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plicated in Conway's cabal he resigned numerous merchant vessels, and in the the secretaryship, and in July, 1779, was following year commanded the blockade made clothier-general to the army. At runner Chameleon, in which he sailed to the close of the war he settled in Lexing. Liverpool, where she was seized by the ton, Ky., and engaged in mercantile trans- United States governemnt after the war. actions. In 1791–92 he commanded, as Wilkinson published The Narrative of a lieutenant-colonel of infantry, an expedi- Blockade Runner. tion against the Indians on the Wabash, Willard, ABIJAH, military officer ; born and was made brigadier-general in 1792. in Lancaster, Mass., in 1722; was made He was distinguished in command of the a "mandamus” councillor in 1774, which right wing of Wayne's army on the caused him to be an object of public opMaumee in 1794. In 1796–98 and 1800–12 probrium; was arrested in Union, Conn., he was general-in-chief of the army. In but by signing a declaration made by his December, 1803, joint-commissioner captors he was liberated. He was prowith Governor Claiborne, he received Lou- scribed and exiled in 1778; was in New isiana from the French; and from 1805 York City in July, 1783, and with fiftyto 1807 was governor of Louisiana Ter- four others petitioned Sir Guy Carleton ritory. Wilkinson remained at the head for land grants in Nova Scotia. These of the Southern Department until his en- petitioners were designated as the Fiftytanglement with Burr caused him to be five. Willard later settled in New Brunscourt-martialled in 1811, when he was wick. He died in Lancaster, New Brunshonorably acquitted. In 1812 he was wick, in 1789. brevetted major-general, l'nited States Willard, EMMA, educator; born in army, and was made a full major-general Berlin, Conn., Feb. 23, 1787; descended in 1813. He reduced Mobile in April that from Thomas Hooker, founder of Hartyear, and fortified Mobile Point; and in ford, Conn.; began teaching at sixteen May he was ordered to the northern fron- years of age, and was principal, sucestier, where he succeeded General Dear- sively, of different academies. In 1809, at born in command. His campaign against Middlebury, Vt., she married Dr. John Montreal (1813-14) was totally unsuc- Willard. In 1821 she established her cessful, chielly because of the conduct of famous female seminary, at Troy, N. Y., Gen. Wade Hampton. He relinquished all which she conducted until 1839. She military command, and on the reduction made a tour in Europe in 1830, and pubof the army in 1815 he was discharged. lished her Journal and Letters on her He had become possessed of large estates return, in 1833, and devoted her share of in Mexico, and removed to that country, the profits of the work to the maintewhere he died near the city of Mexico, nance of a school for women in Greece, Dec. 28, 1825. He published Memoirs of which was founded mainly by her exJy Oun Times.

ertions. Mrs. Willard wrote and pubWilkinson, John, naval officer; born lished essays on Female Education; also in Norfolk, Va., Nov. 6, 1821 ; joined the several books, chiefly on history. She navy in 1837; served on the Portsmouth also published two books on physiology, in 1845–46; promoted master in June, 1850, and a volume of poems. Her ocean-hymn, and lieutenant in the following November. Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep, has He resigned from the National service in always been very popular. She died in 1861 and joined the Confederate navy as a Troy, N. Y., April 15, 1870. lieutenant; was executive officer of the Willard, Frances ELIZABETH, reformram Louisiana, which was captured by er; born in Churchville, N. Y., Sept. 38, Farragut in the spring of 1862, when New 1839; graduated at the Northwestern Orleans fell; was exchanged in the follow- Female College in 1858 ; was for some ing August and appointed an agent to years a school-teacher in various Western buy and load a vessel with war materials towns, and taught the natural sciences in in England. He purchased the Giraffe, the Northwestern College. In 1867 she with which he ran the blockade at Wil- became preceptress in the Genesee Wesmington, X. C. In 1864 he commanded leyan Seminary, at Lima, N. Y. On Feb. the Chickamauga, with which he destroyed 14, 1871, she was elected president of X.-2 A




the college which had recently been es- Bunker Hill Monument, Nov. 2, 1825. He tablished in connection with the North- completed this work July 23, 1842, and in western University of the Methodist de. the following year, on the anniversary of nomination, in deference to the popular the battle, a celebration was held in which idea of the co-education of the sexes. It the President of the United States and was the first time such an honor was con- his cabinet and citizens from all parts of ferred upon a woman. On her return from the country participated. He introduced

extended foreign tour in Europe, the first granite paving-stones ever used Syria, and Egypt, in 1871, Miss Willard in Boston, and proved the value of granite lectured with success, in Chicago, on the as buiiding material. He died in Educational Aspects of the Woman Ques. Quincy, Mass., Feb. 27, 1862. tion. She was president of the National

Willard, SYLVESTER DAVID, physician; Woman's Christian Temperance Union born in Wilton, Conn., June 19, 1825; from 1879 till her death; founded the graduated at the Albany Medical College World's Christian Temperance Union in in 1848; was a volunteer surgeon in the 1883; became president of the American National army in 1862–65. In the latter branch of the international council of year, just prior to his death, he was instruwomen in 1888; and was chief of the mental in having a bill for the erection of women's committee on temperance meet- an asylum for the poor insane introduced ings at the World's Columbian Exposi. into the New York State Senate. This tion in 1893. She died in New York City, was passed and the institution, which is Feb. 18, 1898.

one of the largest of its kind in the UnitWillard, Joseph, author; born in Cam- ed States, was named the Willard Asylum bridge, Mass., March 14, 1798; graduated for the Insane. In 1857-65 Dr. Willard at Harvard College in 1816; admitted to was secretary of the New York Medical the bar and began practice in Waltham, Society, and editor of its Transactions. Mass.; settled in Boston in 1829; ap- llis publications include Historical Adpointed master of chancery in 1838; and dress; Biographical Memoirs of Physicians was elected clerk of the Superior Court of Albany County; Annals of the Medical in 1856 and 1861. His publications include Society of the County of Albany, 1800-51, Topographical and Historical Sketches of with Biographical Sketches, etc. He died the Town of Lancaster, Mass., with an Ap. in Albany, N. Y., April 2, 1865. pendir; Naturalization in the American Willcox, ORLANDO BOLIVAR, military Colonies; Letter to an English Friend on officer; born in Detroit, Mich., April 16, the Rebellion in the United States and on 1823; graduated at West Point in 1847; the British Policy, etc.

He died in Bos- served in Texas and in Florida, and reton, Mass., May 12, 1865.

signed in 1857. In May, 1861, he became Willard, SAMUEL, clergyman; born in colonel of the 1st Michigan Infantry, and Concord, Mass. Jan. 31, 1640; graduated was the first to arrive at Washington, at Harvard College in 1659: studied theol. D. C., after the call of the President in ogy and was minister in Groton in 1663- April, 1961. With Colonel Ellsworth he 70, when he was driven away by King took possession of Alexandria. He comPhilip's War; was pastor of Old South manded a brigade in the battle of Bull Church, Boston, in 1678: opposed the Run, where he was severely wounded and witchcraft delusions of 1692; and was made prisoner. On his exchange in 1862 he vice-president and acting president of was made brigadier-general of volunteers, Harvard College from 1701 till his death, his commission dating from July 21, 1861. in Boston, Sept. 12, 1707.

He was active in the Army of the PotoWillard, SOLOMON, architect; born in mac until after the battle at FredericksPetersham, Mass., June 26, 1783; removedburg, and was temporarily in command to Boston in 1804, and there became a of the 9th Army Corps in central Kenskilled wood-carver. In 1815 he turned tucky. In 1863-64 he was engaged in his attention to carving in stone and was castern Tennessee; and in the Richmond engaged to ornament many of the pub- campaign, ending in the surrender of Lee. lie buildings in Boston; was selected he commanded a division in the 9th Corps. as architect and superintendent of the In March, 1865, he was brevetted major


general, United States army; in 1886 pro- sheriff of the city of New York, and remoted brigadier - general, United States mained so eight years (1784-92), and army, and in 1887 was retired.

was mayor in 1807. In 1792 he was apWillett, MARINUS, military officer; pointed a brigadier-general in the army born in Jamaica, L. I., July 31, 1740; intended to act against the Northwestern graduated at King's College in 1775; he Indians, but declined. He published an served under Abercrombie in the attack autobiography. He died in New York on Ticonderoga, and was with Bradstreet City, Aug. 22, 1830. in the expedition against Fort Frontenac. Willett's Point, a fortified post of He was one of the most conspicuous of the United States; on the north shore of

Long Island, between Great and Little Neck bays and Long Island Sound; opposite Fort Schuyler, and 20 miles from the Battery, New York City. The defensive works were begun in 1862 on a tract of 136 acres.

In recent years the post has been used almost exclusively as a depot for en gineer stores, and as the headquarters of a battalion of engineers. A special training in electrical engineering is here given young officers.

Willey, BENJAMIN GLAZIER, thor; born in Conway, N. H., Feb. 1, 1796; graduated at Bowdoin College in 1822; studied theology and was installed as associate pastor with the Rev. Asa Cummings in 1824; held subsequent charges in East Sumner, Me., and in Milton and Farmington, N. H. He was the author of Incidents in the White Mountains, which

after his death was republished under the New York Sons of Liberty. In 1775 the title, History of the White Mountains, he entered McDougall's regiment as cap- together with many Interesting Anecdotes, tain, and joined Montgomery in the in- Illustrating Life in the Backwoods. He vasion of Canada. After the capture of died in East Sumner, Me., April 17, 1867. St. John he remained there, in command, William III. (WILLIAM HENRY, PRINCE until January, 1776, and was soon after- OF ORANGE), King of England and Stadtwards made lieutenant-colonel of the 3d holder of Holland; born in The Hague, New York Regiment. In May, 1777, he Nov. 4, 1650; was a nephew of Charles was ordered to Fort Stanwix, and as- II. and James II., and married his cousin sisted in its defence in August following, Mary, daughter of James. The union was making a successful sortie to effect a popular in both countries. The Prince, a diversion in favor of General Herkimer member of whose house (of Orange) had (see ORISKANY, BATTLE OF). He bore a freed his country from the Spanish yoke, message, by stealth, to General Schuyler, was regarded as the head of the Protwhich led to the expedition up the Mo- estant party in Europe, and his wife exhawk Valley, under General Arnold, that pected to succeed to the English throne. caused the abandonment of the siege of His policy always was to lessen the power Fort Stanwix. He joined the army under of France, whose monarch, Louis XIV., Washington in June, 1776, and was in was regarded as the most powerful enemy the battle of Monmouth; and in 1779 he of Protestantism in Europe. The policy accompanied General Sullivan's expedi- of James on the throne was to increase tion against the Indians in New York. the papal power, and a breach between At the close of the war he was chosen the King and his Dutch son-in-law was



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inevitable. The people of England finally the battle of the Boyne, July 1 (0. S.), rose in their might and invited William to James, who led the insurgents, was deinvade the country. It was done in 1688. feated and fled to France. The war conHe and his wife were made joint monarchs tinued till 1697, when the treaty at Rysof England in February, 1689, by a spe- wick ended it. Queen Mary died late in

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cial convention. His cause was equal. 1694, when William became sole monly triumphant in Scotland, after some arch. He instituted salutary reforms in trouble at the beginning, and he joined a England, and the English constitution coalition of European states in making was placed on a firm basis. He labored war on France. The adherents of James to check the power of France and increase in Ireland were numerous, and were sup- that of the Netherlands as long as he ported by the French. In 1690 he took lived. His death was caused by being command of his own troops there, and, at thrown from his horse. Having no heir,

he promoted the act of settlement, calling crown. The college was closed in 1781, the house of Hanover to the throne, which and American and French troops alterwas adopted by Parliament in 1701, and nately occupied it, during which time the completed the English revolution. He president's house and a wing of the main died in Kensington, March 8, 1702. See building were burned. After the RevoluWILLIAM'S WAR, King.

tion, the General Assembly gave lands William and Mary, COLLEGE OF, the to the college, and its organization was second of the higher institutions of learn- changed. In 1859 the college building, ing established in the English-American with the library, was consumed by fire, colonies. An effort was made in 1619 to but was rebuilt and restored before the establish a college in Virginia, but the close of 1860. The college exercises were massacre in 1622 put an end to the en- suspended in 1861, in consequence of the terprise. In 1660-61 the General As- Civil War, and at one time the building sembly of Virginia passed an act for the was occupied as barracks and at another establishment and endowment of a col- as a hospital. During the occupation of lege, and in 1693 a charter was obtained Williamsburg by Union troops in 1862, from the

of England, chiefly it was again accidentally burned. From through the efforts of Rev. James Blair 1861 to 1865 the losses of the college, in and of Lieutenant-Governor Nicholson. It buildings and endowments, were about was named William and Mary, in compli. $125,000. In 1869 the main building was ment to the ruling sovereigns, who made substantially restored, the faculty was reappropriations for its support. Buildings organized, and the college was reopened designed by Sir Christopher Wren were for students. In 1900 it reported fifteen erected at the Middle Plantation, which professors and instructors, 192 students, was named Williamsburg. The first col. 10,000 volumes in the library, grounds lege edifice was destroyed by fire in 1705 and buildings valued at $125,000, and and was rebuilt soon afterwards. The productive funds aggregating $127,900. General Assembly and individuals made On Oct. 22, 1901, a tablet, erected to the liberal gifts to the institution from time memory of John Blair, the founder and to time, and in 1776 it was the wealthiest first president of William and Mary Col.


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college in America. Its riches were wast- lege, and to the seventeen Virginia gened during the Revolutionary War, its re- tlemen who were his associates in the sources being reduced to $2,500 and the establishment of the institution in 1693, then unproductive revenue granted by the was unveiled by the Colonial Dames of

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