Pallazzi Pitti, is certainly heavy and somewhat rude. But it struck us always, as according well with the spirit of the age and country. If you are disgusted with its simplicity and want of ornament-pass round and examine the cortile, and you have a beautiful example of the Grecian orders -though in our opinion it loses, as far as grandeur is concerned, by comparison with the front. We shall pursue our aúthor's track no farther.
Of all countries in the world, Italy seems to afford most facility for making an entertaining and piquant book. There is such an infinite variety of character, such varied society, such singular institutions, so many spots which excite the highesť moral interest, produce the richest associations, and bring back to life, as it were, the most remarkable personages, to again occupy in our presence the places they once filled, that time and talent alone are wanting in an author, to bring out a most interesting volume. Mad. de Stael has done something in this way–Lady Morgan has done more. The latter had the good sense to imagine her readers acquainted with Nardini and Vasi, and all the piante Topograficke. She alludes briefly to the antiquities, when she notices them directly—and oftener places them even in a stronger light, by an occasional allusiou --but she deals largely in historic details--in which there is a. good deal of tediousness and much persiflage. In such a volume