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ness will sometimes remain, after sensibility to pain Dr. Jackson a fee, I should interest him in the is removed.
patent, and give him ten per cent. of the nett profits. I afterwards gave it to a Miss L., a lady of about Mr. Eddy made this suggestion out of friendship twenty-five. The effect upon her was rather alarm- to Dr. Jackson, whom he wished to benefit. He ing. She sprang up from the chair, leaped into added that the patent would thus have the benefit the air, screamed, and was held down with diffi- of Dr. Jackson's name and skill; that he would culty. When she came to, she was unconscious thus have a motive to give his attention to the prepof what had passed, but was willing to have it ad- aration and the apparatus, and we should be able to ministered again, which I did with perfect success, keep in advance of the improvements that might be extracting two molar teeth. After this, I tried suggested by others. He also said that if a suit several other experiments, some with more and was brought, and Dr. Jackson should be a witness, some with less success, giving my principal atten- as he doubtless would be, the aid he had given me tion to the perfecting of my modes of administering it. might be made a handle of hy persons impeaching
When the time drew near for the experiment at the patent, to invalidate my claim as the discoverer. the hospital, I became exceedingly anxious, and At this time the dentists had organized a formidable gave all my time, day and night, hardly sleeping or opposition to the use of ether, and all the medical eating, to the contriving of apparatus, and general magazines in the Union, except Boston, were arinvestigation of the subject.
rayed against it. I felt the need of all the aid I I called on Dr. Gould, a physician who has paid could get, and was conscious of a want of thorough much attention to chemistry, and told him my anx- scientific education myself. I was induced by these ieties and difficulties. He sympathized with me, motives to accede to Mr. Eddy's request, but did gave me his attention, and we sat up nearly all not then understand that Dr. Jackson claimed to night making sketches of apparatus ;* he first sug- be a discoverer at all. But on this head I refer to gesting to me an antidote in case of unfavorable the affidavits of the Messrs. Eddy. effects, and the valvular system, instead of the one I continued administering the ether in my office, I then used. The operation was to be at 10 o'clock. and early in November I applied to Dr. Hayward I rose at daybreak, went to Mrr Chamberlain, an for leave to administer it in a case of amputation, instrument-maker, and, by great urging, got the ap- which I learned was to take place at the hospital. paratus done just after ten o'clock, hurried to the Dr. H. J. Bigelow, in the mean time, had attended hospital, and reached the room just as Dr. Warren my experiments at my office, and taking a deep was about to begin the operation; he having given interest in the subject, prepared a memoir, which up all hope of my coming. The detailed account he read to the Boston Society for Medical Improveof this operation will be found in Dr. Warren's ment, and subsequently to the American Academy communication. There was a full attendance; the of Arts and Sciences. interest excited was intense, with the most eager The surgeons of the hospital informed me that scrutiny of the patient. When the operation closed, they thought it their duty to decline the use of the the patient described his state, and Dr. Warren an- preparation until informed what it was. I immedinounced his belief that there had been insensibility ately wrote to Dr. Warren, the senior surgeon, disto pain, my feelings may be better imagined than closing the whole matter. The operation took described.
place on the 7th November. About half an hour I was invited to administer it the next day, in an beforehand, Dr. H. J. Bigelow called for me, and operation for a tumor, performed by Dr. Hayward, said he wished me to be on the spot, in case it and with perfect success.
should be determined to admit me. After remainOn the 230 October, I saw Dr. Jackson for the ing in the ante-room for some time, it was resolved first time since the interview last described I take by the surgeons to permit the experiment, and I my account of this interview from a memorandum administered the ether with perfect success. This made at the time, the accuracy of which is attested was the first case of amputation. I will also reby two witnesses of the highest respectability who mark, that Dr. Jackson was absent from the city at were present. He said he thought he would just this time, and know nothing of the operation. look in, that he heard I was doing well with the On the 21st November, I administered the ether in ether, and learned from Mr. Eddy that I intended an operation for a tumor, at the Bromfield House, to take out a patent, and would make a good deal in the presence of a number of medical gentlemen, by it. I replied that it had been a cause of anxiety among whom I noticed Dr. Jackson. This was the and expense to me, but that I thought I should now first time he had seen it administered, and no one do well with it. He said he thought so too, and but myself had administered it in Boston or elsowhere, that he believed he must make me a professional to my knowledge. In this instance Dr. Jackson apcharge for advice. I asked him why in this case, peared merely as a spectator. On the 2d of Janumore than in any other case of his advice, arising ary, 1847, he did the first act indicating to the surout of our previous relations, as mentioned at the geons that he had any interest in the subject. On opening of this memoir. He said that his advice that day he called at the hospital with some orygen gas had been useful to me, that I should make a good as an antidote for asphyxia, which he heard was prodeal out of the patent, and that I ought to make duced by the ether. But before this time the surhim a compensation. I told him I would do so if geons had satisfied themselves that asphyxia was not I made much by the patent, independent of what I produced. With the single exception of an intimagained in my business. He then said he should tion to Dr. Warren, which was after its establishment charge me $500. I told him I would pay him that, if at the hospital, and which appears in his communi-. ten per cent. on the nett profits of the patent amount- cation, none of the surgeons or other persons engaged ed to so much. He said he was perfectly satisfied in these experiments had received any idea, from Dr. with this arrangement, and so the interview ended. Jackson himself, or from his conduct, that he was
The next morning he told Mr. R. H. Eddy in any way connected with this discovery, responsible what had passed, and two or three days afterwards for the use of the preparation, entitled to the credit Mr. Eddy suggested to me that instead of paying of its success, or liable to the odium of its failure.• [* See ante, p. 543.]
(* By referring to the caption of this memoir, and to the
If death or serious injury had occurred to any one, such as fairly illustrate the history of this demonDr. Jackson could not have been in the least degree stration. If these have any bearing upon the claims implicated. It was not until danger was over, and of others, I am entitled to the benefit of the effect. success certain, until the discovery had arrested the But this memoir is not intended to present the attention of the world, until the formidable opposi- whole of my comparative rights, as against the tion of the dentists and of all the medical maga- claims of Dr. Jackson or Dr. Wells. If a tribuzines and societies in other places had become pow- nal were opened for such a discussion, I would erless, that Dr. Jackson began to involve himself most cheerfully prepare for the hearing, and subin it, and that his claim to have anticipated the mit myself to the judgment, of any enlightened effects, and communicated them to me, was brought umpire. I have proposed such a course to Dr. forward.
Jackson, who has declined it. On the 19th October, as soon as I felt confident In justice to myself, I should say, that I took out of success, I addressed a note to my former part- my patent early, before I realized how extensively ner, Dr. Wells, informing him of what I had done, useful the discovery would be, and beside the moand asking him to come to Boston and assist me in tive of profit and remuneration to myself, I was bringing the discovery into use in dentistry. He advised that it would be well to restrain so powerful replied by the letter in the appendix, of Oct. 20, an agent, which might be employed for the most 1846.* He came to Boston, saw several experi- nefarious purposes. I gave free rights to all charments in my office, expressed himself alarmed, said itable institutions, and offered to sell the right to I should kill some one yet, and break myself up in surgeons and physicians for a very small price, my business. He left abruptly, but without inti- such as no one could object to paying, and reasonmating a claim to the discovery, although he could ably to dentists. I had little doubt that the proper recognize the ether, and was freely told that it was authorities would take it out of private hands, if ether.f I have also the authority of Dr. Warren the public good required it, making the discoverer, and Dr. Hayward, for saying that no allusion was who had risked reputation, and sacrificed time and made by Dr. Wells to ether, to their knowledge, money, such a compensation as justice required. * when he made his experiment in Boston, in 1844–5. But as the use has now become general and almost
I am aware that a communication to an institu- | necessary, I have long since abandoned the sale of tion whose objects are scientific, and not personal, rights, and the public use the ether freely, and I gives me no right to argue the question of my own believe I am the only person in the world to whom claim to a discovery, in opposition to the claims of this discovery has, so far, been a pecuniary loss. others. I have endeavored to state no facts but Most respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. T. G. Morton. first column of p. 543, the reader will be reminded that
Boston, (U. S. A.,) July 31, 1847. this statement is authorized by the surgeons. It is also fully bornc out by the trustees in their report.] (* See ante, p. 554, Dr. Wells' letter.]
[* Provision was made accordingly in all the sales of [+ See ante, pp. 554–5, Mr. R. H. Eddy's letter.] rights made by Dr. Mortoņ. See p. 551.]
| his compatriots, in a letter to your readers, and in ILLNESS AND DEATH OF JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.
an hour or two has come this sudden change in The correspondent of the New York Express, the appearance and prospects of the distinguished in a letter dated Washington, 21st Feb., 1848, says, man. that while a question was being taken upon giving Half-past one.—The senate have just adjourned. the thanks of congress to Generals Quitman, Mr. Benton communicated to the senate notice of Shields, Smith, and Pillow, Mr. Adams was ob- the sudden illness of Mr. Adams, and moved the served by those sitting in close proximity, to be adjournment. apparently losing his strength. His right hand Quarter to two.--Mr. Adams has several phywas reaching over his desk, and his lips in motion, sicians with him, but exhibits no signs of returning as if struggling to address the speaker.
consciousness. The report is that he is sinking. The members of the house rose instantly from Two o'clock.—Mr. Giddings informs me that their seats, and great excitement pervaded the hall; he shows signs of life. His face is much distorted -the house adjourned. Mr. Adams was borne with the marks of the struggle incident to his atfrom the hall of the house by several of the mem- tack in the house. He has just now attempted to bers, first into the rotunda, and afterwards into the speak, but cannot articulate a word. Under medspeaker's room.
ical advice he has submitted to leeching. Mr. Adams said but yesterday, to one of his Half-past two.—Mrs. Adams and daughter are friends, that he should not live the session out. He with him, and Mr. A. is no worse.
The reports, was apparently quite well a moment before, and however, are quite contradictory, and many despair conversed freely with his friends. During the of his recovery. morning he was complying with the request of one Three o'clock.—None but the physicians and who had asked him for a piece of poetry, and had family are present, and the reports again become finished it after the house met. (It was half-past more and more doubtful. The physicians say that one when he was attacked.)
Mr. Adams may not live more than an hour, or he Just a moment before the attack, he had signed may live two or three days. his name twice for meinbers, who had asked his His right side is wholly paralyzed, and the left autograph. The marked and general respect not under control, there being continually involunshown for Mr. Adams, was one of the agreeable tary motions of the muscles. Everything which reminiscences of this sad event. I was speculat- medical aid can do has been done for his relief. ing only this morning upon his age, and those of Briefly, just now, by close attention, he seemed anxious to “thank the officers of the house." | Newburyport, long the eminent chief justice of Then again he was heard to say, composed,"
" Massachusetts. “this is the last of earth.” There was a struggle In 1794, John Quincy Adams being then 26 to speak and again a relapse.
years old, was appointed, by Washington, minister Mr. Adams lay in the speaker's room apparently of the United States at the Hague ; and in the unconscious till the 23d. Congress daily met to ensuing year, upon an intimation that he was disadjourn. On the 23d he died.
posed to renounce his station and return to his country and profession, Gen. Washington thus
wrote to old John Adams : From the New York Courier and Enquirer, 25 Feb., 1848.
PHILADELPHIA, 20th Aug., 1794. John Quincy Adams is no more- -He died in Mr. John Adams—Your son must not think of the capitol, in the armor he had so long and so retiring from the walk he is now in. His prospects, honorably worn-on the field of his service and his if he pursues it, are fair; and I shall be much misfame-in face of his country and of heaven-with-taken if, in as short a time as can well be expected, out fear and without reproach: and there survives he is not found at the head of the diplomatic corps,
be the government administered by whomsoever the not, among the tens of millions of freemen who
people may choose." inhabit this republic—which almost from his cradle to his grave he has so ably and faithfully Gen. Washington confirmed this favorable, and, served, and which he has seen grow, from a grain as subsequent events have abundantly proved, the of mustard seed, into the wide spreading and shel- just estimate of the talents and character of the tering tree which we now behold and glory in-young diplomatist, by appointing him, in 1796, there survives not one of wider and more diversified minister of the United States to the Court of Prusknowledge, of purer heart, of warmer patriotism. sia, and in that country he resided many years;
He has died as it was meet for such a man to and until the close of his illustrious father's presdie ; as, if he could have controlled the event, he idential term. He then returned home, and was would doubtless himself have desired to die-in chosen a senator of the United States from Massathe faithful and assiduous discharge, to the last, chusetts. While holding this high station, he was of a high public trust.
elected professor of rhetoric and belles-lettres in the Mr. Adams was born in 1767, and consequently Harvard University, and actively and ably and faithwas at his decease in his eighty-second year. In fully discharged the duties of that professorship. 1778 he may be said to have begun his eventful In 1809, Mr. Adams was appointed, by Presipublic career—at 11 years of age—which has dent Madison, minister plenipotentiary of the United been followed until more than four-score years States to Russia. This is the period of his life have passed over his honored head.
which will most divide the judgment of posterity ; In February of that year he embarked in the for here it was that, having separated from early small frigate Boston, with his father, just appointed political friends, and denouncing men and their by the continental congress commissioner to motives, with whom he had long appeared to act France. The British fleets on the coast were in harmony, he seemed to be receiving reward watching for this “emissary,” as John Adams from his former opponents. Ours is not the pen, was considered, and hoping to intercept him, and nor this the occasion, to revive the bitter feuds of to be able to cut short his revolutionary career, that day—the memory and almost the passions of as they had that of Colonel Laurens, of S. C., by which, reach even unto this ; but in purporting to imprisonment in the Tower.
present a sketch of the life of this venerable man, it A fierce tempest, in the course of which the did not seem possible to omit allusion to what posBoston was struck with lightning, swept them off sibly gave a coloring to the public acts of that life. from the American coast and beyond the reach of Mr. Adams was still American minister at St. those lying in wait for them; and thus commenced Petersburg when the war of 1812 occurred, and a public life, long drawn out, and which has sur- his watchful patriotism left no effort untried that vived many storms, and which has been the wit- could promote the success, or encourage the zeal, ness of more, and more extraordinary, political of his countrymen in that war; and it was mainly revulsions and results than ever before, probably, owing to his enterprise that the friendly mediation were crowded within the sphere of one existence of Russia in the controversy was eventually —and the part which Mr. Adams has played in brought about. When it was finally agreed that many of these results will connect his name with commissioners should be named on the part of the them forever.
United States and of Great Britain to treat of John Q. Adams embraced the opportunities of peace, Mr. Adams was associated with Mr. Clay, a good education presented by his father's resi- Mr. Gallatin and Mr. Russell, as such commisdence in Europe. He went to St. Petersburg, sioners. They met first at Gottenburg, we bewhen only 14 years of age, as private secretary lieve. The seat of negotiation was transferred to to the then American minister there, and after re- Ghent, where was concluded the treaty that termaining abroad some years, he returned home, minated the war with Great Britain. At its close entered Harvard University, and was graduated with Mr. Adams was transferred, as minister plenipohonor in 1787-after which he became a law stu- tentiary, from St. Petersburg to London, and there dent with the distinguished Theophilus Parsons of it was the fortune of the writer of these sad remi
niscences, to be admitted to his intimacy and to tled faith, and immortal hopes. Words which live much in his society—a society which no one could only be suggested by a conscience at ease at all imbued with any love of letters, or open to with itself—for which reflection upon the past had the attractions of a pure and simple life, could fre- no regrets, and for which the future had no terrors. quent without being wiser and better for it. They were the dying words of a Christian, philos
Mr. Adams was recalled from his mission in opher and statesman. London, by President Monroe, to become the secretary of state.
His conduct of that department, From the Washington Correspondent of the Boston Courier. is among the brightest portions of our archives.
Mr. Adams sinks behind the horizon of life with In 1825 the house of representatives of the United all eyes turned towards his setting. What a gloStates, on the failure of an election by the people, rious reputation does he leave behind him! Among chose Mr. Adams president of the United States, all the men in Washington, of whatever shade of and an honester, more single-minded, more disin- opinion, not one is to be found who will refuse to terested, more patriotic chief magistrate, no coun- accord to him entire purity of character, and pertry ever prospered under.
fect integrity of purpose. He is universally beWe would not, in such a paper as this, utter lieved to have performed every public act of his what might seem disrespectful to the people of the long life, with a conscientious regard to his conUnited States—yet we must, as the sober convic- victions of duty, unswerved by public clamor, and tion of our judgment, declare that, if Mr. Adams unswayed by party zeal. His private life is free had been less a patriot and more a partisan, he from every taint of suspicion. No excesses of might possibly have been reëlected for a second youth, no vices of manhood, no frailties of age, are term. But on that score he was uncompromising even imputed to him. He has passed every ordeal, and inflexible--and it is within our knowledge and comes out at the last, unsuspected of any act that, to a person representing to him that promi- inconsistent with the character of an honest and nent officers of the federal government were using conscientious man. And not only is Mr. Adams the influence of their stations against him, he re- regarded as one of the purest, but as the most plied, “I only ask, are they faithful officers? If learned and the ablest, of modern statesmen. He they do their duty to their country, and fulfil the is considered as great as he is pure. obligations of their office, I seek to inquire no fur- These are the impressions which fill the public ther—and if I cannot conduct my administration mind in Washington, as Mr. Adams passes away on these principles, I am content to go back to from the scenes of his labors.
New England may Quincy.” He did go back to Quincy, and with a well be proud of having produced such a man. She conscience void of offence—with patriotism unsul has not only been benefitted by his services, her lied by corruption—and the people have since had character is elevated by his virtues. The free partisans for their presidents.
states will never know the full extent of their obliAfter two years, having retired from the presi- gations to him for his exertions in the cause of dency in 1831, Mr. Adams was chosen to represent freedom, for they will never fully realize the imthe congressional district in which Quincy is situ- mense moral effect upon the south, of his efforts ated ; and he continued, by successive and almost in behalf of the right of petition, and the rights of unanimous elections, to be such representative to an oppressed race. the hour of his death. Of his congressional career, as of his career as
From the Salem Register. president, we say, with entire confidence, that it was John Quincy Adams.-In his 81st year, and honest, fearless, disinterested and high-principled. in the midst of his official duties, John Quincy His knowledge was most comprehensive-his mem- Adams closes his earthly career. From the craory tenacious—his elocution forcible and finished ; dle to the grave, his whole life has passed in the and under a cold exterior, his nature was so ear- exercise of the highest trusts, the most honored nest as to lend the greatest animation to his rea- stations, and the most exalted duties—unscathed, soning, and, at times, almost fierceness to his unsuspected, and unalloyed. No life was ever invective.
more wholly and exclusively devoted to his country But that tongue is now silent in death—that than his has been ; no trusts were ever more hontrembling hand—the index of anything but a trem-orably fulfilled. His administration will ever be bling heart—is at rest. A whole people mourns held up as the model administration for a republia great man and a great benefactor dead. The can government; and history will trace, to its congress of the nation—with reverence meet, and close, the commencement of those measures which sympathy which all hearts acknowledge and ap- will eventually overturn our liberties, as they have prove—have paid the highest tribute to such worth already done our constitution. Our country was and services, by abstaining from their daily labors too far gone in corruption to sustain a perfectly in the capitol, while his mortal agony was yet pro- pure administration, and Mr. Adams lost his office longed beneath its dome.
because he would not violate its duties. Thor“ This is the last of earth—and I am content," oughly imbued with the principles of the constituwere the sublime words, which the latest utterance tion, and perfectly acquainted with the duties of of this “old man eloquent” gave to his country- his station, he lost the office of president because men—words denoting foregone reflection, and set- he would not pander to party and associate with
corruption. Had he consented to intrigue, he to pass resolutions implying a disapprobation of his could have retained this office to the utmost verge course, with the same instinctive delicacy with of his wishes. But, under his administration, no which he had resigned his mission to Berlin, he man lost office because he was Mr. Adams' enemy, relinquished his seat in the United States Senate. and no one obtained it because he was Mr. Adams' He was soon, however, called to represent the friend. The only standard of his administration nation at the court of St. Petersburg, where he was qualification, and the best qualified ever ob- obtained the utmost distinction and influence, from tained the posts for which they were best fitted. which resulted the intervention of Russia and the He never belonged to any party-he never pan- commission to Ghent, of which he was the head, dered to any. A patriot in every sense, he would and which terminated in the treaty of peace with never deviate from the straight line of duty to court Great Britain. After the peace he was appointed 'any party, or to screen himself from unpopularity. embassador to the court of St. James, and from Such is the man the nation mourns with tears of the duties of this mission he was recalled to enter blood, and to his memory history and virtue will the department of state, over which he presided ever do justice. The venomed breath of slander during the whole administration of Mr. Monroe. will now he smothered, and the voice of detraction Whilst at Russia, he was appointed a judge of the he forever silenced.
Supreme Court of the United States, but he Mr. Adams was descended from the noblest declined accepting the post. His diplomatic destock—the nobles of nature. His mother was one spatches, as minister and secretary of state, are of the first women of her age, and his father the inodels for statesmen of all ages. father of our liberties and constitution—in the He was elected to succeed Mr. Monroe as presemphatic language of Jefferson, “the Colossus of ident of the United States. His administration of congress, the pillar of support to the Declaration the presidency was a perfect illustration of the of Independence, and its ablest advocate and de- principles of our constitution, and of a republic fender." The son was a legitimate scion of this purely and faithfully governed. In the defeat he noble stock. Cradled in the revolution, and nursed sustained when a candidate for reëlection, there is by liberty and patriotism, at nine years of age he demonstration that no other than a party governheard the Declaration of Independence first read ment can be maintained in this country, and that from the Old State House in Boston, and imbibed the tinsel glare of martial show, and the exhibition all its principles. At twelve, he accompanied his of that most common quality, courage, will outfather to Europe, when he sailed on the mission to weigh the highest qualifications and a whole life make peace with the mother country. After devoted to civil public services. After again spending several years in Europe, attending some returning to private life, he was elected for eight of their literary institutions, and acting in some or nine successive terms as representative in consubordinate diplomatic stations, at twenty years of gress from his district, taking his seat in 1831, age he had returned home, and taken his degree only two years after he left the presidential chair. at the university in Cambridge. He studied the But for his independence and want of subserviency, profession of law with Chief Justice Parsons, at the senate of the United States would have been Newburyport, and commenced the practice in again honored by his presence, and our state would Boston. Here he wrote several papers in the have enrolled his name on the list of her governBoston Centinel, under the signature of “Publi- ors. In congress he has been the most attentive cola,” vindicating the course of Washington and member—not only in his seat, but at the head of the proclamation of neutrality. He was soon after the arduous committees on which, from time to sent to the Hague and Berlin on diplomatic mis- time, he has been placedsions. These he executed with such fidelity as to
Amidst the faithless, faithful found, elicit Washington's testimony that he was the
In times that tried men's souls. most useful public minister of the nation. At the defeat of his ather and the accession of Mr. Jef- On Mr. Adams' accession to the presidency, all ferson to the presidency, he resigned his office as his predecessors, except Washington, survived, minister to Berlin, though urged by Mr. Jefferson and at the time of his decease, all his predeces to retain his post. But a sensitive delicacy would sors and his immediate successor have passed not suffer it. He again returned to Boston and away. resumed his profession. He was soon, however, As a controversial writer, no man of the age elected to the senate of Massachusetts, and in 1806 could cope with him; and all who dared to measbecame Boylston professor of rhetoric and oratory ure a lance with him were not only unhorsed, but in the university. In his lectures at Cambridge, slain. His habits were pure, simple, and unoshe was most popular. He also, for five years, tentatious even to awkwardness. He always arose represented Massachusetts in the United States before day, and, when in health, made his own Senate. In the conscientious discharge of his fire. He used great exercise, and was peculiarly duties as senator, he gave support to some of the fond of bathing and swimming. No one ever was measures of Mr. Jefferson, although he had been more industrious, or sacrificed less of his time. the successful opponent of his father, and he dif- He was one of the most prolific writers of the age. fered in his opinions from his colleague. His journal, which he kept from early life, and
The legislature of his state having thought fit which embodies all his conversations with distin