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an amendment in favor of war. He deprecated all like speech from his great rival, Thiers, M. Guizot “ balmy balderdash" about peace and that sort of suddenly remembered that France and he had all humbug. “ There is,” he said, “no opinion in along sympathized with the regeneration of Italy. Ireland, worth a farthing, which is not illegal.” M. Guizot, it is clear, has at last perceived, what The debaters could not agree, and adjourned their we ventured to assert months ago, that France discussion.-Spectator.

herself adheres to the Italian alliance, and that the

official government cannot safely array itself on the The Irish IN LIVERPOOL.-Since Monday side of Austria.—Spectator, 5 Feb. morning, one hundred and sixty-nine Irish offend

EMANCIPATION OF ITALY.-There have been ers have been brought before Mr. Rushton-an average exceeding forty per day! The borough stirring debates and most eloquent speeches in the gaol contains at this moment more than one thou- French chamber. The members of the liberal sand prisoners—five hundred being about the usual party seem to have awakened from a long trance, average—and the workhouse is so full that many during which jealousy to England absorbed their

thoughts and energy. shivering vagrants have been denied admittance.

Of a sudden this spell has Liverpool Mercury.

been dissolved. The Italians are struggling for their freedom, and Englishmen and Frenchmen,

both sympathizing with and eager to help them, Sicily has rebelled, by rebellion has regained see how efficacious their help would be, were the the constitution of 1812 or '21, has won a consti- countries united. What is the obstacle? Simply tution of some sort for Naples, and has thus con- M. Guizot having quarrelled with England about solidated Italian Italy in a general bond of freedom. the Spanish marriages, and his having in conseThe conduct of the King of Naples was as paltry quence formed a close alliance with Austria. The as it could well be ; he absolutely rejected the question now is, shall Italy be sacrificed to this early petitions of his subjects who urged him to alliance? Shall France disgrace herself by aiding follow the moderate example of the other Italian Austria to enslave the Italians, whilst England princes; when the Sicilians took up arms, he tried takes the glorious part of striving in their behalf? to suppress the revolt by cruel measures ; finding Such is the question that M. Thiers asked with tyranny becoming hazardous, he offered half-meas- consummate eloquence from the tribune of the ures; and, meeting with more obstinate firmness chamber ; such the question mutually put by press than he expected, he granted all. The nature of and public. Mr. Cobden desires the mission of revolt, its thoroughly national character, is indicated peace-maker, and now is the time for him to come by the fact that it was led by men of rank and forward. He has no need of appeasing the French known discretion. The king's concessions were by disbanding the British army and laying up the advised by his brother, the Conte d’Aquila. King British navy in ordinary. He has but to propose Ferdinand has just escaped the fate of Charles the a frank coöperation to save Italy, and a mutual Tenth of France, and, as it were, doubles with that sacrifice of French and English pretensions in Spain part the one of Louis Philippe.

on the altar of Italian liberty. The effect of this successful rebellion must soon It is no easy task to rear that altar. We canappear. Should the subjects in the other Italian not conceive a more difficult political problem, than, states remain in discreet alliance with their imme- given the pope and his supreme power, to establish diate rulers, the nationalization of Italy will be in and around his dominions a free or representagreatly hastened, as well as the progress of reform tive government? If there are immense objections throughout the peninsula. The demand for a to the pope being swayed by Austrian or by French specific constitution like that of Sicily might breed councils, what is to be said of the papal cabinet ill feeling, and alienate the well-disposed princes. being forced open by a constitutional opposition, Austria will retrieve her strength, or lose it, ac- which has acquired a majority in a Roman parliacording to the course of affairs in Central Italy. If ment ? M. Guizot says, the great object is to rulers and people remain united, Austria must reconcile the Catholic religion and its chief with either fall into the custom of the day, or consent to the ideas and liberal progress of the age. M. Jose her Italian possessions.

Thiers adds, that this can only be done by secularAlready the success of the Sicilians has had the izing the Roman government. One says, that in usual influence in commanding assistance. M. the difficulties of reform the priest will save the Guizot, who inclined to Austria while the Italian sovereign ; the other, that the sovereign will save cause seemed doubtful, has now discovered that the priest. We must own that we ourselves, France sympathizes with Italy, and sanctions even though influenced by a sincere desire to be neither organic changes. The conversion of the astute extravagant nor extreme, cannot but consider the statesman took place all on a Sunday. On Satur-pope as a huge anomaly, a monster fragment of day, M. de Lamartine made an eloquent attack on the great wreck of the middle ages, still surviving ministers for abandoning the traditional policy of for no purpose except

shoal and an obstrucFrance in Italy; but M. Guizot was coldly imper- tion. And with all our respect for Pius the Ninth, turbable, unshaken as to his faith in Austrian we do not see how either the priestly part of power moderation and enlightenment, and firm in main-is to save the monarchical, or vice versa. Unless, taining the status quo. On Monday, instigated by indeed, as M. Mariotti suggests, the Ferretti were a penetrating, brilliant, and dangerously statesman-' to form a dynasty of popes and proclaim themselves

of peers.

the chiefs of free Italy, sacerdotal and lay. Here, In whom my soul elate however, would be the end of the universal pope

Owns now a race cognate, dom.

But even the couch of Sloth, 'mid painted walls, The Sicilians, however, have made the impor- The voice of honor, long, too long, unheard.

Swells up, and men start forth from it, where calls tant step. They have deposed a vacillating despot, driven him and his troops out of their capital, and

5 rejected his offers of state councils and quasi-inde

Not that the wretch was feared, pendence, insisting on nothing less than the con

Who feared the meanest as he feared the best, stitution given by Lord William Bentinck in 1820.

But that around all kings
This constitution is very favorable both to the clergy A wasting vapor that absorbs the fire

Forever springs and the noblesse, and would rally these classes, as Of all that would rise higher. well as the rural population, in its favor. But

6 unfortunately its house of commons is a very diminutive assembly. Sicily, divided into twenty

Even free nations will not let there be

More nations free. three districts, would elect but two members each

Witness (O shame !) our own, district, which, with six for Palermo and three for Of late years viler none. . the other great towns, would form a very small

7 body for the national representation. Had Ferdi

To gratify a brood, nand of Sicily any wisdom, he ought to be con

Swamp-fed amid the Suabian wood, tented with such a constitution; nay, ought to The sons of Lusitania were cajoled, have grasped at it, since it gave him an upper And bound and sold, chamber, like that of Westminster, which could And sent in chains where we unchain the slave be made a firm bulwark of the throne. The king

We die with thirst to save has, however, flung them away, and prefers some

8 thing“ on the basis of the French Charter.” Ye too, Sicilians, ye loo gave we up What this something is he does not appear to say ;

To drain the bitter cup, but the Sicilians will probably ask him, and the

Which ye dash from ye in the despot's face . . Neapolitans too. The latter people despise their

O glorious race! noblesse, and would gladly do without a chamber

9 Therefore the refusal of the constitu- Which Hiero, Gelon, Pindar sat among tion of 1812 is no unwelcome act to them. But And praised for weaker deeds in deathless songs ; to the Sicilian nobles it will prove the contrary ;

One is yet left to laud ye. Years have marred and it may impel them to unseat Ferdinand alto- My voice, my prelude for some better bard,

When such shall rise; and such your deeds create. gether, and divide the island of Sicily from the mainland of Naples.

But then comes the consideration that the king In the lone woods, and late,
has married an Austrian princess, and that Austria Murmurs swell loud and louder, till at last
will desire to intervene. The pope denies the

So strong the blast,
Austrians passage.
But the Austrians can go by

That the whole forest, earth and sea and sky,

To the loud surge reply. sea. It is not for the pope to bar their passage

11 by this route ; it is for France and England. Have they courage ?-have they unity for this ?

Within the circle of six hundred years,

Show me a Bourbon on whose brow appears
That is the question.- Eraminer.

No brand of traitor. Change the tree,
From the same stock forever will there be

The same foul canker, the same bitter fruit.

Strike, Sicily, uproot Few mortal hands have struck the heroic string, The cursed upas. Never trust Since Milton's lay in death across his breast. That race again : down with it ; dust to dust. But shall the lyre then rest

Examiner. With vilest dust upon it? This of late Hath been its fate.

We have yet to learn the most interesting and

important of the consequences of the Sicilian rev2 But thou, O Sicily! art born again.

olution, namely, its effect on the adjacent states

of Italy and on the decision of the cabinet of Far over chariots and Olympic steeds I see the heads and the stout arms of men,

Vienna. In both quarters that effect will be exAnd will record (God gives me power) their deeds. tremely great, and we fear that it will tend to 3

excite the passions of anarchy in one direction, as Hail to thee first, Palermo ! hail to thee

much as the fears of absolutism in another. At Who callest with loud voice, “Arise ! be free, this moment, too, the leading orators of the French Weak is the hand and rusty is the chain." chamber have been engaged in a discussion on the Thou callest ; nor in vain.

delicate and complicated affairs of Italy in a man4

ner which demonstrates that, whatever may be the Not only from the mountains rushes forth disposition of M. Guizot's cabinet, it will be imposThe knighthood of the north,

sible for France to tolerate any aggression of Aus





tria on the rights of the independent states of Italy. retti, nephew of the cardinal and cousin of the The papal government has already given a decisive holy father, and Count Marchetti.” refusal to the Austrian application for the passage

From the Spectator. of troops, and announced its intention of defending

HISTORICAL PARALLELS : SWITZERLAND AND POthe neutrality and independence of the doininions of Rome by all the weapons it can command. Can

LAND.—There are some historical events cited as Austria, then, dare to run the risks of war in Italy, parallels, which are very angular illustrationswith her finances exhausted, her alliances shaken, having one point in common, the further they are and the certainty that France would sooner or later traced the more they deviate. The affairs of be driven to espouse the popular cause? Can she, Switzerland, however, do seem to afford a parallel on the other hand, avow to Italy and to Europe, to the proceedings which terminated in the partition

of Poland. that in principle she is already vanquished, that her ascendency over that peninsula is annihilated,

Take these passages in the Edinburgh Review, that the interventions of 1821 and 1831 are now said to have been written by Sir James Mackintosh. beyond her power, and that the defence of Lom- “ The death of Augustus, in 1733, had nearly bardy is all that remains of the Italian policy of occasioned a general war throughout Europe. Prince Metternich ? Either alternative is equally The court of St. Petersburg then set up the fatal formidable—the choice between them more formi- pretext of a guarantee of the Polish constitution,

founded on the transactions of 1717. A guarantee dable still; yet that option is the only power of the territories and rights of one independent state Prince Metternich still enjoys; the rest is beyond against others, is perfectly compatible with justice; his control.-Times.

but a guarantee of the institutions of a people against

themselves, is but another name for dependence on Á STATISTICAL account of the population of Italy, the foreign power which enforces it. In pursuance up to the end of last year, gives the following of this pretended guarantee, the country was inresults :

vaded by 60,000 Russians, who ravaged with fire

and sword every district opposed to their progress.” The Two Sicilies,

8,566,900 Piedmont & Sardinia,

4,879,000 The writer then remarks on the liberum veto, Roman States,

2,877,000 which enabled every nuncio to stop every public Tuscany and Lucca,

1,701,700 measure if he dissented from it; and he adds Monaco,


Generally speaking, the absolute negative enSaint Marino,

7,950 Modena,


joyed by every member of the Polish diet seems Parma & Placentia,


to have arisen from the principle that the nuncios Venetian Lombardy,

4,759,000 were not representative, but ministers; that the Italian Tyrol,

522,608 power of acting was limited by the imperative inIstria,

485,000 structions of the provinces ; that the constitution

was rather a confederacy than a commonwealth, Total,


and the diet not so much a deliberative assembly

as a meeting of delegates, whose whole duty conA letter from Constantinople of the 17th says : sisted in declaring the determination of their re-“ The pope's nuncio, Mgr. Ferrieri, arrived spective constituents.” yesterday at Constantinople, on the Sardinian The result was, that war between the majority steamer the Tripoli. A very brilliant reception and minority was legitimate, and neither party was given to him. After the usual salutes were were treated as rebels, for both were composed exchanged between the Sardinian packet-boat and of members of the sovereign class. “ The ordithe foreign vessels of war, the nuncio, accompa- nary was converted into a confederate diet, and is nied by the Catholic Armenian patriarch, disem- perhaps the most singular example in history of a barked at Top-Khane in a superb boat with five legislative assembly assuming the form of a party pairs of oars, which was placed at his disposal by in civil war in order to escape from the restraints the government. He was then conducted with of an inconvenient law.” the other persons of the mission, in carriages The French government, by its note of the 18th belonging to the court, to his hotel at Pera. The January, 1848, has formally declared, that no change crowd which assembled on his passage cried, shall be made in the federal pact of Switzerland Long live Pius IX! Long live the liberty of without the unanimous consent of the twenty-two Italy!' The nuncio from these cries might cantons. Its right of interference is founded on almost have believed that he had not left Rome. its having been a guarantee as respects the indeImmediately after reaching his hotel he received pendence of the republic. the congratulations of the diplomatic body, and of We have, then, foreign nations interfering in the deputations of the different religious communi- the internal organization of the government of ties, united and not united. The porte has given Switzerland under the pretence of asserting guarhim the hotel he occupies, and will pay all his anteed rights ; the diet of Switzerland assuming expenses whilst he remains here, which will be for the form of a party in the civil war ; the present two or three months. Among the persons who state of the organization of Switzerland requiring form part of the nuncio's suite are Monsignor change to prevent the recurrence of such an event, Vespesiani, the Canon Capri Galanti, Count Fer- | and such change forbidden by foreign powers.

Is the result to be, that on account of civil dis- the natural checks to democratic license. To use sensions which may occur if no organic change is M. Thiers' own words—"I am,” said he “ of made in the pact, foreign troops may ravage with the party of the revolution in Europe ; I wish the fire and sword every district opposed to them; revolution to be carried on by the hands of its and then a partition of Switzerland, having the moderate supporters. I shall do all that I can to protectorate of neighboring governments for its keep it in the hands of that moderate party, but if several portions; those portions finally to be ab- it should pass into the hands of a party not moderate, sorbed in the territory of neighboring states ? I shall not abandon the cause of the revolution. Behold the fruit of a guarantee !

I shall be always of the party of the revolution.”

These expressions deserve to be remembered—and

From the Times. especially by those who have affected to regard M. Thiers. The speeches delivered by M. M. Thiers as the champion of an alliance with this Thiers in the course of that general review of the country. This country must, indeed, be strangely politics of the world which takes place before the changed before it would select an avowed French chamber of deputies in the beginning of the year, revolutionist as the object of its confidence and do credit to his talents and his sincerity. Although respect. M. Thiers proceeded to apply these he evidently participates in the passions which are principles to the Swiss question. In his opinion, excited at this time to an extraordinary degree the revolution and the counter-revolution are there against the French ministers, he has abstained from at war; and we cannot be surprised that the man the more dangerous and excessive demonstrations who as a writer could palliate the black crimes of of the radical party, and confined himself within the French convention should, as an orator, find it the limits of a policy which might be pursued by a very easy task to excuse the conduct of the Swiss a government. In short, whilst others have been diet. The Swiss have certainly not exhibited the indulging in the extravagance of declamation, M. fanatical levity or the sanguinary violence of the Thiers has sought to convince the French chamber, Parisian sections of 1793, but they have shown and the rest of Europe, that his views are still enough of the revolutionary spirit to entitle them governed by the principles of a statesman. We, to M. Thiers' applause. The success of the late therefore, give him the credit due to some discretion, campaign, the expulsion of the Jesuits, and the as well as sincerity; but, although we believe that complete subversion of the legal governments in he has frankly stated his opinions, and that those the conservative cantons, have not been followed by opinions have no immediate connection with the the species of pacification we ourselves had at one wild schemes of the French radicals, we hasten to moment hoped for. The promise of an amnesty, add that these speeches have in no degree increased and of other conciliatory measures, though made our confidence in his political character or our to Sir Stratford Canning, is still so distant that sympathy with the cause he defends. We do him four of the principal members of the moderate no injustice in saying that this cause is the cause party in Switzerland have resigned their commisof the French revolution. He began his political sions on the federal staff, because they feel themcareer as the ingenious, eloquent, and unscrupulous selves compelled to withdraw the support they had defender of revolutionary governments ; he is now hitherto given to the government. In spite of the completing that part of his labors by an equally indignation caused throughout Europe by the unelaborate and fantastic panegyric of the man by worthy proceedings of the government of the whom all the despotic, aggressive, and anti-social Valais, supported by federal commissioners and tendencies of the revolution were raised to their federal troops, at the Monastery of St. Bernard, highest power. In public life he has professed his these outrages have continued. The occupation adherence to the same creed, especially since he took place on the 15th of December ; on the 12th exchanged the cause of the government for that of of January the garrison, still remaining there, the opposition. His policy avowedly is to promote, ordered the monks to be confined to their cells, by means adapted to the present state of his country, which were guarded by armed sentries, and perand of the world, the same objects which have been mission was reluctantly conceded to the fathers to marked out at different times, and by different attend divine service in the chapel. On the 21st powers throughout the course of the greatest con- of January they were forcibly driven out of the vulsion in modern society. It cannot be repeated monastery by the soldiers, and compelled to march too often that the French revolution, or rather the to the infirmary at Martigny; afterwards even that revolution in the affairs of Europe, produced mainly refuge was denied them. In the Canton de Vaud by the dissemination of French principles, is not the legislative council has been engaged in the an event terminated, concluded, and accomplished, discussion of a law for the complete suppression but that it is still and continually in progress. It of all religious worship not in connection with the is still fomenting the same hatred of religious established church, and this enactment has been aristocratical institutions and privileges; it is still carried by 64 to 38 votes. The avowed object of subverting the principles of authority to which men the measure is to annihilate the Protestant evanyielded in former ages a loyal or unconscious gelical sects, or, as they are improperly termed in obedience; and though it cares but little for the Switzerland, the Methodists. These unfortunate evils of anarchy or the benefits of genuine liberty, sects will now be persecuted with as much ardor no sacrifice is too great to throw off and extirpate as the Jesuits have been. They are called the

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Protestant Jesuits; and, accordingly, the purest | protector of German nationality, we hail this measProtestant democracy in Europe puts in force ure as a first step towards a common legislation for against them a law scarcly less intolerant than the all Germany. We shall examine with the greater revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Already there

interest the other bills which may be submitted to

us, as we are so fully convinced that our epoch are in London at this time fugitives from the Swiss urgently requires reforms in the administration of cantons who are not monks or Jesuits, but Protes- justice. Your majesty has deigned to make allu- · tant pastors and Christians, proscribed and banished sion to a neighboring country, with which we have for having sought to worship God in their own numerous relations. If we should experience any way. M. Thiers is right; these are indeed tri- serious alarms for the public order and tranquillity umphs of liberty which may well remind him of of our country, your majesty will find in the whole the favorite passages in his French revolution. recoils from making any sacrifice for the mainten

body of your people that good spirit which never We must, however, deny the converse of the ance of order and right in the country. Strong in proposition, which he seeks to fix on his opponents. the union and reciprocal confidence between the It is not true that all who are not partisans of his sovereign and the people, we shall rally round the revolutionary theory are therefore counter-revolu- constitutional throne of our beloved king, and meet tionary—that is, the partisans of repressive meas- with calmness the coming storms." ures almost equally contrary to the rights and interests of mankind, and it is a gross misrepre- The Prussian Universal Gazette gives the folsentation to thrust his antagonists into the one lowing statistical account of the Jewish populatiod extreme because they recoil from the other. In of Europe. England and Ireland, 13,000, being the name of this country, at least, and in the name only the 2076th part of the whole population, of a large and enlightened party in France, in Belgium, 1954, the 2157th of the population Germany, and elsewhere, we may assert the Sweden and Norway, 850, the 5012th part of the influence and the worth of principles equally opposed population ; Denmark, 6000, the 356th part of the to the violence of the Swiss diet or the French population ; France, 70,000, the 487th part of the convention, and to the policy which is professed by population ; the Netherlands, 52,000, the 61st part the cabinets of Vienna and St. Petersburg. The of the population ; in Russia, including the Asiatic best friends of liberty are anti-revolutionists, without portion, the Jews form the 56th part of the popbeing counter-revolutionists ; that is, they reject the ulation. The states of Austria, 641,000, being pretended benefits which are purchased at the the 57th part of the population ; in Italy, with the expense of justice and right, without being the more exception of the Austrian provinces, 40,000 ; Gerdisposed to thwart or oppose the progress of rational many, not including Austria and Prussia, 175,000 ; reform. In that middle course lies the only safe track Prussia, 222,814, boing about a 74th part of the for those who are intrusted with the management of population. public affairs, and he would prove a dangerous guide who should allow his sympathies or his fears to urge

From the Spectator. or to repel him to either extreme. In spite, there- PROGRESS OF CHEAP Postage.—We print a fore, of the moderation of the tone of these speeches table showing the increase in the number of chargeof M. Thiers, there is that in the stamp and pur- able letters delivered in the United Kingdom, in pose of his mind which identifies him and his party each year from 1839 to 1847 inclusive. The first with the enemies of the tranquillity and the per- year in this table was the last of the old system, manent interests of Europe.

and in that year the number of chargeable letters

delivered within the United Kingdom, excluding The following are the most prominent passages franks and letters sent abroad, was 76 millions ; in in the address of the second chamber of the states the last year of the series the number was 322 of Wurtemberg, in answer to the speech from the millions, or an increase of 325 per cent. A conthrone :

tinued annual increase of nearly 40 per cent. shows “We participate in the convictions of your maj- that the public is responding to the concessions esty, that the present state of the periodical press in which are made to it, and is steadily advancing in Germany does not answer either to the just expec- the habit of correspondence by letter. As a mattations of the governments or to the wants of the ter of taxation, also, the new system, so far as it people. May the propositions presented by your has been carried, is eminently successful. The majesty to the diet bring about a legal establish- post-office used to produce a net revenue of about ment of the freedom of the press in all Germany, and quickly insure to the people the faculty of a million ; the first effect of reduced postage was making their opinions freely known. Will

a fall in the revenue ; but that also has steadily

your majesty permit us, the representatives of your advanced. In the published revenue-accounts the faithful subjects, to hope for a greater liberty for post-office has but once figured under the head of the press, in discussing the internal affairs of the decrease,” for the trifling sum of 8,0001. The country, in conformity with the words your majesty tables usually printed in the newspapers fail to show has addressed to us, and with the fundamental law. the actual revenue accruing to any department; Incessantly occupied in developing our legislation, your majesty announces to us that at the next diet they are limited to Great Britain, excluding Ireland: we shall have several judicial reforms, in conso- also they only show the money paid by the denance with the wants of the age. Filled with joy partment to the exchequer. In the case of the and gratitude towards your majesty, the august | post-office, this fact operates the more forcibly on the

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