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slavery. We must lift ourselves at once nant. Like Apollyon in Pilgrim's Progto the true Christian altitude where all ress, it “ straddled over the whole breadth distinctions of black and white are over- of the way." Church and State, press looked in the heartfelt recognition of the and pulpit, business interests, literature, brotherhood of man.

and fashion were prostrate at its feet. I must not close this letter without con- Our convention, with few exceptions, was fessing that I cannot be sufficiently thank- composed of men without influence or ful to the Divine Providence which, in a position, poor and little known, strong great measure through thy instrumental- only in their convictions and faith in the ity, turned me away so early from what justice of their cause. To on-lookers our Roger Williams calls “the world's great endeavor to undo the evil work of two centrinity-pleasure, profit, and honor,” to turies and convert a nation to the “great take side with the poor and oppressed. renunciation " involved in emancipation I am not insensible to literary reputation. must have seemed absurd in the last I love, perhaps too well, the praise and degree. Our voices in such an atmosphere good-will of my fellow-men; but I set found no echo. We could look for no a higher value on my name as appended response but laughs of derision or the to the anti - slavery declaration of 1833 missiles of a mob. than on the title-page of any book. Look- But we felt that we had the strength ing over a life marked by many errors of truth on our side; we were right, and and shortcomings, I rejoice that I have all the world about us was wrong. We been able to maintain the pledge of that had faith, hope, and enthusiasm, and did signature, and that, in the long interven- our work, nothing doubting, amidst a gening years,

eration who first despised and then feared

and hated us. For myself I have never “ My voice, though not the loudest, has been ceased to be grateful to the Divine Provi

heard Wherever Freedom raised her cry of pain.” dence for the privilege of taking a part

in that work. Let me, through thee, extend a warm And now for more than twenty years greeting to the friends, whether of our we have had a free country. No slave own or the new generation, who may as- treads its soil. The anticipated dangersemble on the occasion of commemora- ous consequences of complete emancipation. There is work yet to be done which tion have not been felt. The emancipated will task the best efforts of us all. For class, as a whole, have done wisely and thyself, I need not say that the love and well under circumstances of peculiar difesteem of early boyhood have lost nothing ficulty. The masters have learned that by the test of time; and

cotton can be raised better by free than I am, very cordially, thy friend, by slave labor, and nobody now wishes JOHN G. WHITTIER. a return to slave-holding. Sectional prej

udices are subsiding, the bitterness of the Anti-slavery Anniversary.—Read at the

Civil War is slowly passing away. We semi-centennial celebration of the American Anti-slavery Society at Philadelphia people, with no really clashing interests,

are beginning to feel that we are one

, on Dec. 3, 1883:

and none more truly rejoice in the growOAK KNOLL, DANVERS, Mass., ing prosperity of the South than the

Nov. 30, 1883. old abolitionists, who hated slavery as a I need not say how gladly I would be curse to the master as well as to the with you at the semi-centennial of the slave. American Anti-slavery Society. I am, I In view of this commemorative semiregret to say, quite unable to gratify this centennial occasion, many thoughts crowd wish, and can only represent myself by a upon me; memory recalls vanished faces letter.

and voices long hushed. Of those who Looking back over the long years of half acted with me in the convention fifty years a century, I can scarcely realize the con- ago nearly all have passed into another ditions under which the convention of state of being. We who remain must soon 1833 assembled. Slavery was predomi- follow; we have seen the fulfilment of our


desire; we have outlived scorn and per- Senator in 1857–58 and 1859–60; United
secution; the lengthening shadows invite States Senator from Jan. 4, 1860, till
us to rest. If, in looking back, we feel his formal expulsion, July 11, 1861.
that we sometimes erred through impa- Commenting on Mr. Lincoln's inaugural
tient zeal in our contest with a great address, Senator Wigfall said: “It is easy
wrong, we have the satisfaction of know- to talk about enforcing the laws and hold.
ing that we were influenced by no merely ing, occupying, and possessing the forts.
selfish considerations. The low light of When you come to do this, bayonets, and
our setting sun shines over a free, unit- not words, must settle the question. ..
ed people, and our last prayer shall be Fort Pickens and the administration will
for their peace, prosperity, and happi- soon be forced to construe the inaugural.

. The Confederate States will not leave Whittlesey, Charles, geologist; born Fort Sumter in possession of the Federal in Southington, Conn., Oct. 4, 1808, and government. . . . Seven States have formwent to Tallmadge, O., in 1813; gradu- ed a confederation, and to tell them, as the ated at West Point in 1831; resigned the President has done, that the acts of senext year, and became a lawyer. After- cession are no more than blank paper is wards he engaged in journalism, and in an insult. ... There is no Union left. ... geological and mineralogical surveys of The seceded States will not live under Ohio at different periods from 1837 to this administration. Withdraw

your 1860. He became assistant quartermaster- troops. Make no attempt to collect tribgeneral of Ohio in 1861; engaged in the ute, and enter into a treaty with those campaign in western Virginia in the sum- States. Do this and you will have peace. mer of that year; and became colonel of Send your flag of thirty-four stars thither the 20th Ohio Volunteers. He was at the and it will be fired into, and war will siege of Fort Donelson, and in the battle ensue. Divide the public property; make of Shiloh commanded a brigade in Gen. a fair assessment of the public debt; or Lew. Wallace's division, rendering impor- will you sit stupidly and idly till there tant service. He resigned a few days shall be a conflict of arms because you after this event, and was afterwards en: cannot compromise with traitors ? Let gaged in geological exploration. He is the the remaining States reform their governauthor of several biographical, historical, ment, and, if it is acceptable, the Confedand scientific works; and was one of the eracy will enter into a treaty of commerce founders and the president of the West- and amity with them. If you want peace, ern Reserve Historical Society, at Cleve. you shall have it; if you want war, you land. He died in Cleveland, O., Oct. 18, shall have it. . . No compromise or 1886.

amendment to the Constitution, no Wickes, LAMBERT, naval officer; born rangement you may enter into, will satisin New England, presumably in 1735; fy the South, unless you recognize slaves joined the navy Dec. 22, 1775; command- as property and protect it as any other ed the brig Reprisal in 1776, and in the species of property.” summer of that year captured the English Senator Wigfall, when he left the halls vessels Friendship, Shark, and Peter. He of legislation at Washington, hastened to next took Benjamin Franklin to France Charleston and became a volunteer on the while in command of the same vessel, and staff of General Beauregard. He was on before leaving French waters captured Morris Island when the bombardment of fourteen ships in five days. The Reprisal, Fort Sumter began, and on April 13 he with Wickes and all the crew excepting the went in a boat to Sumter, accompanied cook, was lost in a storm off Newfound- by one white man and two negroes. He land in 1778.

carried a white handkerchief on the point Wigfall, Louis TREZEVANT, legislator; of a sword as a flag of truce. Landing, he born in Edgefield district, S. C., April hastened to an embrasure and asked per. 21, 1816; took a partial course at the mission to enter. The soldiers would not College of South Carolina ; left to enter let him. “I am General Wigfall.” he said: the army for the Indian War in Florida : “ I wish to see Major Anderson.” “Wait was admitted to the bar; Texan State till I see the commander," said the soldier.

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" For God's sake, let me in!” cried Wig- they begged him to let it remain until fall; “I can't stand it out here in the they could see Beauregard. An arrangefiring." He ran to the sally-port, and ment for the evacuation was soon after was confronted by burning timbers. He made. After the war Wigfall resided for ran around the fort, waving his handker- several years in England, and in 1873 chief to induce his fellow-Confederates to settled in Baltimore. He died in Galvescease firing. But the missiles fell thick ton, Tex., Feb. 18, 1874. and fast, and he was permitted to crawl Wigger, WINAND MICHAEL, clergyinto an embrasure, after he had given man; born in New York, Dec. 8, 1841; up his sword to a private soldier. There graduated at St. Francis Xavier College he met some of the officers. Trembling in 1860; studied theology at Seton Hall with excitement, he said: “I am General Seminary, South Orange, N. J., in 1860Wigfall; I come from General Beauregard, 62; and Brignoli Sali Seminary, Geneva, who wants to stop this bloodshed. You 1862–65; ordained in the Roman Catholic are on fire, and your flag is down; let Church in 1865; and was assistant presius stop this firing.” One of the officers dent of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Newark, said, Our flag is not down.” And the N. J., in 1865–69; rector of St. Vincent's Senator saw it where Peter Hart had Roman Catholic Church, in Madison, N. J., planted it. He tried to get the officers in 1869–73; of St. John's, in Orange, N. J., to display his handkerchief above the in 1874–76; and again at St. Vincent's till fort or out of the embrasure; but all re- 1881, when he was consecrated bishop of fusing, he said, “May I hold it, then ?” Newark. He died in South Orange, N. J., One of them coolly replied, “If you wish Jan. 5, 1901. to.” Wigfall sprang into the embrasure Wigginton, PETER DINWIDDIE, lawyer; and waved the white flag several times. born in Springfield, Ili., Sept. 6, 1839; Frightened away by shots, he said to one educated at the University of Wisconsin, of the officers, “If you will wave this and was admitted to the bar in 1860. from the ramparts they will cease firing.” Shortly afterwards he removed to Cali“ It shall be done,” was the reply, if you fornia, where he was elected district atrequest it for the purpose, and that alone, torney of Merced county in 1864; and of holding a conference with Major An- to Congress in 1875 and 1877. While in derson.”

Congress he introduced a bill forbidding They met. Wigfall said he came from fraudulent land surveys in California. In General Beauregard, who wished to stop 1884 he was the candidate of the American the fighting. “Upon what terms will you party for President of the United States. evacuate the fort ?” “ General Beaure- Wigglesworth, EDWARD, military offigard knows the terms upon which I will cer; born in Ipswich, Mass., Jan. 3, 1742; evacuate on the 15th. Instead of noon on graduated at Harvard College in 1761; the 15th, I will go now.” “I understand became colonel in the Continental army in you to say,” said Wigfall, eagerly, “that June, 1776; took part in the manœuvres you will evacuate the fort now, sir, upon of the American squadron on Lake Chamthe same terms.” Anderson answered in plain; and was present in the battle of the affirmative. Then,” said Wigfall. Monmouth and other actions. In 1778 inquiringly, “ the fort is to be ours?” he was president of a court of inquiry to “ Yes, sir." “ Then I will return to examine into the capitulation of Forts Beauregard,” said Wigfall, and he de- Montgomery and Clinton; in 1779 he reparted. Believing Wigfall's story, Ander- signed, and was made collector of the port son allowed a white flag to be raised over of Newburyport. He died in Newburythe fort. Soon afterwards several gen- port, Mass., Dec. 8, 1826. tlemen (one of them directly from Beau- Wigglesworth, MICHAEL, clergyman; regard at Fort Moultrie) came to Sum- born in England, Oct. 18, 1631; came to ter, and, when they were informed of the United States with his father in Wigfalls visit, assured Major Anderson 1638; graduated at Harvard College in that Wigfall had not seen Beauregard in 1651; became a tutor there; studied both two days. The indignant Anderson was theology and medicine; and was minister about to haul down the white flag, when in Malden, Mass., from 1656 till his death,


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June 10, 1705. He wrote God's Contro. Wilcox, MARRION, author; born in versy with New England, etc.

Augusta, Ga., April 3, 1858; graduated Wigwam, an Indian dwelling; con- at Yale University 1878; studied law structed of a bundle of poles fastened to. and was admitted to the bar; spent five gether at the top and placed in a cone. years in Europe; engaged in newspaper like position. These poles are then covered work in New York City in 1893. He is with the bark of trees or the skins of ani- the author of A Short History of the War

with Spain; one of the editors of Har-
per's History of the War in the Philip-
pines, etc.; and the magazine articles The
Filipinos' Vain Hope of Independence;
Our Treaty with the Sultan of Sulu;
The Heart of Our Philippine Problem;
Filipino Churches and American Soldiers,

Wilcox, REYNOLD WEBB, physician;
born in Madison, Conn., March 29, 1856; -
graduated at Yale University in 1878;
studied medicine in Europe; became a
member of the societies of Colonial Wars,
Sons of the Revolution, War of 18.2,
Military Order of the Loyal Legion, Sons
of Veterans, U'. S. A., and various medi-
cal organizations. His publications in-

clude Descendants of William Wilcorson, nials. In the winter a fire is built in the l'incent Meigs, and Richard Webb; Madicentre, and the inmates sleep at night son: Her Soldiers; and several medical with their feet towards it.

The smoke works. escapes through the top. In migrations Wild-cat Banks. See BANKS, WILDthe wigwam is carried along.

Wilcox, Cadmus MARCELLUS, military Wilde, GEORGE FRANCIS Faxon, naval officer; born in Wayne county, N. C., May officer; born in Braintree, Mass., Feb. 23, 29, 1826; graduated at the United States 1845; graduated at the United States NaMilitary Academy and commissioned sec. val Academy in 1864; was promoted comond lieutenant of infantry in 1846; served mander in 1885 and captain in 1898. In in the war with Mexico; in the Confed- the American-Spanish War he commanded erate service during the Civil War; took the ram Katahdin in Cuban waters; afpart in the second battle of Bull Run, terwards was assigned to command the and in those of Fredericksburg, Chancel. cruiser Boston ; landed the first marines lorsville, Salem Heights, and Gettysburg; ever disembarked in China and forwarded promoted major-general in 1863; and had them to Peking, where they guarded the command of a division in the Mine Run American legation from November, 1898, campaign. He was author of Rifles and till April, 1899; was ordered to the Phil. Rifle Practice, and History of the Mexican ippines, where he captured the city of War. He died in Washington, D. C., Iloilo, Feb. 11, 1899, and Vigan, Feb. 18, Dec. 2, 1890.

1900; and commanded the battle-ship OreWilcox, DELOS FRANKLIN, author; gon from May 29, 1899, till Jan. 16, 1901. born in Ida, Mich., April 22, 1873; grad. He introduced gas buoys on the Great uated at the University of Michigan in Lakes, the telephone to light vessels from 1894. His publications include The Study shore, and the electric light vessel off of City Government; and the magazine Diamond Shoal, Cape Hatteras. While articles Municipal Government in Mich- hastening the Oregon from Manila to Chiigan and Ohio; Studies in History; Party nese waters during the Boxer troubles his Government in the Cities of New York vessel struck an uncharted ledge in the State; and The American Newspaper: a Gulf of Pechili, and was considerably inStudy in Social Psychology.

jured; but he worked her off the rock



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and took her to a Japanese port 765 Ewell; but, being continually reinforced, miles distant.

the Confederates soon defeated the NaWilderness, BATTLE OF THE. At mid- tionals. It was now past noon. Grant night on May 3, 1864, the Army of the was satisfied that Lee's troops were near Potomac, fully 100,000 strong, fresh and in full force. The country was so covered hopeful, and with an immense army-train, with shrub-oaks, bushes, and tangled began its march towards Richmond. The vines that no observations could be made right was composed of the corps of War- at any great distance. Grant ordered up ren and Sedgwick, and the left of that of Sedgwick’s corps to the support of WarHancock. Warren's cavalry, preceded by ren; while Hancock, who was nearly 10 that of Wilson, crossed the Rapidan at miles away, on the road to the left, Germania Ford on the morning of the marched back to join Warren. Getty's 4th, followed by Sedgwick. The left, pre. division of Sedgwick's corps was posted ceded by Gregg's cavalry, and followed by at the junction of two roads, with orders the entire army-train of wagons, 4,000 in to hold the position at all hazards until number, crossed at Ely's Ford at the same the arrival of Hancock. The fighting, time. Burnside's 9th Corps, left behind where it was begun in the morning, conin anticipation of a possible move of Lee tinued fierce until 4 P.M., when both on Washington, crossed the Rapidan and armies fell back and intrenched within joined the army on the 5th, when the whole force had pushed on

Spottswood into the region known as “ The Wilderness," beyond Chancellorsville, and well on the right flank of the Confederate army lying behind strong intrenchments on Mine Run. The whole force of the National army was now about 130,000 men, of whom a little more than 100,000 were available for battle. When Lee discoyered this movement he pushed forward nearly his whole army to strike the flanks of the Nationals on their march. This movement failed.

On the 5th, Warren, who was followed by Sedgwick, sent the divisions of Griffin and Crawford to make observations. The former was struck by Ewell's corps, and the latter by Hill's a little later. The march was suspended. Crawford was 200 yards of each other. Getty held his withdrawn, and Griffin, reinforced by ground against severe pressure by Hill Wadsworth's division, with Robinson's in until Hancock's advance reached him at support, soon defeated the advance of three o'clock. He then made an aggres





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