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to him in after-life. At the age of nineteen young Washington was appointed an adjutant-general of the militia of a district, with the rank of major, but soon afterwards resigned to accompany his invalid half-brother, Lawrence, to Barbadoes, where George had the small-pox. His brother

afterwards died, and by his will George became heir to the fine estate of Mount Vernon. In 1753 he

MONCMENT MARKING WASHINGTON'S BIRTHPLACE. sent on a delicate mission, by the governor of Virginia, to directed the retreat of the vanquished the commander of the French forces mak troops with great skill. At the age of ing encroachments on the English domain, twenty-seven he married the young widow and performed the duties with great credit, Custis (see WASHINGTON, MARTHA), and for which he was thanked by the Virginia they took up their abode at Mount Vernon, legislature. So highly were his character where he pursued the business of a farmer and services valued, that when, in 1755, until 1774, when he was chosen to a seat



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General Braddock came to make war on in the Virginia legislature. He was also the French, Washington was chosen his chosen a delegate to the first Continental principal aide-de-camp. After the defeat Congress, and was a delegate the following of Braddock (see BRADDOCK, EDWARD), he year, when, in June, he was appointed


commander-in-chief of the Continental financial embarrassments and an imperfect armies. For eight years Washington direct system of government, Washington was ed the feeble armies of the revolted colo- still regarded as the public leader; and

when the conven

tion that formed Son so

fami stitution assembled

at Philadelphia, in 1787, he was there,

delegate from Virginia, and was


that body.

When, under that nies in their struggle for independence. Constitution, a President of the republic At the return of peace he surrendered his was to be chosen, all eyes were turned commission into the hands of Congress, towards him as the fittest man for the who gave it to him, and retired to private life at Mount Vernon, at the close of 1783.

During all the national perplexities after the return of peace, incident to

George Washingkn dan kekugustinef may this hof war termes a lonel y Bay Belmary 14, about to in the morning & wassaptions the or fattowing the "Riotay dhiaingy lap! Christophe Bocho gostahero and Mos Mildred Gregory Famo then






place, and he was elected by the unanimous voice of the people. He presided over the affairs of the new nation eight years with great wisdom and fidelity, and with great skill and sagacity assisted in laying the permanent foundations of the republic.

Ilis administration embraced the most critical and eventful portion of our his




* There

several different portraits whom was Gilbert Stuart. Stuart painted of Washington painted from life. The first three portraits from life. The first one he ever made was painted by Charles Wilson rubbed out, not being satisfied with it, and Peale, and is a three-quarter length, repre- the last one, the head only finished, is the senting Washington in the costume of a Vir- property of the Boston Atheneum. This is ginia colonel--a blue coat faced with red, the head most often seen, and has been acbright metal buttons, having the number of cepted the standard portrait of the his regiment (22d Militia) cast upon them, patriot; yet Stuart himself regarded his own and dark-red waistcoat and breeches. Peale portrait, as a likeness, inferior to that of the painted fourteen portraits of Washington at statue by Houdon, in the capitol at Richdifferent times, half-lengths and full-lengths, mond. The latter is, undoubtedly, the best the last in the fall of 1795, which is in the likeness of Washington ever made, and should gallery of the New York Historical Society. be regarded as the standard portrait. It canOther artists had sittings by Washington, not be otherwise, for it is from a plaster-cast. and produced portraits of various degrees of from the living face, and a model of the rest merit, the most famous and best-known of of the bust, both made by the sculptor himself.

tory before the Civil War. A new govern- and good man. Suddenly, on Dec. 14, ment had to be organized, without any 1799, the nation was called upon to mourn model to follow, and to guide the ship of his death, after an illness of about twentystate through dangerous seas required a four hours. His last words were, “ It is loftiness of character in the pilot and well.” The mother of Washington, Mary commander seldom found, but Washington Ball, was the daughter of Col. W. Ball, to was equal to the requirements of his posi• whom his father was married in March, tion, and he retired from public life with- 1730. George was their first-born of six out the least stain of merited reproach children. With these she was left a upon his intentions or his judgment. In widow when her eldest child was little the enjoyment of domestic happiness at more than ten years of age. In the latter Mount Vernon, for about three years, he years of her life she lived in Frederickswas regarded more and more as the great burg, in a modest house, on the northwest

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corner of Charles and Lewis streets. There Washington's Addresses to the Churches. she died, and was buried a short distance –Washington's addresses to the Amerfrom Fredericksburg, near a ledge of ican churches, in reply to their conrocks, to which she often resorted for gratulations upon his election to the meditation, and which she had selected as Presidency, constitute one of the most

interesting divisions of his writings, and illustrate one of the noblest and most salutary features of his life and influence. The governors and legislatures of many of the States, the mayors and aldermen of leading cities, the presidents and trustees of colleges, and the representatives of organizations of various character sent formal addresses to him, expressing

their satisfaction in his inauguration, and ***

his replies to all were full of dignity and wisdom; but his replies to the churches, which, as they met in general convention or otherwise during the months succeeding his election, successively addressed him, are especially memorable for their revelations of his broad spirit of toleration and sympathy and their inculcation of the duty of fraternity and mutual respect which should always govern the

various religious bodies living together in * * *

the free republic.

It has been well said that all lines of our national policy seem to lead back to Washington as all roads lead to Rome.

If party spirit becomes extravagant and Sola!

dangerous, we turn to him for the best words with which to rebuke it. If reck

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* Soon after Washington's birth, the family

moved to an estate in Stafford county. The her burial-place years before her death. plain farm-house in which they lived overOver the grave stands an unfinished

looked the Rappabannock River. There Wasii

ington's father died, when the former was monument of white marble. See WASH- about ten years of age, leaving a plantation INGTONIANA.

to each of his sons.

less politicians would postpone the public plementing the addresses printed in the peace and embroil the nation for their leaflet. To Lafayette Washington wrote, own selfish purposes, his word and great Aug. 15, 1787, alluding to the proceedings example are their shame and the people’s of the Assembly of Notables: “I am not refuge; and, whenever bigotry and intol- Jess ardent in my wish that you may erance raise their heads, and men would succeed in your plan of toleration in restir up the animosity of one part of the people against another in the name of religion, Washington's addresses to the churches will still be appealed to by good citizens. Such will remember how he wrote to the Lutheran, the Presbyterian, the Methodist, the Baptist, the Episcopalian, the Quaker, the Universalist, the Swedenborgian, the Roman Catholic, and the Jew, reminding all of their common duties as citizens, and assuring all of the common protection of the national government, which knows no differences of creeds, but holds all creeds alike before the law. The student is referred to the valuable

WASHINGTON'S SEAL (From a letter to Bouquet, 1758). essay on Washington's Religious Opinions, in Sparks's edition of Washington's ligious matters. Being no bigot myself, Writings, vol. xii., appendix, p. 399. Two 1 am disposed to indulge the professors of expressions of Washington, quoted in this Christianity in the church with that road essay, should be given here as well sup- to heaven which to them shall seem the

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