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his return from Europe, in 1851, became dent Monroe appointed him (Dec. 15) tutor to a son of William H. Aspinwall, Attorney-General of the United States, of New York, whose counting-house he which office he held continually until 1829, afterwards entered. In the employ of the when he removed to Baltimore. In 1832 Pacific Steamship Company, he resided in he the candidate of the ANTIPanama two years, and visited California, MASONIC PARTY (q. v.) for the Presidency Oregon, and Vancouver's Island. He was of the United States. He died in Washone of the sufferers in the expedition of ington, D. C., Feb. 18, 1834. Lieutenant Strain to explore the Isthmus Wisconsin, STATE OF, was traversed by of Darien, returning in impaired health French missionaries and traders in the in 1854. On the fall of Fort Sumter he seventeenth century, and derives its name joined the 7th N. Y. Regiment; went with from the river which, in the French it to Annapolis; became military secre- orthography, was written Ouisconsin. It tary to General Butler at Fortress Mon- is said to mean, as an Indian word, “wildroe, with the rank of major, and was rushing river.” The Wisconsin Territory killed in battle at Great Bethel, Va., was organized in 1836, out of lands comJune 10, 1861.

prised in the Territory of Michigan. It Wirt, WILLIAM, jurist; born in Bla- embraced all the lands now within the densburg, Md., Nov. 8, 1772; was left States of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minan orphan when he was eight years of nesota, and the Dakotas. In 1838 the terage, with a small patrimony, and was ritory west of the Mississippi reared and educated by an uncle. He separated from it. The first territorial began the practice of law at Culpeper government was formed at Mineral Point Court-house, Va. In 1795 he married a in July, 1836, and in October the first daughter of Dr. George Gilmer, and set- legislature assembled at Belmont. In 1838 tied near Charlottesville, Va., where he Madison was made the permanent seat of contracted dissipated habits, from the government. A State constitution was toils of which, it is said, he was released formed by a convention at Madison late by hearing a sermon preached by Rev. James Waddell. In 1799 he was chosen clerk of the Virginia House of Delegates, and in 1802 was appointed chancellor of the eastern district of Virginia. Very soon afterwards he resigned the office, and settled in Norfolk in the practice of his profession. He had lately written a scries of letters under the title of The British Spy, which were published in the Richmond Argus, and gave him a literary reputation. Published in collected form, they have passed through many editions. The next year he published a series of essays in the Richmond Enquirer entitled The Rainbow. Wirt settled in Richmond in 1806, and became distinguished the following year as one of the foremost lawyers in the country in the trial of Aaron Burr for treason. In the same year he was elected to the Virginia House of in 1846, was approved by Congress in Delegates, and was a prominent advocate 1847, and on May 29, 1848, Wisconsin of the chief measures of President Jeffer- was admitted into the Union as a State. son's administration. His chief literary In 1849 a part of the State was taken to productionLife of Patrick Henrywas form a part of the Territory of Minnesota. first published in 1817, at which time he Wisconsin furnished, during the Civil was United States attorney for the dis- War, 96,118 troops. This State is retrict of Virginia. The same year Presi- markable for the heterogeneous character

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of its inhabitants. In 1890 three-fourths Wise, HENRY ALEXANDER, diplomatist; of all the people were of foreign birth or born in Drummondtown, Va., Dec. 3, parentage, there being nearly 600,000 of 1806; was admitted to the bar at WinGerman extraction,

and over 100,000 chester, Va., in 1828; settled in Nashville, Scandinavians, besides

many Danes, Tenn., but soon returned to Accomack, Dutch, Canadians, and others. Popula- where he was elected to Congress in 1833, tion in 1890, 1,686,880; in 1900, 2,069,042. and remained a member until 1843, when See UNITED STATES, Wisconsin, in vol ix. he was appointed minister to Brazil. He

was a zealous advocate of the annexaTERRITORIAL GOVERNORS.

tion of Texas. He was a member of the Henry Dodge ..assumes office.

1836 James D. Doty.


State constitutional convention in 1850, Nathaniel P. Tallmadge..

1844 and was governor of Virginia from 1856 Henry Dodge....


to 1860. He approved the pro-slavery conSTATE GOVERNORS (term two years). stitution (Lecompton) of Kansas, and Nelson Dewey.... .assumes office..

1848 in 1859 published a treatise on territorial Leonard J Farwell.. William A. Barstow.

1854 government, containing the doctrine of Coles Bashford..

1856 Alexander W. Randall

1858 Louis P. Harvey.

1862 Edward Salomon.. James T. Lewis..

1864 Lucius Fairchild

1866 C. ( Washburn

1872 William R. Taylor.

1874 Harrison Ludington..

1876 William E. Smith.

1878 Jeremiah M. Rusk.

1882 William D. Hoard.

1889 George W. Perk.

1891 William H. pin.

1895 Edward Schofield.

1897 Robert M. Lafolette..



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1848 to 1857
1848 1855
1855 · 1961
1857 " 1869
1861 - 1879
1869 " 1876
1875 • 1881
1879 " 1881
1881 - 1893

30th to 35th
30th 34th

16 37th

* 41st 37th

66 46th 41st


46th to 530


52d 66 55th

46 56th


Henry Dodge
Isaac P. Walker..
Charles Durkee
James R. Doolittle.
Timothy 0. Howe.
Matthew H. Carpenter..
Ang is Cameron.
Matthew H. Carpenter,
Philetus Sawyer.
Angus Cameron....

1881 - 1885 the right of Congress to protect slavery. John E. Spooner.

1885 · 1891 William F. Vilas.

1891 “ 1897 The last important act of his administraJohn L. Mitchell..

1893 1899 tion was ordering the execution of JOHN John E Spooner.

1897 Joseph V. Quarles.

1899 BROWN (q. v.), for the raid on Harper's

Ferry. In the Virginia convention, early Wisconsin, UNIVERSITY OF, a co-edu- in 1861, he advocated a peaceful settlecational non-sectarian institution in Madi- ment of difficulties with the national gov. son, Wis.; organized in 1849 and reorgan- ernment; but after the ordinance of seized in 1867. It comprises a college of cession had been passed he took up arms letters and science, college of mechanics against the government, became a Conand engineering, college of agriculture, federate brigadier-general, was an unsuccollege of law, school of pharmacy, school cessful leader in western Virginia, and of economics, political science, and history, commanded at Roanoke Island, but was and school of music. In 1900 it report- sick at the time of its capture. He died ed: Professors and instructors, 160; stu- in Richmond, Va., Sept. 12, 1876. Among dents, 2,422; volumes in the library, 60,- his publications is Seven Decades of the 000; productive funds, $500,000; grounds Union: Memoir of John Tyler. and buildings valued at $1,152,973; in- Speech Against Know - nothingism.come, $400.874; number of graduates, During the KNOW - NOTHING AGITATION 4,323; president, Charles K. Adams, LL.D. (q. v.), before the party was organized,

Mr. Wise delivered the following speech How organized ? Nobody knows. Govin Congress, Sept. 18, 1852:

erned by whom? Nobody knows. How

bound? By what rites? By what test The laws of the United States-federal oaths ? With what limitations and reand State laws-declare and defend the straints ? Nobody, nobody knows! AII liberties of our people. They are free in we know is that persons of foreign birth every sense-free in the sense of Magna and of Catholic faith are proscribed; and Charta and beyond Magna Charta; free so are all others who don't proscribe them by the surpassing franchise of American at the polls. This is certainly against the charters, which makes them sovereign and spirit of Magna Charta. . . their wills the sources of constitutions and A Prussian born subject came to this laws.

country. He complied with our naturalIn this country, at this time, does any ization laws in all respects of notice of man think anything? Would he think intention, residence, oath of allegiance, aloud? Would he speak anything? Would and proof of good moral character. He he write anything? His mind is free; his remained continuously in the United person is safe; his property is secure; his States the full period of five years. When house is his castle; the spirit of the laws he had fully filled the measure of his prois his body-guard and his house-guard; bation and was consummately a naturalthe fate of one is the fate of all measured ized citizen of the United States, he then, by the same common rule of right; his and not until then, returned to Prussia voice is heard and felt in the general suf-' to visit an aged father. He was immefrage of freemen; his trial is in open diately, on his return, seized and forced court, confronted by witnesses and accus- into the Landwehr, or militia system of ers; his prison-house has no secrets, and Prussia, under the maxim: “ Once a citihe has the judgment of his peers; and zen, always a citizen!” There he is forced there is naught to make him afraid, so to do service to the King of Prussia at long as he respects the rights of his equals this very hour. He pplies for protection in the eye of the law. Would he propa- to the United States. Would the knowgate truth? Truth is free to combat nothings interpose in his behalf or not?

Would he propagate error? Error Look at the principles involved. We, by itself may stalk abroad and do her mis- our laws, encouraged him to come to our chief, and make night itself grow dark. country, and here he was allowed to be er, provided truth is left free to follow, come naturalized, and to that end required however slowly, with her torches to light to renounce and abjure all allegiance and up the wreck! Why, then, should any por- fidelity to the King of Prussia, and to tion of the people desire to retire in secret, swear allegiance and fidelity to the United and by secret means to propagate a po. States. The King of Prussia now claims litical thought, or word, or deed, by no egal forfeiture from him-he punishes stealth? Why band together, exclusive of him for no crime-he claims of him no others, to do something which all may legal debt-he claims alone that very alnot know of, towards some political end? legiance and fidelity which we required If it be good, why not make the good the man to abjure and renounce. Not known? Why not think it, speak it, write only so, but he hinders the man from reit, act it out openly and aloud ? Or is turning to the United States, and from it evil, which loveth darkness rather than discharging the allegiance and fidelity we light? When there is no necessity to jus. required him to swear to the United tify a secret association for political ends, States. The King of Prussia says he what else can justify it? A caucus may should do him service for seven years, sit in secret to consult on the general for this was what he was born to perpolicy of a great public party. That may form; his obligations were due to him be necessary or convenient; but that even first, and his laws were first binding him. is reprehensible if carried too far. But The United States say-true, he was born here is proposed a great primary, national under your laws, but he had a right to exorganization, in its inception—What? No. patriate himself; he owed allegiance first body knows. To do what? Nobody knows. to you, but he had a right to forswear it




and to swear allegiance to us; your laws unequal, by their secret order, without first applied, but this is a case of political law and against law? For them, by secret obligation, not of legal obligation; it is combination, to make them unequal, to not for any crime or debt you claim to impose a burden or restriction upon their bind him, but it is for allegiance; and the privileges which the law does not, is to set daim you set up to his services on the themselves up above the law, and to superground of his political obligation, his alle. sede by private and secret authority, ingiance to you, which we allow him to ab- tangible and irresponsible, the rule of pubjure and renounce, is inconsistent with his lic, political right. Indeed, is this not political obligation, his allegiance, which the very essence of the “higher law we required him to swear to the United doctrine? It cannot be said to be legitStates; he has sworn fidelity to us, and imate public sentiment and the action we have, by our laws, pledged protection of its authority. Public sentiment, proper, to him.

is a concurrence of the common mind in Such is the issue. Now, with which some conclusion, conviction, opinion, taste, will the Know-nothings take sides? With or action in respect to persons or things the King of Prussia against our natural subject to its public notice. It will and ized citizen and against America, or with it must control the minds and actions of America and our naturalized citizen? men, by public and conventional opinion. Mark, now, Know-nothingism is opposed Count Molé said that in France it was to all foreign influence-against American stronger than statutes. It is so here. institutions. The King of Prussia is a That it is which should decide at the polls pretty potent foreign influence—he was of a republic. But here is a secret sentione of the holy alliance of crowned heads. ment, which may be so organized as to Will they take part with him, and not contradict the public sentiment. Candiprotect the citizen? Then they will aid date A may be a native and a Protestant, a foreign influence against our laws! Will and may concur with the community, if they take sides with our naturalized citi. it be a Know-nothing community, on erzen? If so, then upon what grounds ? ery other subject except that of proscribNow, they must have a good cause of ing Catholics and naturalized citizens; and interposition to justify us against all the candidate B may concur with the comreceived dogmas of European despotism. munity on the subject of this proscription

Don't they see, can't they perceive, that alone, and upon no other subject; and yet they have no other grounds than those the Know-nothings might elect B by their I have urged? He is our citizen, nation- secret sentiment against the public sentialized, owing us allegiance and we owing ment. Thus it attacks not only American him protection. And if we owe him pro- doctrines of expatriation, allegiance, and tection abroad, because of his sworn al- protection, but the equality of citizenship, legiance to us as a naturalized citizen, and the authority of public sentiment. In what then can deprive him of his privi- the afľair of Koszta, how did our blood leges at home among us when he returns? rush to his rescue? Did the Know-nothIf he be a citizen at all, he must be al- ing side with him and Mr. Marey, or with lowed the privileges of citizenship, or he Hulseman and Austria ? If with Koszta, will not be the equal of his fellow-citizens. why? Let them ask themselves for the And must not Know-nothingism strike at rationale, and see if it can in reason abide the very equality of citizenship, or allow with their orders. There is no middle him to enjoy all its lawful privileges ? If ground in respect to naturalization. We Catholics and naturalized citizens are to must either have naturalization laws and be citizens and yet to be proscribed from let foreigners become citizens, on equal office, they must be rated as an inferior terms of capacities and privileges, or we class—an excluded class of citizens. Will must exclude them altogether. If we abol. it be said that the law will not make ish naturalization laws, we return to the this distinction? Then are we to under. European dogma: “Once a citizen, alstand that Know - nothings would not ways a citizen.” If we let foreigners be make them equal by law? If not by law, naturalized and don't extend to them how can they pretend to make them equality of privileges, we set up classes and distinctions of persons wholly op- If anything was ever open, fair, and free posed to republicanism. We will, as Rome —if anything was ever blatant even-it did, have citizens who may be scourged. was the Reformation. To quote from a The three alternatives are presented: Our mighty British pen: “ It gave a mighty present policy, liberal, and just, and tol. impulse and increased activity to thought erant, and equal; or the European policy and inquiry, agitated the inert mass of of holding the noses of native-born slaves accumulated prejudices throughout Euto the grindstone of tyranny all their rope. The effect of the concussion was lives; or odious distinctions of citizenship general, but the shock was greatest in tending to social and political aristocracy. this country”(England). “It toppled down I am for the present laws of naturaliza- the full grown intolerable abuses of cention.

turies at a blow; heaved the ground from As to religion, the Constitution of the under the feet of bigoted faith and slavish United States, art. vi., sec. 3, especially obedience; and the roar and dashing of provides that no religious test shall ever opinions, loosened from their accustomed be required as qualification to any hold, might be heard like the noise of an office or public trust under the United angry sea, and has never yet subsided. States. The State of Virginia has, from Germany first broke the spell of misbeher earliest history, passed the most gotten fear, and gave the watch word; but liberal laws, not only towards natural- England joined the shout, and echoed it ization, but towards foreigners. But I back, with her island voice, from her have said enough to show the spirit of thousand cliffs and craggy shores, in a American laws and the true sense of longer and louder strain. With that cry American maxims.

the genius of Great Britain rose and Know-nothingism is against the spirit threw down the gauntlet to the nations. of Reformation and of Protestantism. There was a mighty fermentation: the waWhat was there to reform?

ters were out; public opinion was in a Let the most bigoted Protestant enumer- state of projection ; liberty was held out to ate what he defines to have been the abom- all to think and speak the truth; men's inations of the Church of Rome. What brains were busy, their spirits stirring, would he say were the worst. The secrets their hearts full and their hands not idle. of Jesuitism, of the auto da , of the Their eyes were opened to expect the greatmonasteries and the nunneries. The pri- est things, and their ears burned with vate penalties of the Inquisition scaven- curiosity and zeal to know the truth, that ger's daughter. Proscription, persecution, the truth might make them free. The bigotry, intolerance, shutting up of the death - blow which had been struck at Pook of the Word. And do Protestants now scarlet vice and bloated hypocrisy loosenmean to out-Jesuit the Jesuits? Do they ed tongues and made the talismans and mean to strike and not be seen! To be love-tokens of popish superstitions with felt and not to be heard? To put a shud- which she had beguiled her followers and der upon humanity by the masks of committed abominations with the people, mutes? Will they wear the monkish cowls? fall harmless from their necks." Will they inflict penalties at the polls The translation of the Bible was the without reasoning together with their fel. chief engine in the great work. It threw lows at the hustings? Will they proscribe? open, by a secret spring, the rich treasures Persecute? Will they bloat up themselves of religion and morality, which had then into that bigotry which would burn Non- been locked up as in a shrine. It revealed conformists? Will they not tolerate free. the visions of the prophets, and conveyed dom of conscience, but doom dissenters, in the lessons of inspired teachers to the secret cor ave, a forfeiture of civil meanest of the people. It gave them a privileges for a religious difference? Will common interest in a common cause. Their they not translate the scripture of their hearts burned within them as they read. faith? Will they visit us with dark lan- It gave a mind to the people by giving terns and execute us by signs, and test them common subjects of thought and feel. oaths, and in secrecy? Protestantism! for. ing. It cemented their union of characbid it!

ter and sentiment; it created endless di

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