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Pennsylvania sent the first troops to the national capital. New York was equally capital for its defence. Massachusetts was prompt and patriotic, and its troops soon equally ready and determined, and some of pressed forward to Washington. New her troops reached the capital on the day Jersey was equally aroused. Governor after the arrival of the Pennsylvanians. Olden, inspired by the enthusiastic loyalty Some troops were sent by Massachusetts of his people, issued a call for his State's (April 17, 1861) to Fortress Monroe, in quota two days after the President's Virginia, then in imminent danger of proclamation. The Trenton banks tendered seizure; and thirteen companies, under a loan to the State, and the authorities of. General Butler, started for the city of Newark appropriated $100,000 for the Washington. Rhode Island, through which maintenance of families of volunteers, these troops passed, was in a blaze of ex- and $15,000 for the equipment of the citement. Governor Sprague had promptly soldiers. On the 30th the legislature met tendered to the government the services of and appointed Theodore Runyon com1,000 infantry and a battalion of artillery; mander of the New Jersey forces; and and the legislature, assembling on April then the movement towards Washington 17, promptly provided for the State's quota began. Pennsylvania, under the guidance and appropriated $500,000 for war pur- of her energetic governor (Curtin), had poses. The banks offered adequate loans appropriated (April 12) $500,000 for armto the State; and within a few days ing and equipping the militia of the State; Rhode Island troops were on their way and when news of the attack on Fort towards Washington—Colonel Tompkins's Sumter reached Philadelphia the exciteRhode Island Marine Artillery, with eight ment of the people was intense. The guns, and the 1st Regiment of Infantry, President's call for troops increased the 1,200 strong, under Colonel Burnside. enthusiasm, and before the legislature Governor Sprague accompanied these met in extra session, April 30, thousands troops as commander-in-chief. Connecti- of Pennsylvanians were enrolled in the cut was equally excited. The patriotic Union army, and hundreds of them were in Governor Buckingham issued a proclama- the city of Washington. The legislature tion, on the very day of the President's authorized a loan of $3,000,000 for war call, urging the citizens of his State to purposes. The States of the West and volunteer their services in support of the Northwest were equally enthusiastic, and government. So warm was the response within a few days after the President's of the banks and the people that, in a call thousands of volunteers were on the message to the legislature on May 1, the way to Washington. governor averred that forty-one volunteer Immediately after the battle at Bull regiments had already been accepted, and Run energetic measures were taken to that a part of these were already in the place defences around the city of Wash



ington that should make it absolutely external foes. See ON WASHINGsecure from attack. Gen. George B. TON!” McClellan had been called to the chief Washington, Fort, CAPTURE OF. On command of the forces at and near Wash- the day of the battle of White Plains in ington. With the assistance of Majors 1776, General Knyphausen, with six GerBarry and Barnard he projected a series man regiments, crossed the Harlem River of fortifications at prominent elevated and encamped on the flat below Fort points, and the two officers named were Washington and King's Bridge. That detailed to construct them. Not an fort was a strong work, supported by outeminence near the capital was long with. lying redoubts. It was on the highest out a fortification upon it. So vigorous- point of land on Manhattan Island. ly was the enterprise prosecuted that in When Washington heard of the peril that the course of a few months not less than menaced it, he advised General Greene, fifty-two of these military works were in whose charge both it and Fort Lee, on

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the top of the palisades on the west

side of the Hudson FT. OLENKER

River, had been left, to withdraw the garrison and stores, but left

the matter to that offiTE WORT ALEXAN

cer's discretion. When he arrived there (Nov. 15) he was disappointed in not finding his wishes gratified. Greene desired to hold the fort as a pro

tection to the river; the completed. At no time afterwards dur. Congress had ordered it to be held till ing the war did the Confederates ever the last extremity, and Col. Robert seriously attempt to assail them. At no Magaw, its commander, said he could time was the capital in danger from hold out against the whole British army X.MK


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until December. Washington was not militia from Mercer's Flying Camp, under
satisfied of its safety, but yielded his Colonel Baxter. The lines towards New
judgment, and returned to Hackensack. York were defended by Pennsylvanians,
There, at sunset, he received a copy of a commanded by Col. Lambert Cadwalader.
bold reply which Magaw had made to a Magaw commanded in the fort. Raw-
summons to surrender sent by Howe, ac- lings and Baxter occupied redoubts on
companied by a threat to put the garri. heavily wooded hills. By a simultaneous
son to the sword in case of a refusal. attack at all points, the battle was very
Magaw had protested against the savage severe outside of the fort. The British
menace, and refused compliance. Wash- and German assailants pressed hard upon
ington went immediately to Fort Lee. the fort, and both Howe and Knyp-
Greene had crossed over to the island. hausen made a peremptory demand for its
Starting across the river in a small boat, surrender.
Washington met Greene and Putnam re- Resistance to pike, ball, and bayonet,
turning; and being informed that the gar- wielded by 5,000 veterans, was in vain,
rison were in fine spirits, and could defend and Magaw yielded. At half-past one
themselves, he went back to Fort Lee. o'clock (Nov. 17) the British flag waved

Early on the morning of the 16th Howe in triumph over Fort Washington. The opened a

cannonade from the Americans lost in killed and wounded heights on the Westchester shore. Under not more than 100 men, while the British its cover the attack was made in four lost almost 1,000. The garrison that surcolumns. Knyphausen, with his Ger- rendered, with militia, numbered about mans, moved up from the flats along the 2,500, of whom more than 2,000 were disrough hills nearest the Hudson. At the ciplined regulars. Washington, standing same time Lord Percy led a division of on the brow of the palisades at Fort Lee, English and German troops to attack the saw the surrender. The name of the forlines on the south. General Mathews, tification was changed to Fort Knypsupported by Lord Cornwallis, crossed the hausen. Its garrison

filled the Harlem near King's Bridge, with guards, prisons on land and water at New York. light infantry, and grenadiers; while Recent discoveries show that the fall Colonel Sterling, with Highlanders, cross- of Fort Washington was accomplished ed at a point a little above the present through the agency of treason. See EdHigh Bridge. The outworks of the fort ward F. Delancey's paper on Fort Washwere defended on the north by Colonel ington, read before and published by the Rawlings, with Maryland riflemen and New York Historical Society in 1878.


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WASHINGTON, GEORGE Washington, GEORGE, “Father of His truth, integrity, and justice, was built the Country"; born on Pope's Creek, Westo structure of his greatness. He was al. inoreland co., Va., Feb. 22, 1732; was ways beloved by his young companions, descended from an old and titled English and was invariably chosen the leader in family; and was the eldest child of his their military plays. father's second wife, Mary Ball. His He had a desire, at the age of fourteen father died when George was a small child, years, to become a seaman, but was disand the task of the education and guid- suaded from embarking by his mother. ance of the future leader through the When he was seventeen years of age he dangers of youthhood devolved upon his had become one of the most accurate land mother. So judicious was her training surveyors in Virginia. He was appointthat Washington, through life, remember- ed public surveyor at the age of eighteen. ed her affectionate care with profound In pursuit of his profession, he learned gratitude. He received a common English much of wood-craft and the topography education, and upon that foundation his of the country; also of the habits of the naturally thoughtful and right-condition- Indians in the camp and on the war-path. ed mind, with the cardinal virtues of Thesc were useful lessons, of great value

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