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sive movement, and fighting was kept up moment he was wounded and carried from until dark, with heavy losses on both the field, and his command devolved on sides. Burnside’s corps was brought up Gen. R. H. Anderson. In the afternoon in the night and placed between Hancock Lee projected the entire corps of Longand Warren.

street and Hill against Hancock, who had Meanwhile Lee brought up Longstreet's been reinforced and was strongly defendcorps to the support of Hill. And now ed by breastworks. He stood firm until each party in the contest was strength- about four o'clock, when a fire in the ened by an addition of 20,000 men. Just woods attacked the brush and pine logs before 5 A.M. Ewell attacked the National of his breastworks. The wind blew the right, and was repulsed. A very little heat and smoke in the faces of his troops later Hancock advanced his force against and drove them from their defences, when the Confederate right; while Wadsworth, the Confederates dashed forward and who had prepared to strike Hill's left the penetrated their lines. night before, assailed him heavily. The But they were almost instantly reConfederates were driven back a mile and pulsed, and Lee was compelled to abandon a half, passing Lee's headquarters in the what he intended as a decisive assault. retreat. The flight was checked by Long. Night came on, and after dark Lee threw street's advancing column. Hancock, ex- Ewell's corps forward against Sedgwick. pecting to be assailed by Longstreet, had There was some hard fighting and much attacked with only half his force. The confusion. Ewell captured the most of latter's advance having been checked, he two brigades, and then fell back. So endresumed his flank movement; but at that ed the battle in the Wilderness, without

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decisive results on either side, and with a for his discoveries during that cruise mutually heavy loss. In the two days the Wilkes received a gold medal from the Nationals lost about 18,000 men, of whom London Geographical Society. He return6,000 were made prisoners. Generals ed to New York in June, 1842. In 1861 he Hays, Wadsworth, and Webb were killed. was sent to the West Indies, in the frigate The Confederate loss was probably about San Jacinto, to look after the Confed11,000. Generals Jones, Pickett, and Jen- erate cruiser Sumter, when he fell in with kins were killed. Longstreet's wounds dis- the British steamer Trent and took from abled him for several months. The Wil- her JAMES M. Mason and John SLIDELL derness is a wild plateau, covered with a (99. v.), and conveyed them to Boston, dense growth of dwarf trees and vines and for which he was thanked by Congress brambles, and sloping every way to cul- and received popular applause. But the tivated fields. It is along the south bank President finally disapproved his act, as of the Rapidan River, about 10 miles in a stroke of state policy. In 1862 he comwidth and 15 in length.

manded the flotilla on the James River, Wildes, FRANK, naval officer; born in with the rank of commodore; and afterBoston, Mass., June 17, 1843; graduated wards in command of a squadron in the at the United States Naval Academy in West Indies, captured many blockade-run1863, and assigned to the steam-sloop ners. He was retired in 1864 and proLackawanna, in the West Gulf blockad- moted rear-admiral in 1866. He died in ing squadron; participated in the battle Washington, D. C., Feb. 8, 1877. His pubof Mobile Bay, and aided in the capture of lications include a Narrative of his exFort Morgan; served the monitor ploring expedition, and Western America, Chickasaw during the actions in Mobile including California and Oregon. Bay in March and April, 1865; promoted Wilkes, GEORGE, journalist; born in master in 1866; commander in 1880; and New York City in 1820; became co-editor captain in 1894. He commanded the pro- of the Spirit of the Times in New York, tected cruiser Boston in the battle of Ma- and afterwards its proprietor; and renila Bay on May 1, 1898; was appointed ceived the grand cross of the Order of St. captain of the United States navy-yard in Stanislas from the Russian Emperor in Brooklyn, N. Y., April 1, 1899; and was 1870 for suggesting an overland railroad promoted rear-admiral, Oct. 14, 1901. to China. His publications include His

Wiley, CALVIN HENDERSON, clergyman; tory of California, Geographical and Poborn in Guilford county, N. C., Feb. 3, litical, and Europe in a Hurry. He died 1819; graduated at the University of in New York City, Sept. 23, 1885. North Carolina in 1840; was admitted Wilkes, John, politician; born in Lonto the bar; later engaged in teaching; and don, England, Oct. 17, 1727. He became in 1855 was licensed to preach in the a member of Parliament in 1757. In 1763 Presbyterian Church, and labored in east- he made a severe attack on the governern Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina. He was the author of Utopia: a Picture of Early Life at the South; Life in the South, a Companion to Uncle Tom's Cabin; Scriptural Views of National Trials; Roanoke: or Where is Utopia? etc. He died in Winston, N. C., Jan. 11, 1887.

Wilkes, CHARLES, naval officer; born in New York City, April 3, 1798; nephew of John Wilkes, he em English politician; entered the navy in 1818. In 1830 he was appointed to the department of charts and instruments.

He was appointed commander of a squadron of five vessels that sailed from Norfolk, Va., Aug. 18, 1838, on an exploring expedition, and





ment in his newspaper (the North Briton, nial legislature in 1772. He supported No. 45), for which he was sent to the England prior to the Revolutionary War, Tower (see NINETY-TWO AND FORTY-FIVE). and owing to some political pamphlets On account of a licentious essay on wom- which he wrote was forced by the Sons of an, he was afterwards expelled from the Liberty to flee from the country in 1775. House of Commons. After his release from At the conclusion of the war he settied the Tower, he went to Paris, and, return- on Long Island, and afterwards studied ing in 1768, sent a letter of submis- theology, and was ordained in the Protsion to the King, and was soon afterwards estant Episcopal Church in 1801. He died elected to Parliament for Middlesex; in Westchester, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1830. but his seat was successfully contest- Wilkins, MARY ELEANOR, author; born ed and he was elected alderman of Lon- in Randolph, Mass., in 1862; educated at don. The same year he obtained a verdict Mount Holyoke Seminary. Her works, of $20,000 against the secretary of state largely studies of New England life, infor seizing his papers. In 1771 he was clude The Adrentures of Ann; A New sheriff of London, and in 1774 lord mayor. England Yun; A Humble Romance; In 1779 he was made chamberlain, and Young Lucretia; The Portion of Labor; soon afterwards retired from political life. Jerome; Pembroke, etc. She has also conWilkes was always the champion of the tributed many short stories and poems to colonists, and was regarded as the de- magazines. fender of popular rights. He died in Lon- Wilkins, William, statesman; born in don, Dec. 20, 1797.

Carlisle, Pa., Dec. 20, 1779; admitted to Wilkie, FRANCIS BANGS, journalist; the bar in Pittsburg, Pa., where he pracborn in West Charleston, N. Y., in 1832; tised for many years; was president-judge graduated at Union College in 1857; re- of the 5th Pennsylvania judicial district moved to Davenport, Ia., where he en- in 1820-24, when he was made judge of gaged in journalism in 1859. He was con- the United States district court for westnected with the Herald in Dubuque till ern Pennsylvania ; elected United States the Civil War began, and then went South Senator in 1831; reported the bill which as a war correspondent. He established was adopted by Congress giving the Presand published for a short time Our Whole ident power to employ the army against Nation, in Macon City, Mo., when he be- the nullification movement (see JACKSON, came war correspondent of the New York ANDREW). In 1833 the Pennsylvania Times, and served as such for four years. electoral vote was cast for him for ViceHe wrote for the Chicago Times for sev. President; in 1834 he was made minister enteen years under the name of POLINTO; to Russia; and on Jan. 19, 1844, Secretary was the organizer and first president of of War. He died in Homewood, Pa., June the Chicago Press Club; and author of 23, 1865. History of Davenport; Walks about Chi- Wilkinson, JAMES, military officer ; cago; The History of Great Inventions, born in Benedict, Md., in 1757; was preetc. He died in Chicago, Ill., April 12, paring for the medical profession when 1892.

the Revolutionary War broke out. He Wilkie, John Elbert, detective; born repaired to Cambridge after the battle of in Elgin, Ill., April 27, 1860; was engaged Bunker (Breed's) Hill, where he was in newspaper work in Chicago in 1877– made a captain in Reed's New Hampshire 93 and in 1896–98, and in the latter year regiment in the spring of 1776. He served was appointed chief of the United States under Arnold in the Northern army, and secret service. When it became certain in July, 1776, was appointed brigadethat there would be war with Spain he major. He was at the battles of Trenton organized a special emergency force, which and Princeton, and was made lieutenantarrested the principal Spanish spies in the colonel in January, 1777. He was Gates's United States.

adjutant-general, and bore to Congress an Wilkins, ISAAC, clergyman; born in account of the capture of Burgoyne, when Withywood, Jamaica, W. I., Dec. 17, 1742; he was brevetted brigadier-general and graduated at Columbia College in 1760; made secretary to the board of war, of became a member of the New York colo- which Gates was president. Being im

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