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No leases had been given out for cutting timber in the forests. Anyone had the right to cut either timber or firewood in the “ khas " forests, the prescribed duty being paid at the customs station where it was exported. The price of firewood was 2-3 annas a “maund.” The Borak River and its numerous tributaries were used to float down the rafts. The Borak itself flowed through the southern forests and much timber was floated down it, both from Manipur on its right bank and Cachar on its left.

The chief timber markets were at Soonai Mook, Burkhola, Bundookmara and Sealtekh. The following statement (p. 404) of the prices in force in 1863 in these markets for the various timbers in different size classes is of interest, since it proves that the fellings in the forest were being carried out without any respect to a girth limit. Stewart concluded his valuable Report by stating that

jhum 'cultivation is in full sway, and is the greatest enemy of the timber. Tea cultivation has also cleared much of the forest."

It will have become obvious, from the foregoing description of the position of the forests in Bengal, that the officers of the civil administration, with a few exceptions, were not as alive to the necessity of introducing Forest Conservancy into the Province as had become the case in other parts of India.

There is a curious lack of any mention of the forests of Chittagong District, the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Lushai Hills. This is probably attributable to the same cause which confines the description of the Assam Forests to Sylhet and Cachar. The great mass of the forests of the extensive tract of country comprising the Naga and Manipur jungles which stretch southwards through the rough forest-covered tableland of the Khasia and Garo Hills and still further south into the Lushai Hills, the Chittagong Hill Tracts and Chittagong District to the sea-board was at this time an unknown country peopled, with the exception of the Chittagong District, by wild aboriginal tribes.

A Memorandum dated 3rd February, 1867, written by Cleghorn whilst officiating Inspector-General of Forests during Brandis' absence on furlough in Europe, reviews the Forest Administration Report of the Lower Provinces, Bengal, for 1865-6. This was the second Progress Report of the Forest

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• Nagesar is valued more by Its length than girth. These native names are spelt so curiously that it has not proved possible to identify with

certainty all the species to which they refer.-E.P.S.

Department and was drawn up by Anderson, the Conservator. The operations were still confined to British Sikkim, where considerable progress had been made in several important branches of Forest Conservancy. But already proposals were being submitted to constitute four new forest divisions in the •Province-Bhutan, Assam, Chittagong and Cachar, and Behar.

During the year the Conservator, accompanied by his Assistant, Mann, had traversed the Terai from the Meech River on the Nepal frontier to the Tista River which forms the boundary of Bhutan. They roughly demarcated all the forest tracts which were considered worth reserving, erecting a number of triangular-shaped masonary pillars on the boundarylines, in some cases cutting paths along the line. In the hill territory of Darjiling, all forests above 6000 feet had been reserved, as also the sâl and “sissu tracts in the Terai which ascended into the hills to about 3000 feet. The remainder of the Terai Forests had been made available for sale or lease through the Deputy Commissioner of Darjiling-presumably as arable land or for the formation of tea gardens which have since covered no inconsiderable area of this country.

Cleghorn's Memorandum on the Report is of such interest, showing the good commencement which had been made by Anderson in a comparatively short space of time, that it is reproduced here :

Reserves. The forest of Goom Pahar has been reserved for the local wants of Darjiling, and is managed entirely by the municipality. The remaining forests in the ceded territory have been placed exclusively under the charge of the Forest Department.

Plantations.-A nursery of temperate trees was formed at Jella pahar, in which a large number of the indigenous pines, oaks and chestnuts were raised, and also the Eucalyptus globulus of Australia. At Rungbee, where the cinchona plantations are formed, and the climate is more tropical, seeds of other timber trees (including Thuja cryptomeria (Cryptomeria japonica) and walnut, which last is in great demand) were sown in 1865, and the seedlings are to be transplanted this year. In the Terai a considerable number of mahogany trees were planted, partly raised from seed naturalised at the Calcutta Botanic Gardens, partly from seed imported from the West Indies. The progress of this arboricultural experiment has been so far successful, and warrants the expectation that this most valuable timber will attain useful dimensions in the Terai. The price of this wood at Calcutta is above Rs.3 per cubic foot.

Yield of the Forests, British Sikkim.-In the temperate forests near Darjiling the most valued timbers had become scarce, while in the vicinity of Sinchal and Jella pahar stations all trees were formerly felled for fuel without discrimination. Timber is now obtained from the Forest Officer on payment of fixed rates of seigniorage per tree; and nine kinds of timber are included in the reserved list :

First Class Reserved. - White magnolia (? Magnolia pterocarpa), Rs.10; Red magnolia (Magnolia Campbellii), Rs.8; Chestnut, Rs.10; Oak, Rs.8; Walnut, Rs.15.

Second Class Reserved.-Oak, Rs.6; Chilauni (Schima Wallichii), Rs.6; Cherry, Rs.4; Lali (Machilus Gammieana), Rs.4.

The preservation of the woods and the increasing demand for building materials have necessarily raised the price of timber, but the use of several trees hitherto neglected has been initiated, viz., at Darjiling, the wild cherry, the maple and a species of Phoebe, and in the Terai, Gmelina arborea and four species of Acacia. In the Terai, the more valuable trees are also sold at fixed rates.

First Class Reserved.–Sal (Shorea robusta), Rs.io; Urjun (Terminalia Arjuna), Rs.8; Blackwood (Dalbergia latifolia), Rs.12; Sissu (Dalbergia Sissoo), Rs.8; Chilauni (Schima Wallichii), Rs.10.

Second Class Reserved.-Seet (Acacia elata), Rs.5; Khair (Acacia Catechu), Rs.5; Amluki (Acacia stipulata), Rs.4; Guya, Rs.5; Babula (Acacia farnesiana), Rs.5; Semul (Bombax malabaricum), Rs.3; Bamboos per 1000, Rs.3; Gumbir (Gmelina arborea), Rs.5.

Forest Rules.-A code of rules for the better management and control of the forests of British Sikkim, framed in conformity with Act VII of 1865, was submitted by the Bengal Government, and received the confirmation of the Government of India (Gazette, 5th September, 1866).

Forest OperationsTemperate Forests.-A thousand sleepers were prepared of the oak, chestnut and magnolia trees. The Eastern Bengal Railway Company have agreed to take a consignment delivered at Goalundo at Rs.3 per sleeper. Samples of nine of the best descriptions of timber have been supplied to the agents of the East Indian Railway Company and Eastern Bengal Railway Company, including a considerable quantity of magnolia and chestnut, for trial in the con

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struction of railway carriages and wagons. Five 'maunds' of dog-wood (Cornus sp.) have been sent to the gunpowder factory at Ishapoor, for the manufacture of charcoal. A small depot is to be formed for storing the timber of the temperate forests.

Tropical Forests.-Five thousand sal sleepers were prepared by sawyers, and 100 first-class ‘sissu' trees were felled. In April, 1865, an attempt was made to raft down sål and chir' sleepers which had been prepared above the junction of the Great Rungeet and Tista Rivers (vide I, P. 516) The experiment failed, owing to the bad quality of the ropes employed in securing the sleepers to the bamboo rafts. Dr. Anderson recommends with confidence the use of strong cane (Calamus sp.) for binding the rafts upon the next occasion. A main depot has been formed at Silligoree, and a subsidiary depot at Sivok, for the timber to be floated down the Tista River. Sickness prevailed to a great extent amongst the working party in the Terai ; thirty-two natives died before the end of the season ; two European overseers were struck down by fever, of whom one died.

Financial Results.—The financial operations of the year show a deficit of Rs.13,416, thus :

Rs. Stock valued thus :Expenditure 28,915 1,000 sleepers,

Rs. Receipts

3,893

temperate woods,
at .

8 1,500 Cash deficit 25,022 7,865 sål, at

I 4 9,856 Deduct value of timber

200 chir, at

4 250 in store.

11,606
Total

11,606 Annual deficit

13,416 This refers only to Sikkim, to which the operations of the year have been confined. A proposal for treating as forest receipts in the Budget all grazing dues and sums realised from squatters and fisheries within the limits of reserved forests, was sanctioned in September, 1866.

Additional Forest Divisions.—It is proposed to add four new ranges or divisions as follows: Bhutan (officer appointed), Assam, Chittagong and Cachar, Behar.

A considerable amount of forest revenue was collected in these provinces in 1865–6, by Civil Officers, and the timber and forest produce will be brought under departmental control as soon as arrangements can be made for the purpose.

Bhutan.—The proposal to appoint an officer to the Duars

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