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versity and collision of opinion. They Catholics and naturalized citizens. It found objects to employ their faculties, must proscribe natives and Protestants, and a motive in the magnitude of the both, who will not consent to unite in consequences attached to them, to exert proscribing Catholics and naturalized citithe utmost eagerness in the pursuit of zens. Nor is that all; it must not only truth, and the most daring intrepidity in apply to birth and re gion, it must necesmaintaining it. Religious controversy sarily extend itself to the business of life sharpens the understanding by the subtle. as well as to political preferments. ty and remoteness of the topics it dis- Wise, HENRY AUGUSTUS, naval officer: cusses, and braces the will by their in- born in Brooklyn, N. Y., May 12, 1819; finite importance. We perceive in the entered the navy as midshipman in 1834; history of this period a nervous, masculine served on the coast of Florida during the intellect. No levity, no feebleness, no in- Seminole War, and on the Pacific coast difference; or, if there were, it is a relax- as colonel during the Mexican War; was ation from the intense activity which gives appointed assistant chief of the bureau a tone to its general character. But there of ordnance and hydrography with the is a gravity approaching to piety, a seri. rank of commander in 1862; and was proousness of impression, a conscientious se- moted captain and chief of ordnance in verity of argument, an habitual fervor of 1866, resigning in 1868. He died in enthusiasm in their method of handling Naples, Italy, April 2, 1869.

He was almost every subject. The debates of the author of Los Gringos, or an Interior schoolmen were sharp and subtle enough; licu of Merico and California, with but they wanted interest and grandeur, Wanderings in Peru, Chile, and Polynesia, and were besides confined to a few. They etc. did not affect the general mass of the Wise, Joux, balloonist; born in Lancascommunity. But the Bible was thrown ter, Pa., Feb. 24, 1808; made his first asopen to all ranks and conditions, “ to own cension at Philadelphia, Pa., May 2, 1835, and read,” with its wonderful table of and ascended to an al ude of 13,000 feet, contents, from Genesis to the Revelation. Aug. 11. 1838. On Aug. 15, 1851, he made Every village in England would present an ascent from Zanesville, O., to experithe scene so well described in Burns's ment on the action of falling bodies, and Cotter's Saturday Vight. How unlike discovered that they always fall spirally, this agitation, this shock, this angry sea, turning on an axis as they descend. In this fermentation, this shout and its 1859 he made a celebrated trip from St. echoes, this impulse and activity, this con- Louis to Jefferson county, N. Y. On cussion, this general effect, this blow, this Sept. 28, 1879, with a number of comearthquake, this roar and dashing, this panions. he ascended from St. Louis, Mo., longer and louder strain, this public opin- in a balloon named the Pathfinder, which ion, this liberty to all to think and speak drifted in a northeasterly direction. The the truth, this stirring of spirits, this last that was ever seen of it was as it opening of eyes, this zeal to know-not passed over Carlinville, Ill. Later the nothing--but the truth, that the truth body of one of his companions was washed might make them free. How unlike to ashore on Lake Michigan. In all, Mr. this is Know - nothingism, sitting and Wise made over 230 ascensions. He was brooding in secret to proscribe Catholies the author of System of Aëronautics. and naturalized citizens ! Protestantism Wise, Join SERGEANT, lawyer; born in protested against secrecy, it protested Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where his father against shutting out the light of truth, was United States minister, Dec. 27, 1846: ii protested against proscription, bigotry, graduated at the University of Virginia in and intolerance. It loosened all tongues, 1867; became United States district attorand fought the owls and bats of night ney for the eastern district of Virginia with the light of meridian day. The ar- in 1881; Republican Congressman-atgument of Know - nothings is the argn- large from Virginia in 1883–85; and setment of silence. The order ignores all tled in New York City in 1889. He is the knowledge. And its proscription can't ar. author of Diomed, and The End of an rest itself within the limit of excluding Era.

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Wishoskan Indians, a family of Ind- this purpose Gen. B. F. Butler, in comians that occupied the shores of Hum- mand of the Department of Virginia and boldt Bay and the Eel, Elk, and Lower North Carolina, planned and attempted Mad rivers, in California, and comprised a movement for the capture of Richmond the Patawat, the Wiyot or Vicard, and the by a sudden descent upon it. ArrangeWishosk tribes. In 1853 they numbered ments were made for a diversion in favor less than 1,500, and now the few rem- of the movement. On Feb. 5, 1864, Butnants are practically lost by merging with ler sent a column of cavalry and infantry other tribes.

under General Wistar, 1,500 in number, Wisner, Hexry, patriot; born in who pushed rapidly northward from New Goshen, N. Y., about 1725; was an as- Kent Court-house to the Chickahominy at sistant justice of the court of common Bottom's Bridge. General Kilpatrick was pleas in 1768; representative from Orange sent from the Army of the Potomac to cocounty in the New York General Assembly operate with Wistar. With his cavalry in 1759–69; member of the Continental and two divisions of Hancock's infantry, Congress in 1774, and of the Congress he crossed the Rapidan, and skirmished which adopted the Declaration of Indepen- sharply with the Confederates to divert dence. He studied powder-making and their attention from Richmond, and when erected three powder - mills in Orange the time for the execution of the raid had county, from which a great part of the expired these troops recrossed the Rapidan, powder used in the Revolutionary War having sustained a loss of about 200 men. was supplied. He also aided the patriot This raid was fruitless. The Confederates cause at the time of the war by having had been apprized by a traitor of the spears and gun-flints made, by repairing movement that Wistar intended to make. the roads in Orange county; and by erect- Wistar found the line of the Chickahoming works and mounting cannon on the iny too strongly guarded to pass it, and Hudson River. He was one of the com- he returned. mittee that framed the first constitution General Wistar was president of the of New York in 1777; was State Senator Academy of Natural Sciences of Philain 1777-82; and a member of the State delphia in 1892-96; founded the Wistar convention of 1788, which ratified the Institute of Anatomy and Biology in Phil. national Constitution. He died in Goshen, adelphia : and has written and spoken N. Y., in 1790.

much on penology. Wissler, JACQUES, engraver; born in Wister, OWEN, author; born in PhilaStrasburg, Germany, in 1803; was edu- delphia, Pa., July 14, 1860; graduated at cated in Paris, France; came to the Unit- Harvard in 1882; admitted to the bar in ed States in 1849; and was employed by a 1889. Among his works are Red Jen and lithographic firm. He was sent to Rich- White; Lin UcLean; Life of General mond. Va., by the firm before the Civil Grant, etc. War broke out, and after the firing on Witamo, squaw-sachem of the PokaFort Sumter he was detained by the Con- noket Indians, at Pocasset, near Mount federates and employed to engrave the Hope, was King Philip's mother-in-law; paper currency and bonds of the Con- and she and her people supported him to federacy. After the war he removed to the last and shared his disasters. Most Macon, Miss., and then to Camden, N. J., of her people were killed or sold into where he also engaged in engraving. He slavery. She herself was drowned while was also a portrait artist in crayon and oil. crossing a river in her flight. He died in Camden, X. J., Nov. 25, 1887. Witanagemot, the name of the great

Wistar, ISAAC JONES, military officer; Anglo-Saxon council or parliament, conborn in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 14, 1827; stituting the highest court of judicature entered the National army in 1861, and ir the kingdom. was commissioned brigadier-general of vol- Witchcraft, New York. In 1665 Ralph unteers, Nov. 29. 1862, for services at An- Hill and his wife Mary were arrested tietam. The sufferings of the Union pris. for witchcraft and sorcery; they were oners at Richmond caused efforts to be tried by a jury, which included Jacob made early in 1864 to release them. For Leisler, afterwards governor, and aequitted, the jury finding “nothing consider- earliest case in the colonies of what is able against them.” The event created now known as boycotting. See WITCHbut little excitement. In 1670, however, CRAFT, SALEM. the case of Katherine Harrison led to Witchcraft, SALEM. The terrible decomplications between the judiciary and lusion of belief in witchcraft accompanied the people. She was a widow, who on the New England settlers, and they adoptbeing banished from Weathersfield, Conn., ed English laws against it. For a long


as a witch, settled in Westchester. As soon as her antecedents became known, a formal complaint was lodged against her, and she was taken before the court of assizes for examination. There nothing could be proven against her, and she was, accordingly, released from restraint. Her neighbors, however, were not satisfied with the decision of the court, and took such means of showing their resentment that she was compelled to seek a home elsewhere. This was probably the


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