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Lord Palmerston to the Marquis of Normanby. ration of independence by the free black colony of “Foreign Office, Dec. 27, 1847.

Liberia, and of a new constitution recently adopted, “My Lord—A short time ago I had an interview after the fashion of the United States. The nawith the Duke de Broglie, on the subject of the tional flag was elevated at Monrovia on the 24th of declaration made by the five powers in Paris on the August last. The first president of the new re20th of November, 1815, by which they guaranteed public is Mr. J. J. Roberts, late governor of the the neutrality of Switzerland, as well as the integ- colony; Mr. Nathaniel Brander is vice-president, rity and the inviolability of its territories, within the and Mr. Samuel Benedict, judge. The flag of the limits which are assigned it by the treaty of Vienna republic was saluted on the 18th of September by and the treaty of Paris, of the same date as the the United States brig Boxer; and the captain of declaration, acknowledging at the same time that it the British sloop of war Favorite had agreed temis the well-understood interest of the policy of the porarily to recognize the flag of Liberia until the whole of Europe to maintain Switzerland indepen- receipt of further instructions. The independence dent of all foreign influence. As this declaration is a measure adopted with a view to give the colony of November, 1815, is closely connected with ques- a more imposing and convenient aspect in its relations which the powers that signed it may some day tions with surrounding tribes. be called on to deal with, I deem it my duty to in- PROFESSOR FINN MAGNUSEN, the Iceland philosoform your excellency, and, through you, the French pher, died at Copenhagen on Christmas eve. Jie was government, of the manner in which the govern- born at Skalholi, in 1783. In early life he studied ment of her majesty views the engagements entered and practised the law at Rejkjavik; but in 1812. he into by that declaration.

removed to Copenhagen, in order to devote him“ It appears to the government of her majesty, self to the study of northern literature and science. that it was the object of this declaration of Novem- His profound learning and personal worth led, in ber 20, 1815, and the arrangements relative to 1815, to his obtaining the professorship of northSwitzerland of which it formed part, to maintain ern literature in the University of Copenhagen ; the peace of Europe, by rendering the state of in 1829 he was appointed keeper of the state arSwitzerland adapted to insure the preservation of chives ; he was successively secretary, vice-presthat peace. With that view, it was decided that ident, and president of the Icelandic Literary SoSwitzerland, formed of a confederation of sovereign ciety, and vice-president of the Royal Society of cantons, should be invested with the privilege of a Northern Antiquaries. Professor Magnusen's chief perpetual neutrality, in such a manner that no other published works are The Theory of the Edda and its power might be tempted to seek to draw it to itself Origin ; and Runamo og Runerne on the palæograas an ally or auxiliary in time of war. With this phy of the north. As one of the editors of Sæmund's same object in view, its territory was declared invi- Edda, he compiled the mythological lexicon which olable, in such a manner that no foreign troops forms the chief portion of the third volume. could penetrate that territory or traverse it for the

THE SURRENDER OF A BD-EL-KADER.-We take purpose of invading another country; and in order that the confederation might never be carried away of Abd-el-Kader in Algeria from the “ Moniteur

the following interesting narrative of the last hours by sentiments of partiality to depart from that strict Algériea” of Dec. 30 : -"The emir appeared 10 neutrality which ought invariably to characterize its feel the last sentiment of expiring pride when he relations with other states, the five powers declared that Switzerland ought to be independent of all ex- tary honors, on this ground of Sidi-Brahim, the the

was received with a flourish of trumpets and militraneous influences.

" The government of her majesty deems it of the atre of one of his most glorious victories. He prehighest importance to the general interests of Eu- served, during the whole journey, that melancholy rope, as well as the honor of the five powers, that gravity which is said to be his wont. On his arrithose engagements should be strictly and literally Gen. Cavaignac, and Lieut. Col. de Beaufort, he

val at the French camp, with Gen. de Lamoriciére, observed ; that so long as Switzerland abstains from all acts at variance with its character of neutrality his actions to his present fortunes, he humbly de

was presented to the Duke d'Aumale. Conforming the inviolability of its territories ought to be respected; and, consequently, that no foreign troops of the prince previous to taking his seat, and after

posed his sandals

upon

the threshold, waited a sign ought to penetrate those territories; that the liberty of Switzerland, and its independence of all foreign words, translated by the principal interpreter, M.

an instant of silence pronounced the following influence, ought to be maintained ; and, consequent- Rousseau : I should have wished to have done ly, that no foreign power ought to seek to exercise before what I have done this day ; I have waited a dictatorial authority in matters relating to the for the hour marked by God. The general has internal affairs of the confederation. “ No doubt, if the Swiss were to assume an ago fear to see it broken by the son of a great king,

I do not

pledged me his word, which I rely upon. gressive attitude with regard to their neighbors, the such as the king of the French. I ask his aman neutrality and inviolability guaranteed to Switzer- for my family and for myself.' His royal highland could not shield them from the responsibility of their aggressions. But at this moment the Swiss ness confirmed in a few words, at once simple and government of her majesty is therefore of opinion for him within the precincts of the hospital of Nehave not committed any such act of aggression. The concise, the promise of his lieutenant, and dismissed

the emir, who was conducted to the tents prepared that the guarantee contained in the declaration of the 20th of November, 1815, subsists in full force,

A last ceremony took place in the morn and that it ought to be observed and respected bý ing of the 24th Dec. At the moment the Duke all the powers which took part in that convention.

d'Aumale was returning from the review of the “I herewith transmit, for your convenience, a

cavalry which had returned to the camp, the emir copy of the declaration of the said 20th of Novem- principal officers, and alighting at some steps from

presented himself on horseback, surrounded by his ber, 1815.”

the prince, said: 'I offer you this horse, the last LIBERIA.—" An Old Subscriber" has sent to the I have mounted on; it is a testimony of my gratiMorning Post an interesting account of the decla- tude: I hope it will bring you happiness. I

mours.

accept it,' replied the prince,' as a homage paid | had been filed, to show that the mother was living in to France, whose protection will cover you for the great poverty in an attic, and that the children were future, and as a sign of forgetfulness for the past.' allowed to run about the streets in dirt, ignorance, The emir then saluted his royal highness with and vice. Mr. Talbot had made several attempts dignity, and returned on foot into the precinct of to persuade the mother to allow the children to be the camp. Abd-el-Kader is a man of about fifty- placed at school, but she had uniformly refused her eight years of age. We have in vain sought in his consent, unless the money were paid to her and left features the high distinction and the penetrating ex- under control. On one occasion she had consented pression we have so frequently heard spoken of by to leave the children under the care of Mrs. Taylor, persons who had seen him in his power. His phys- the sister of Mr. Talbot, if Mrs. Taylor would give iognomy, however, is intelligent; his eyes, large her pledge that she would discharge towards them and black, have a look at once harsh and imperious. the duties of a mother, but on that being given she His complexion is yellow, his face thin ; without refused her consent. Mr. Talbot was a gentleman being long, his beard is thick and ends in a point; of refined taste and manners, and incapable of any the ensemble of his face is austere; it recalls, ex- cruelty to the children, to whom, in fact, he was cept the expression of mildness, the traditional much attached. With a view to provide for the face of Christ ; his voice is grave and sonorous. mother, he had purchased a shop in Bishopsgate His stature, below the middle size, appears robust, street; but the business had been ruined by her exand is well-proportioned. His costume is the most travagance and mismanagement; and in consesimple of those worn by the secondary chiefs of quence of her ungovernable temper Mr. Talbot had the province of Oran-: black bürnous over two been obliged to dissolve his connection with her. white ones; the boot of common yellow morocco. The affidavit of Miss Johnson showed that when He is distinguished by no sort of luxury, not even the children were placed under her care, in Novemby that of cleanliness. It seems to us that we have ber last, the health and morals of the children were met a hundred times, in the midst of the Arab in a most wretched state. He (the learned counsel) goums, similar features and the same physiog- admitted that the putative father of illegitimate chiluomy.”

dren was not in the same position as the father of Queen's Bench, Jan. 11.-CUSTODY OF ILLE-children born in wedlock. He could not claim the GITIMATE CHILDREN.1.-EX PARTE THWAITES.— In

children as a matter of right; but he trusted, that this case a writ of habeas corpus had issued by di- as no fraud had been made use of to get the ehilrection of Mr. Justice Wightman, at chambers, dren, the court would refuse to interfere, and so commanding a lady named Johnson, who carries on Mr. M. Chambers, Q. C., contended that the ques

allow the children to remain where they were. a boarding-school in Cambridge-terrace, to bring up the bodies of three children in her custody, for the tion as to who was entitled the guardianship of the purpose of their being delivered up to their mother; But where the mother of iHegitimate children was

children would not be entertained in that court. Merina Thwaites. The children were now brought into court by Miss Johnson, in obedience to the in quiet possession of them, and they were taken writ, and the return which was read stated that the from her by force or stratagem, the court would children had been placed under Miss Johnson's care order them to be restored to her. Humanity would for their education, but that she was ready to obey dictate that course in a case like the present. Mr. the order of the court. Mr. Humfrey, Q. C., ap

Talbot, who passed under the name of Russell, was peared in support of the return, and moved that the a lieutenant-colonel in the British Auxiliary Legion, children should be allowed to remain under the care

and was by his fault that the mother was in the of Miss Johnson. Some years since a Mr. George

state of poverty which had been described. He Talbot had formed a connection with Merinal (the learned counsel) admitted that Colonel Talbot Thwaites, the mother of the children, and had had endeavored, by fair means, to get the children lived with her for several years, during which away, and, having failed, he then had recourse to period the children were born; but that connection a stratagem. The children were got away under had recently been broken off, and the mother with pretence of taking them to the Polytechnic Instituher children had since been in a state of the great-tion, and had never returned ; and the mother now est distress and poverty. The children were found claimed them back as her right. The learned counby the father to be in such a state of destitution and sel then cited several cases in support of the mothutter moral ignorance as to call for general sympa- and contended that the interests of the children

er's right to the children under the circumstances, thy; and the sister of Mr. Talbot, a married lady, would be better secured by restoring them to their having undertaken to bring them up, they were taken by the father and placed at school. The mother. Lord Denman intimated the opinion of ages of the children were respectively three, five, the court that the eldest child, who was above seven and seven years, so that two out of three were in- years of age, should be allowed to go to whom he capable of exercising any discretion ; but the eldest, pleased; but his lordship said the court would like a boy, who had just completed his seventh year, it to be informed whether Mrs. Taylor, the sister of left to his own choice, would, he (the learned coun

Mr. Talbot, was now willing to undertake the care sel) believed, choose to remain with Miss Johnson. of the other children. The case would, therefore, The mother of the children had stated, in her affi- stand over for a few days; in the mean time the davit, that she had been compelled to leave Mr. children would remain with Miss Johnson. Talbot in consequence of his brutal conduct in beat- INTERNATIONAL Amity.—(Dec. 27th 1847.)ing her and the children, and that she had gone to Sir,-A residence of twenty years in the United live with her mother and three sisters, and was States has afforded me much leisure for observation, there confined with her fourth child, and that during perhaps under circumstances more than commoniy her confinement the three children had been taken free from any bias of personal interest; and I trust to the Polytechnic Institution by a Mrs. Goodwin, to your candor to believe, that this long period of whom they had been several times been allowed to absence has not in the slightest degree weakened visit, but had not been brought back. The learned the zeal and warmth of my attachment to my native counsel read extracts from several affidavits which | England. It is the strength of this feeling that now prompts me to appeal to you, and request the in-tled in this country. He received some instruction sertion of a few lines, which, should they appear in at a school near the place of his nativity, but his your influential pages, may tend to promote views father conceiving that his education could be more which, however weakly expressed, appear to me of advantageously conducted in Holland, a consideragreat importance. I rejoice to perceive the fast- ble portion of his boyhood was spent in that country. increasing unpopularity of the truly hateful war Before his departure for the continent, however, he with Mexico, and entertain a strong hope that con- showed signs of a very precocious intellect, for he gress will arrest its progress. But while I acknowl- began 10 write verses at the age of ten, and in his edge this war to be most unprincipled and unjustifi- sixteenth year addressed a poetical epistle to Dr. able, I cannot but lament the tenor of the observations Johnson. After passing some time at Amsterdam in many English newspapers, as to the mode in and Leyden, where he acquired a knowledge of which it is carried on. The strong and irritating several modern languages, and where he applied language to which I allude necessarily gives much himself to classical studies with some attention, he offence in this country, especially to the best-inclined proceeded to the French metropolis. This visit to part of the community; for in truth people here are Paris took place in 1786. On his return to England, ignorant of the atrocities ascribed to the troops of after a course of continental travel, he published. the Union. The American Journals abound with several poems. “ The Defence of Poetry” appeared innumerable letters written from the seat of war, by in 1791 ; but, after a few copies had been sold, he men of all classes and parties, which are almost in- suppressed the whole edition, his motive for which variably silent as to these alleged flagrant acts; may was not very apparent, the literary merit of that we not therefore presume, that, if irue, they would production being beyond dispute. In his twentyhave been alluded to? There are not wanting mul- fourth year he gave to the world a volume consisttitudes of persons in this country who would gladly ing of his common-place book, with critical remarks, seize upon and exaggerate such details to the utter under the title of “Curiosities of Literature.” This most. But no; much as I deplore and condemn the single volume attracted attention in an age when war, I am compelled to admit ihat I never heard of a men of genius abounded. Mr. Disraeli's passion conquering army so clear of excess or barbarity as for literary history displayed itself at a very early that of America in the present instance. And when period of life, and in his latest years it never dewe think of the base and despicable conduct of the serted him. We therefore have his “ Quarrels of Mexican people, and their cruelty to all who fall Authors," in three volumes, his “Calamities of into their hands, I confess it appears to me, that in Authors," in two volumes, and his “ Illustrations this respect the Americans deserve infinite credit for of the Literary Character,” in one volume. To the their forbearance in victory. I ardently wish this early numbers of the “Quarterly Review” Mr. Diswere better understood in England, and that, in gen- raeli was a contributor. His review of “Spence's eral, a more gentle tone were substituted for certain Anecdotes,” in 1820, and a vindication both of the harsh, malignant expressions, too much designed moral and poetical character of Pope, produced the to create bitterness and exasperation. After all, famous Pope controversy, in which Mr. Bowles, among the wise and good and many such are to be Lord Byron, and others took part. In 1828 he found in America—there is a sincere and earnest commenced his work, which he gave to the world desire to be on terms of better feeling and more at intervals in the course of seven years, entitled friendly intercourse with England. To invite and the “Commentaries on the Life and Reign of contribute to this conciliatory spirit is my object in Charles I.” He was stricken with blindness in thus troubling you with these few plain observations the year 1839, and, although he submitted to the from-An ARDENT LOVER OF PEACE.

operation of couching, he could obtain no relief SAFETY Coats.—Messrs Earls and Co., of En- from a calamity most grievous to an historical au

thor. Nevertheless he soon took heart, and with niskillen, have just completed a ball-proof coat; the aid of his daughter, whose services he has elowhich has become an object of great curiosity. It is said to be quite impervious to the bullet of either quently referred to in his preface, he gave the world

some notices of the earlier period of our literary pistol, gun, or even blunderbuss; and it can be worn with the greatest ease either on horseback, in a gig, history, under the title of the Amenities of Liter

ature. or walking. An eye-witness states that he has seen

Besides the publications already referred pistol-balls fired at it, and they either glanced off or to, and others which we have perhaps omitted to fell flattened to the ground.

notice, Mr. Disraeli was the author, in his youth,

of several works of fiction, some of which, published MR. Isaac DISRAELI.—The father of the hon. anonymously, obtained considerable reputation. member for Buckinghamshire died on Wednesday Among these the more remarkable was Mejnoun at his country seat, Bradenham House, Bucks. He and Leila”- the earliest Oriental story in our literhad attained the advanced age of eighty-two years, ature which was composed with any reference to and a few weeks ago was in the full possession of the propriety of costume. The author was in this his usual health, and in the complete enjoyment of production much assisted by Sir W. Ousely, who his intellectual powers. The prevailing epidemic, first drew his attention to the riches of Persian pohowever, suddenly assailing a constitution enfeebled etry. The Rabelaisian romance of “ Flim Flams, by age, soon assumed an aggravated form, and at and the novel of “ Vaurien,” have both, we believe length this venerable gentleman sank under the at- with authority, been attributed to him. He died a tack. For the following abridged notice of his lit- widower, having lost his wife, to whom he had erary career we are indebted to the “ Times :".

been united for more than forty years, in the spring He was born at Enfield in the month of May, 1776, of 1847. He has left one daughter and three sons, and was the only child of Benjamin Disraeli, a the eldest of whom is the member for BuckinghamVenetian merchant, who had been many years set-shire.

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1. The Friends of the African,

Quarterly Review,

481 2. Memoir of Elizabeth Fry,

492 3. D'Aubigné's Germany, England, and Scotland, Spectator,

496 4. Cromwell's Unpublished Letters,

Examiner,

499 5. The Miller Correspondence,

Fraser's Magazine,

502 6. The Old Maid from Principle,

Chambers' Journal,

509 7. The Saint's Tragedy,

Spectator,

515 8. Lise and Writings of John Sterling,

517 9. Slave Trade and the West Indies,

Examiner,

519 10. Wales—the British Bæotia,

521 11. FOREIGN MISCELLANY. Irish Denunciations ; Scotch Iron; Espartero; Switzerland ;

Liberia ; Magnusen, the Iceland Philosopher; Abi el Kader ; Custody of Illegitimate
Children; International Amity; Safety Coats; D'Israeli,

522 – 527 Scraps.—Slave Caravans; Epigram on Gen. Taylor, 491.-General Movement; Modern

Meditative Man's Disadvantages; Ledyard the Traveller, 514.

PROSPECTUS.—This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor- of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with ourtwice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were ex-through a rapid process of change, to some new state of cluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the inerely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Vcyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.

and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shail systematically and very ully Quarterly, and other Reviews ; and Blackroood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreigo criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery ; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the morement—10 Statesmen, Divines, Lawthe sparkling Examiner, ihe judicious Atheneum, the yers, and Physicians—to men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazelte, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that tian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tail's, Ainsitorth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supplý from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnowing the wheat from the from the new growth of the British colonies.

chaff, by providing abundantly for the imagination, and The steamship has brought Europe, Asia, and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which 'shall be popular, while at the same time it wil all parts of the world ; so that much more than ever it I aspire to raise the standard of public taste. TERMs.-The Living Age is published every Satur- Agencies.-We

e are desirous of making arrangements day, by E. Littell & Co., corner of Tremont and Brom- in all parts of North America, for increasing the circulafield sts., Boston ; Price 124 cents a number, or six dollars tion of this work—and for doing this a liberal commissio a year in advance. Remittances for any period will be will be allowed to gentlemen who will interest themselve thankfully received and promptly attended to. U to in the business. And we will gladly correspond on this insure regularity in mailing the work, orders should be subject with any agent who will send us undoubted refer. addressed to the office of publication, as above.

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and cannot legally be charged with more than newspaper Complete sets, in fifteen volumes, to the end of 1847, postage, (14 cts.) We add the definition alluded to : handsomely bound, and packed in neat boxes, are for sale A newspaper is “any printed publication, issued in at thirty dollars.

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five weekly numbers. In this shape it shows to great

advantage in comparison with other works, containing in Binding.–We hind the work in a uniform, strong, and each part double the matter of any of the quarterlies. good style ; and where customers bring their numbers in But we recommend the weekly numbers, as fresher and good order, can generally give them bound volumes in ex- fuller of life. Postage on the monthly parts is about 14 change without any delay. The price of the binding is cents. The volumes are published quarterly, each volume 50 cents a volume. As they are always bound to one containing as much matier as a quarterly review gives is pattern, there will be no difficulty in matching the future eighteen months. valumes.

WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1845. Or all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind us the utmost expansion of the present age.

J. Q. ADAMS

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.—No. 201.-18 MARCH, 1848.

TO THE PUBLIC.

points, we can examine the evidence and reason

ings to very little purpose. The subject of the ether discovery has now 1. What was known before this discovery? been before the public for more than a year ; pam- In the specification accompanying the first paphlets have been published, and evidence in various tent, signed by both Dr. Jackson and Dr. Morton, shapes exhibited, by those who claim to be the dis- | is this passage-coverers; and it may now fairly be presumed that all the material evidence bearing upon the question has

It has been known that the vapors of some, if been produced. The trustees of the Massachusetts not all, of these chemical distillations, particularly General Hospital, a board of twelve gentlemen of those of sulphuric ether, when breathed or introthe highest consideration in the community, have duced into the lungs of an anima), have produced a

peculiar effect upon its nervous system; one which made a thorough investigation of the question, has been supposed to be analogous to what is usuthrough their committee, and published a unani- ally termed intoxication. It has never (to our mous report. This report has been unanimously knowledge) been known until our discovery, that accepted by the corporation. These gentlemen the inhalation of such vapors, (particularly those have had great advantages, independent of their of sulphuric ether,) would produce insensibility to personal characters and qualities, for conducting a

pain, or such a state of quiet of nervous action as to

render a person or animal incapable to a great extent, thorough and impartial inquiry. They are on if not entirely, of experiencing pain while under the the spot where the discovery was made, have had action of the knife or other instrument of operatiou personal interviews with the two claimants, (Drs. of a surgeon, calculated to produce pain. This is Jackson and Morton,) and with the most important our discovery. witnesses. They are none of them physicians, or

In other words, both the contending parties engaged in similar pursuits with either of the claiman ts; and whatever influences may attend

admit that it was known that the inhaling of ether previous scientific distinction and personal ac

would produce vapors

a peculiar effect,” but quaintance, were against the claimant in whose deny that it was known that this “ peculiar effect”

amounted to that extraordinary degree of insensifavor they have given their decision.

One of the 'claimants, Dr. Jackson, has refused bility—that death of all sensibility—which the to submit his cause to any tribunal whatever ; so

experiments in Boston demonstrated. that we can hardly hope that a decision will be

Dr. J.C. Warren, in his work on Etherization, obtained, carrying with it more weight than that (Boston, 1848,) says, (p. 2,) “ The general prop

erties of ether have been known for more than which we now have before us. Under these circumstances, a number of persons,

a century, and the effect of its inhalation, in prosatisfied of Dr. Morton's right to the title of dis- ducing exhilaration and insensibility, has been coverer, and desirous of having all the material understood for many years, not only by the scien

tific, but by young men in colleges and schools, facts, arguments, and documents, collected and put into a single pamphlet, in an orderly manner, and and in the shop of the apothecary, who have freunder some degree of personal responsibility, have quently employed it for these purposes.' requested me to perform this duty. I undertake it

Dr. Beddoes, in his work on Factitious Airs, as a professional service, and I desire to have it so

published at Bristol in 1795–6, gives several comunderstood by the public. I am responsible so far munications from Dr. Pearson, on the inhalation

of ether. as this : that I feel bound to thoroughness and ac

Sir Humphrey Davy, who had experimented in curacy, and to introduce no evidence that I do not believe to be worthy of credit.

this direction, says: As nitrous oxide, in its Richard H. DANA, JR.

extensive operation, appears capable of destroying 30 Court St., Feb. 22, 1848.

physical pain, it may probably be used with advantage during surgical operations in which no great effusion of blood takes place.”

Dr. C. T. Jackson, in the pamphlet published PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE ON THIS SUBJECT—NATURE under his sanction by Dr. M. Gay, in 1847, says,

that “ he was early impressed with the remarks of In order to an understanding of the question at Davy concerning the remedial agency of gaseous issue, it is necessary to direct our attention to two matters." points. 1st. What was known on the subject, Dr. Jackson again, in the same pamphlet, p. 5, before this discovery was made ? 2d. What is distinctly admits that “insensibility produced by the precise thing that makes this a discovery ? ether," was known to physiologists, and says the Unless we start with a clear idea on these two question was, whether this insensibility was of such

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CHAPTER I.

OF THE DISCOVERY.

CCI.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XVI.

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