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of conservancy by withholding the means of efficient administration, and it is, as you say, very desirable to seize the opportunity of promoting systematic forest management in Native States."

It will be remembered that Mysore, though at the time under the management of the Government of India, was still regarded as a Native State which would ultimately be restored to its Chief.

As an outcome of the remarks made upon the formation of reserves in the Nundidroog Division already referred to, Van Someren, who had been confirmed as Conservator in 1868, wrote a special Report on the division in 1869, giving a clear account of the resources in respect of timber, bamboos and firewood of the three districts of the division, Kolar, Bangalore and Toomkur. This Report confirmed the expression of opinion of the Government of India on these forests that though poor in character they were of great value in this dry and comparatively barren part of the country, and therefore required to be carefully husbanded, the most promising forests being demarcated as State forests. The Government of India requested, therefore, that their previous suggestions with reference to these forests should be carried out. Brandis had advised the formation of village forests. The Chief Commissioner of Mysore did not consider this practicable ; he was therefore directed to include a larger area of jungle land within the limits of the State forests than would have otherwise been necessary.

The Conservator gave the following list of products existing in these forests :

"These are lac, 'dindiga' (Anogeissus latifolia), gum, gallnuts from the alale and géru (Terminalia chebula and Semicarpus anacardium), ‘koppila rung' (Mallotus philippinensis), scarce ; 'puplie' bark which produces a red die; the bark of the Acacia

a leucophlea, used for distilling arrack; bark of the Cassia auriculata, used in tanning; 'dupa' gum (Vateria indica), scarce; 'hoinge' (Bongamia glabra), pods from which oil is extracted; ‘hippe' (Bassia longifolia), from the seeds of which oil is made; the flowers do not appear to be used as in other parts of India, for making an intoxicating liquor ; 'bel' fruit (Ægle marmelos); wild castor oil, very abundant about Closepete and Chennapatna, and common all over the division ; wax and honey. The fibres of the Calotropis gigantea are sometimes used for

making string, which is used in snares, being very strong and standing wet well.

Lac is most abundant in the Bangalore and Toomkoor Districts; as soon as the more important plantations of fuel and sandal wood are fairly started, it would be, I think, a profitable thing to encourage the growth of the tree on which the insect lives. Meanwhile it has been placed on the reserved lists, and is fairly well protected.

The Forest Report for the year 1869-70 was prepared on the new lines laid down by Brandis, and is a most detailed and interesting document, dealing with the position of the Department in all its branches of work. In some of the most important, to wit plantations, sandal wood, teak and fuel, progress had not been made on any large scale. The Department do not appear to have realised the magnitude of the work which the Government of India wished them to undertake, and were still only thinking in acres when the former wished the work to proceed by hundreds of acres. In connection with the Conservator's complaint of lack of staff for the work, the Government of India replied that if an application was submitted and a good case made out they would be prepared to sanction such extra staff as was necessary.

The Conservator was able to report that fire had been kept out of two of the forest tracts in Nuggur and Ashtagramthe first successful attempt at fire protection in the Province. In connection with the district forests the Government of India expressed the wish that care should be exercised over these forests, and that no waste lands should be disposed of by the district officers without having previously consulted with the Conservator.

At the close of the period here reviewed Mysore had made considerable progress with the introduction of Forest Conservancy under the energetic guidance of Van Someren, assisted by Dobbs, his Deputy Conservator of Forests.

CHAPTER IV

THE PROGRESS OF FOREST CONSERVANCY IN THE BOMBAY

PRESIDENCY, INCLUDING SIND—1865-1870

T

HE progress of Forest Conservancy in Bombay was hampered to some extent, as in Madras, by the inability of the responsible senior Revenue officials

to recognise the great importance of the new administrative work in the interest of the people. And this disability affected many of the Collectors of Districts and made the introduction of conservancy work quite unnecessarily difficult; for the Indian officials took their cue from their British superiors. In effect it put back the work in some respects and in others caused it to develop on wrong lines. A case in point was the great extent of land covered with valuable timber made over to cultivation in the Belgaum collectorate! It will be remembered that the Secretary of

w State had asked to be given details on this transaction (Vol. I, P. 360).

The enquiry ordered resulted in proving that considerable losses had been experienced by the State owing to Settlement Officers disregarding the rules in force with reference to the presence of valuable species of timber on Government waste lands made over for cultivation. It becomes obvious from the correspondence that not only in Belgaum but elsewhere in the Presidency the Settlement Officers were still very far from appreciating the value of the forests, or realising the fact that valuable species of trees like teak and blackwood were regarded as Government royalties, the property in them being retained by the State, even though growing on lands let out for cultivation at the survey settlement. Considerable tracts had been given up for cultivation, the cultivator paying nothing to the State for the scattered timber trees on the land, which he subsequently sold at a good price. In other cases areas of real forest, containing such valuable trees as teak and blackwood, had been disposed of by Settlement Officers and Collectors rather than makə them over to the new Department, in direct opposition to existing orders. Realising that matters were in an unsatisfactory state the Revenue Commissioner, Northern Division, had issued a circular order on this subject in October, 1862. It was the neglect of the provisions of this order which had drawn a strong remonstrance from the Conservator of Forests, Dalzell, which resulted in the enquiry being instituted. It transpired that nominally no area containing trees of any kind on it should be disposed of by the Settlement Officer until the local Forest Officer had inspected it and expressed an opinion as to whether it should be retained as forest, if sufficiently valuable for the purpose. In many cases this procedure was carried out. But in numerous other instances the reverse was the case; and the irregularities in the procedure thus adopted were to give rise to great difficulties and trouble in years to come.

Complaints had been made in connection with the expense of demarcating the forests, especially with the work of erecting permanent pillars on the boundaries. With reference to the progress of this work and the methods on which it was being carried out a resolution of the Government of Bombay (R.D., No. 4345, dated Bombay Castle, 23rd November, 1866) affords information of considerable interest :

“ The progress made in the demarcation of the Imperial Forest Reserves in Tanna may, under the circumstances explained by Captain Lloyd, be viewed as satisfactory. Eightyseven thousand nine hundred and forty-two acres of forest, spread through five 'talooks,' have been marked off at an expense of Rs.2,575, from which it appears that the average cost of demarcation per acre, including the cost of supervision, is 5 annas 6 pies only. For the economy of this result the Government are indebted to the judicious arrangements of Captain Lloyd.

All cultivation in Sonderwadee, and on the slopes of Matheran, should be prohibited. Captain Lloyd should arrange for the removal of the ‘Thakoors ' now cultivating on these spots to the villages he indicates, or to other convenient localities. Their claims should be treated with the greatest consideration; and, if necessary, sufficient sums of money should be given to them to enable them to build new huts. All expenditure under this head should be defrayed by the Forest Department. Captain Lloyd, whose interesting Report shows

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he possesses remarkable aptitude for the duty, should be requested to personally superintend it next season.

The management of village reserves presents many difficulties. To leave them unprotected would, in the opinion of most authorities, be equivalent to abandoning them to speedy destruction. To keep them under regular surveillance is impossible, owing to the expense.

To ensure that the village reserves shall not be speedily denuded of all valuable timber, it would appear that one of two courses must be adopted. Either certain kinds of superior timber must remain the property of Government, or the law must prohibit, under penalties, the exportation, for sale, of timber grown in these reserves. Until the introduction of a Forest Act into this Presidency, the latter alternative is practically denied to Government. In the meantime the former may be experimentally adopted for one season in all the 'talooks.'

Major Francis' proposal to set apart tracts for 'gowlees,' in which they should be permitted to graze their cattle unmolested, is sanctioned ; and the officers engaged on demarcation should be desired to select the tracts.

The Warlees, Katkurees, and other hill tribes, are more difficult to deal with. Major Francis is in a position to offer much valuable information regarding them, and Government would wish to be favoured with any definite proposals he may wish to bring forward before passing orders on this point.

The difficulty anticipated by Captain Lloyd regarding the access to forest springs, which will be hindered by the closing of the Imperial reserves, will best be met as it arises in each case, It is impossible to lay down a rule which shall be universally applicable ; but it must be understood that no one should be prohibited from drawing water obtainable in a forest reserve in cases where it is not procurable elsewhere within a reasonable distance.

The Collector of Tanna has suggested that a broad path should be cleared between the marks which define the boundaries of the reserves, and considers that the sale of the wood would more than pay the expense of clearing every year. The Survey Commissioner and the Conservator of Forests should give practical effect to the suggestion."

The allusion to the difficulty of managing the village forests is of interest. It was to remain a problem for many years and

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