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published the “Notes," an insurrection, engen- a planter in Trinidad, who, having ordered a sugardered by Mr. David Turnbull, the British consul, mill and engine of the value of 20001., prior to and Placido, a creole poet, had occurred in Cuba. 1846, saw the hopelessness of erecting it, and We shall spare our readers his details of the as- wrote to his correspondents to know at what reductounding cruelty with which this (so-called) rebel- tion they would consent to take it back. They lion was suppressed and avenged. The creole answer that if he will ship it direct to Cuba, they poet died like a hero and a Christian-shot to death will allow him the cost price for it, inasmuch as in the market-place of Matanzas, asserting his inno- they have more orders than they can fulfil for new cence, which is now universally admitted, to the machinery from that island. They further state, last; and when the officials, who declared they that since November, 1846, they have received were possessed of documents inculpating Mr. David similar orders from slave colonies to the amount of Turnbull, were invited to produce them, they stated 20,0001. ; their exports to our own colonies having that they had all been accidentally destroyed! Up- proportionately declined. Again, Messrs. Fawwards of a thousand of the negro population per- cett, of Liverpool, wrote thus on the 7th December, ished under the lash ;* for O'Donnell's commis- 1847 :sioners, captains and lieutenants of the Spanish

“The demand for machinery from the British army, long after the fears of the planters had colonies, and more particularly from the Mauritius subsided, persisted in visiting the plantations and and the West India possessions, has almost entirely in lacerating the leading negroes, under pretence ceased. At one time there was every prospect of of collecting further evidence, but really to extort considerable extension of the manufacture of sugar money from their owners. We have subsequently ceived a check since the admission of slave-grown

in British India, but we consider this to have rebeen informed, on unquestionable authority, that the general opinion of all parties now is, that there cultivation of the cane is greatly increasing in Bra

sugar, whilst there is every appearance that the never was any combination or concerted insurrec- zil, as you will observe from our list of orders; and tion at all ; indeed, the degraded and debilitated we have every expectation of a large demand from condition of the Cuban slaves, and the vigilance Cuba for steam-engines and cane-mills of large with which they are watched, render such a sup- power in the course of the coming year. It should position unworthy of credit ; the fact that two or nies are extensively supplied with machinery from

be borne in mind, too, that the Spanish slave colothree isolated gangs, exasperated by the intolerable the United States of America." cruelties of their administradors, rose and murdered their oppressors, having given rise to the panic

By a return just made to the house of commons, which occasioned these bloody results.

(Morning Post, December 27,) it appears that the Such was slavery in Cuba under a people pro

value of the machinery exported from England to verbial for their humanity to their slaves, as de-Cuba was, in 1845, 4,8071. ; in 1846, 16,2061. ; scribed by a zealous advocate of the system. The in 1847, (down to October 10,) 17,6441. The high prices of last year, and the prospect of a

corresponding figures as to Brazil are, in 1845. speedy admission on equal terms to the English 17,1301. ; in 1846, 19,0911. ; in 1847, 35,1231. markets, are not, we imagine, likely ameliora

The value for Cuba quadrupled-for Brazil it ; neither is the ruined condition of our sugar

doubled ! farmers calculated to further the cause of freedom,

The following details with regard to the condiin the eyes of slave-holding nations. The imme- tion of the slaves in Brazil—a country which does diate influence of our free-trade measures on the not pretend to consider negroes as fellow-creatures, African slave-trade is to be read in every packet or to refrain from the slave-trade—have been furfrom the coast. Prior to 1846 that traffic with nished to the British consul at Pernambuco, by the Spanish colonies had almost entirely died away

M. A. de Mornay, a gentleman, who, from his -nay, the Cuban proprietors were even contem- occupation as a civil engineer, enjoyed excellent plating arrangements for the emancipation of their opportunities of observation ; and will complete the slaves, finding their prospects destroyed by the information which we are desirous of laying before exclusion of their produce from our ports. Jacob the English nation at this crisis in our colonial Omnium graphically describes to us the reaction (that is to say, in our imperial) history :which occurred when the change in our policy was “ The greater number of engenhos are very defimade known to them, and his account is, we con- cient in slaves, and the consequence is, that much ceive, fully corroborated by the testimony of the work, not of immediate necessity for the production “ American Physician,” (whose volume, we hope, badly done, or else the slaves are very much over

of a large quantity of sugar, is left undone, or very will be reprinted here,) and by the reports which worked. There is a spirit of emulation amongst arrive from time to time from our unfortunate the Senhores d'Engenho to make a large quantity cruisers, and from that disgrace to the friends of of sugar with a small number of blacks; but instead the African and the colonial ministers of England of accomplishing this by the economization of labor --Sierra Leone. But there is Other evidence and by good management, it is generally done by

We have at this moment before us a letter driving the slaves at their work to the very extent from a firm of no great magnitude in Glasgow to of their strength, and even beyond it. This forced

work they cannot resist many years ; they become * In his despatches to the foreign office, Mr. Kennedy,

thin and languid, their skin dry and scurvy, and of the British commissioner then resident in Cuba, estimates a dark slate-color, instead of the polished black of the number so destroyed at 3000.

a healthy negro. During the season of the crop,




which lasts from September till February or March, / united number was some one hundred and thirty besides their usual day-labor from 6 A. M. to 6 P. slaves. Two thirds were females, and these young M., they are divided into two gangs to work in the women or girls. There were a few children. Nemill during the night; one gang working from six cessity teaches some of the best as well as the sterntill midnight, and the other from midnight till six in est lessons. A child of three years of age rode a the morning. Half an hour is allowed them for camel alone, and without fear. The poor little breakfast, and two hours in the middle of the day to creature knew if it complained or discovered itself take rest and food, except during the months of frightened it would be obliged to walk through the grinding, when they take their food when they best desert. The slaves were fed in the morning with can. Their work at this season is very hard, and dates, and in the evening with ghusub. Female it is common to see them alternately sleeping and slaves, after the style of Ăheer people, pounded the waking without interfering with their occupations. ghusub in a large wooden mortar just before cookThe boys in the 'manjara,' (a seat behind the ing. But they had little to eat, and were miserably horses of a cattle-mill,) fearing to be observed, get fed, except those who had the good fortune to be into the habit of sleeping for a second of time only, purchased by Haj Ibrahim ; for some of these imand of rousing themselves sufficiently to whip the provident stupid merchants had actually purchased horses, when they have another nap no longer than slaves without the means of keeping them. On the first. The black who carries away the cane arriving at the Wady, they sent jointly through trash from the mill, may often be observed taking a Haj Ibrahim to borrow a hundred dollars of the similar nap in the act of stooping to join the ends Bashaw of Mourzuk. The messenger was Mustaof the cane-leaves round his bundle ; and it appears pha. His highness kindly enough handed him over that they derive rest from these continued momen- | the money. All the masters carried a whip; but tary snatches of sleep during their night's labor. this was rarely used, except to drive them along During the times of sugar-making very few allow the road, when they lagged from exhaustion. Thus them Sunday. They are most insufficiently clothed, it was administered at times when it could least be and are fed upon such coarse salted meat and fish, borne, when nature was sinking from fatigue and that to this sameness of salt food, added to over- utler weariness ; and therefore was cruel and inhu-' work, may be attributed many of the bad diseases man. Yet only some twenty were sick, and two of the skin to which they are subject. A slight died. When very ill they were lashed upon the scratch, particularly of the legs and feet, often turns back of the camel. Some of the young women into a most inveterate sore. If there were not a that had become favorites of their masters expericonstant supply from the coast of Africa the slave- enced a litle indulgence. I observed occasionally population would rapidly diminish, and many sugar love-making going on between the slaves, and some engenhos, in a very few years, be unable to continue of the boys would carry wood for the girls. My their operations."

servant, Said, had one or two black beauties under A few sentences will show that Brazil in the innocent and correct character. Some groups of

his protection. But everything was of the most mean time has a fair supply. We copy part of a slaves were aristocratic, and would not associate letter from a naval officer, dated West Coast of with the others. The young females under the Africa, Oct. 9, 1847:

care of the shereef assumed the airs and auiitude

of exclusives, and would not associate with the rest. “I have come to the conclusion that our trying Every passion and habit of civilized is represented to suppress the slave-trade is all nonsense.

in savage life. A perfect democracy, in any counhave now five cruisers in the Bight of Benin, and within the last three months, to my certain knowl-try and state of society, is a perfect lie, and a levedge, 4000 slaves have been taken over to Bahia eller is a brainless fool

. There is also an aristoc

racy in crime and in virtue, in demons and in angels. safe and sound. “Since the sugar-duty has been taken off, the to give every one of his a blanket or barracan, more

The slaves are clad variously. Haj Ibrahim tried demand for slaves in South America has been very or less large. Besides this, the females had a short extensive. We are keeping a large squadron for chemise, and a dark blue Soudan cotton shortlittle or no purpose at all; the French cruisers are sleeved 'frock. Many had only this frock. The lukewarm in their exertions, and will be glad when the time arrives for their separation from poor creatures suffered more from the ignorant neg

ject of the Touaricks than the Tripoline merchants, England. "The way the slave-merchants manage now as with their former masters. Yet I am assured by

and their complaints and diseases usually begin regards paying for the slaves is of course in goods, Mr. Gagliuffi that the Touaricks of Aheer are inand those goods are principally English cottons, finitely better and kinder masters than the Tibboo tobacco, and an inferior sort of spirit. These goods merchants of Bornou, or even many Tripolines.are brought over by chartered vessels, mostly under Richardson's Travels in the Sahara. Sardinian colors, papers all right, backed by their consuls at Bahia—some French-and a few Americans, who are worse than all. Fast-sailing vessels

From the Public Ledger. come over, and in two hours ship their slaves and

Messrs. Editors :—The annexed (I like the are off the coast. We have been rather lucky in word) epigram, though unsuccessful in competition taking four vessels, (one with five hundred in ;) for a prize cup, some time ago, may, perhaps, hit being a steamer, it has given us the advantage : somewhere, if shot out of your " big gun." So, sailing vessels stand very little chance; the slavers fire away.

BLUNDERBUSS. laugh at them.” Such are already the effects of Lord John s meas. I know of one Taylor who makes very short speeches, ures of 1846.

And takes very short measure, but makes very big

breaches. SOME few particulars must now be recorded of He's a sharp hand at cutting, in all sorts of manner, the slave-caravans which I left in the Wady. The And he 'll fit us as well as he fit Santa Anna.

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From the Quarterly Review. censure—almost without observation. The quakerMemoir of the Life of Elizabeth Fry. Edited by habit and quaker-renown disarmed hostility, nay,

two of her daughters. Vol. I. 8vo. London, propitiated favor ; it secured the first introduction 1847.

to magistrates, to nobles, to ministers, to emperors. We do not disguise the increasing hesitation When so much was effected, the rest was sure ; with which we receive biographies founded on pri- her simple dignity of demeanor, her singularly vate notes and diaries that record, or seem to do musical voice, her easy, unaffected language, the so, the thoughts and struggles of the inmost heart. fit vehicle of her unfailing good sense, her earnest Any one of eminence, in the present day, who piety and unmistakable disinterestedness, enchained commits these things to paper, must do so under the most reluctant; and to every cabinet and court the full conviction that, like Castor and Pollux, as of Europe where religion and humanity could be he himself sets, his journals will rise ; and that maintained or advanced, she obtained ready adiniswhatever he has written in his closet will be pro- sion as a herald of peace and charity. claimed on the house-tops. Such a prospect of But, we must repeat, we take her as the exenvied or unenvied fame cannot but give a tinge to ception, not as the rule. The high and holy duties the sentiments and language ; cause the insertion assigned to women by the decrees of Providence of some incidents and reflections, and the suppres- are essentially of a secret and retiring nature ; it sion of others ; bring forward art at the expense is in the privacy of the closet that the soft, yet of nature ; and, in short, prompt every one to wear sterling, wisdom of the Christian mother stamps his best for the eyes of posterity. The autobiog- those impressions on the youthful heart, which, raphy included in the present work must, however, though often defaced, are seldom wholly obliterbe considered as in great measure exempt from this ated. Whatever tends to withdraw her from criticism. The larger proportion of it was written these sacred offices, or even abate their full force in early days, before journalizing had been reduced and efficacy, is high treason against the hopes of to a system, and secret cogitations forced into a nation. We do not deny that valuable services notoriety, like reluctant speakers of old into the may be safely, and indeed are safely, rendered by chair of the commons. Yet, while the stamp of many intelligent and pious ladies who devote their originality remains, we discern the traces of a hours of leisure or recreation to the Rarotongas revising hand—a hand guided by the experience and Tahitis of British Christendom-it is not to and feelings of maturer years, which apparently such that we would make allusion ; our thoughts has spared in candor much that it might otherwise are directed to that total absorption which, plunghave been wished to erase, and retouched the ing women into the vortex of eccentric and selfremainder, far less in vanity than in graceful timid- imposed obligations, merges the private in the ity, so soon as Mrs. Fry had perceived beyond a public duty, confounds what is principal with that doubt that, alive or dead, in true or false colors, which is secondary, and withdraws them from she was destined to afford a repast to the public labors which they alone can accomplish, to those appetite. In truth, however, we should be loath in which at least they may be equalled by others. to subject this publication to any ordinary criti- We may question whether, even here in the incism; it deals with common life, and yet soars stance before us, the indulgence of a special and above it; associates with man, and yet walks with manifest superiority was not sometimes purchased God; never so elevated as when grovelling in the by the postponement, or delegation to substitutes, mire, it exhibits a career that cannot be surpassed of those minute and unostentatious offices which —but which, we venture to add, ought not in all constitute the order, the preciousness, nay, the life its parts to be generally followed.

itself of domestic discipline. Much, no doubt, That this admirable woman had a special voca- was easy, and also permitted, to a lady whose tion for the office she undertook is manifest in notions and habits were founded on the practice every step of her progress; her intellectual con- of female ministration in matters ecclesiastical. stitution was singularly adapted to the peculiar It is beside our purpose to examine the scriptural task; add to this the zeal which governed the legality or social expediency of such a system : whole, an enthusiasm regulated but never chilled we glance at it now, merely to show the very by judgment ;—and we have a character armed at peculiar circumstances which fitted her, from her all points, ready to take up the gauntlet of every earliest years, for her public task. conceivable obstacle that could impede her in the Elizabeth Gurney was born of an ancient and accomplishment of her great design. Among sub- honorable race in the county of Norfolk. Her own ordinate, yet very real advantages, we cannot fail immediate family, having maintained the highest to count the succor she derived from her connec- respectability for many generations, has latterly tion with the Society of Friends. A little eccen- become conspicuous by all the gifts of talent, tricity of action was considered permissible, and munificence, and piety. To the care and undereven natural, in the member of a body already standing of their admirable mother (and is it not recognized as eccentric in opinions, eccentric in always so?) must be ascribed the development of dress, eccentric in language. Philanthropy, too, their moral and intellectual capacities ; the future had been the distinguishing characteristic of this character of Elizabeth owed not a little to that parrespectable brotherhood ; a devious effort for the ent's thoughtfulness and providential discipline interest of mankind passed in one of them without the unwearied patience, the chastened sensibility,

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the habit of prayer, and expansive love to all God's will not beguile us into a fulsome conceit of the works, that shone so eminently throughout her elevating and purgative powers of Quakerism.

She piously acknowledges the filial debt They are men of like passions with ourselves ; they in a short memoir, (p. 7,) which is well worthy of may be seen in Mark Lane and on the Exchange, perusal, not only as illustrative of the disposition and pursue their wealth and enjoy it with similar of the writer, but for the singularly sensible and zeal and relish. Nor are they fully weaned from appropriate remarks on the minute and considerate the rougher and more stimulating diet of political care required in the education of children. Much ambition. With the vow of separation upon them, in it recalls the early history of William Cowper, they have recently shaved their heads, and entered and exhibits the almost inconceivable sufferings en- the world of parliamentary service : how far they dured by youthful susceptibility and imagination, or the public have gained by this invasion of the the sources of genius, but oftentimes the elements Nazarites is beyond our experience. One of of sorrow

Here is the special province for the them, however, must have imbibed the humanizing action of the discriminating mother; and, doubt influence of “ Thou and Thee ;” since the friend less, had the infancy of that exquisite poet been who knew him best not long ago declared, that longer blessed by the tender guidance of his own “ If John Bright had not been born a Quaker, he admirable parent, his spirit might have assumed in would most assuredly have become a prize-fighter." some measure the practical character of Elizabeth The second period of Mrs. Fry's history may Fry, and preyed less fiercely and systematically on fairly be dated from her first adventure to survey itself.

those scenes of degradation and neglect, which she Every page of her early journal exhibits the was afterwards so efficiently to rebuke. Hitherto traces of this first direction to her juvenile thoughts. her journal has presented much sameness both of The desire of personal usefulness, though for some event and observation ; it was perhaps inevitable time feeble and indistinct, runs like a vein through in so limited a sphere. We are, nevertheless, of all her reflections and aspirations. She exhausts opinion that a freer use of an editorial pruningherself in conflicts, in hopes, and in fears; proves knife would have brought some advantage to the her heart like Solomon's with mirth, and finds it book, and comfort to the student. We pant amidst vanity ; braves sacrifices, conjures up doubts, and the ceaseless rush of new publications—excitement finally embraces the realities of gospel truth as the and distraction are the order of the day; and if the only assurance for herself, and the exclusive in- memory of every one who has figured in the world strument for the lasting welfare of mankind. Ev- is to be embalmed in three stout octavos, or two ery reader will be struck by the precocity she ex- with numerous pages and close type, we must hibits of mental power, and ascribe the originality either, excluding all the past, surrender ourselves of her remarks less to her experience of others than to the study of our deceased contemporaries; or to her study of herself. It was the clear percep-take the other extreme, and, like Parson Adams, tion of her own weakness that brought her to the intermeddle with “nothing since the days of Æs

one thing needful,” and which gives a catholic chylus.” value to the whole, as a guide and prop to those The state of Newgate at this time ould have who may hereafter tread the thorny path of moral been a shame to any fifth-rate duchy, the populaand social benevolence. We are amused, we con- tion of which could boast but little beyond poachers fess, by her struggles with Quakerism, and her and cut-throats; it was a fearful dishonor to the ultimate surrender to a pedantic system, by which metropolis of the British empire, a city as rich in her inner being could never be ruled. Though a means as in pretensions. The heroism that conmember of a sect, she in truth was no sectarian; ducted her steps into such scenes may be inferred but, underneath the ostentatious singularity of the from these few sentences of her amiable biogramob-cap and light grey mantle, bore a humble phers :heart—and a heart that could give honor to whom

“ All the female prisoners were at that time conhonor was due, whether he wore an ermine robe, fined in the part now known as the untried side, sleeves of lawn, or the foulest rags. We are at The larger portion of the quadrangle was then used a loss for her reasons ; the “Concern,” such is as a state-prison. The partition wall was not of the term, is not alleged in her journal to have sufficient height to prevent the state-prisoners from offered spiritual advantages unattainable elsewhere. overlooking the narrow yard, and the windows of She may have yielded to the persuasions of her the two wards and two cells, of which the women's

division consisted. These four rooms comprised many relatives, to the suggestions of convenience ; about 190 superficial yards, into which nearly 300 but, whatever the motive, she embraces, with true women with their numerous children were crowded ; self-devotion, the whole ; adopts, without reserve, tried and untried, misdemeanants and felons; withthe Friends' ceremonial law; and finds various out classification, without employment, and with no philosophical arguments to fortify the usage of other superintendance than that given hy a man and Thou and Thee,” (pp. 56, 61.) “I considered,” | his son, who had charge of them by night and by she observes, “ there were certainly some advan- day. Destitute of sufficient clothing, for which tages attending it; the first, that of weaning the bedding, they slept on the floor, the boards of which

there was no provision; in rags and dirt, without heart from this world, by acting in some little things were in part raised to supply a sort of pillow. In differently from it.”—“Vain science all, and false the same rooms they lived, cooked, and washed. philosophy!” Our deep respect for many Quakers. With the proceeds of their clamorous begging, when





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any stranger appeared amongst them, the prisoners (gences myself (if I thought it right) than curtail purchased liquors from a regular tap in the prison. theirs ; the lavish way in which most of their deSpirits were openly drunk, and the ear was assailed scription appear to think things ought to be used, is by the most terrible language. Beyond that neces- a trial to me, and contrary to my best judgment; sary for safe custody, there was little restraint over but a constant lesson to myself is the ingratitude their communication with the world without. Al- and discontent which I think I see and feel in many, though military sentinels were posted on the leads because I doubt not it is the same with myself. of the prison, such was the lawlessness prevailing, How bountifully am I dealt with, day by day, and that Mr. Newman, the governor, entered this por- yet if there be one little subject of sorrow or appation of it with reluctance.”—pp. 205, 206. rent discontent, do I not in my heart dwell upon Her Journal contains the following entry : innumerable mercies and blessings that surround

that, and not by any means sufficiently upon the 1813, 16th day, second month,” (Anglicè Febru- me? Feeling that I am so infirm, can I wonder al

Yesterday we were some hours at New- the infirmities of others ?"-p. 216. gate with the poor female felons, attending to their outward necessities; we had been twice previous- In the month of April, 1817, after several desly."

“Thus simply and incidentally,” continues ultory visits and experiments," an association was the editor, “is recorded Elizabeth Fry's first en- formed for the improvement of the female prisoners trance upon the scene of her future labors, evident- in Newgate.” It consisted of the wife of a clerly without any idea of the importance of its ultimate gyman, and eleven members of the Society of results."

Friends. Aldermen, turnkeys, constables, and all Some time elapsed before Mrs. Fry set herself the rank and file of law and justice, stood aghast in good earnest to the prosecution of her great de- in the contemplation of these Christian women sign; but meanwhile “ tribulation worked in her prompted, as they thought, by a silly, though genpatience; and patience, experience; and experi- erous enthusiasm, to lead the forlorn hope against ence, hope.” The loss of property, of relatives this fortress of misery and sin. “You see your and friends, and, above all, the death of a dearly materials,” said one incredulous sheriff—a fair beloved child, were providential instruments to specimen of those officials who did not refuse their adapt her to the work ;—to stir up and strengthen countenance to the work of these heroic ladies, but, in her heart a tender sympathy for the suffering of guided by the better part of valor, withheld their others; and convince her that in their spiritual coöperation :-“You see your materials ;” and improvement alone could be found for them an truly they were such as would have revolted any effective consolation. She has recorded in some ordinary appetite for the “luxury of doing good.” touching passages her grief and resignation in the We have already said something of the condition deaths of her brother John and her daughter Betsey ; of the gaol; we will add a sentence from the pen and we recommend them to the perusal of all who of Mary Sanderson, (p. 261,) the friend and coadmay be tried in a similar manner, as beautiful illus- jutor of Mrs. Fry :-" The railings," she says, in trations of the extent to which religion permits describing her first visit, “ were crowded with halfsorrow, and of its sole and glorious remedy.— naked women, struggling together for the front (pp. 225, 237, 241.)

situations with the most boisterous violence, and Nor was she without her minor vexations, those begging with the utmost vociferation. She felt as crosses and annoyances that dog the march of the if she were going into a den of wild beasts, and she Samaritan. It is the badge of all the tribe ; and well recollects quite shuddering when the door we shall extract a passage or two for those who closed upon her, and she was locked in with such are young in the walk, to teach them that great a herd of novel and desperate companions.” “On results must be attained through a succession of the second visit of Mrs. Fry,” say her biographers, small failures. Let such watch the manner in " she was, at her own request, left alone amongst which this modest heroine drew wisdom and cour- the women for some hours." We wish that she age from every disappointment :

herself had given us a detailed record of her enter“I am low under a sense of my own infirmities, prise ; it must have closely resembled the achieveand also rather grieved by the poor. I endeavored ment of Pinel. That great man, in the midst of to serve them, and have given them such broth and the Reign of Terror, bringing his work of love into dumplings as we should eat ourselves ; I find great strange contrast with the scenes around him, default has been found with them, and one woman manded and obtained permission to visit the Bicêtre, seen to throw them to the pigs; still persevering to and liberate as many of the supposed madmen as do my utmost for them, and patiently bear their re- his judgment should determine. He entered the proach, which may be better for me than their praises.

receptacle of degraded humanity; all was intensely " Tried by my servants appearing dissatisfied by dark; the yelling and the clanking chains struck a what I believe to be liberal things. I feel these deeper horror. Couthon, the regicide, who had things when I consider how false a view we may accompanied him, would proceed no further—" for take of each other, and how different my elings conscience doth make cowards of us all;" but Pitowards them are from being ungenerous; which I nel, strong in his benevolence and his convictions, fear they think. I know no family who allows exactly the same indulgences, and few who give the plunged into the cells; even furious captives were assame high wages, and yet I do not know of any one tounded into tranquillity by this invasion of mercy; so often grieved by the discontents of servants as fifty were set free by his own hands—and, basking myself. I believe I had rather go without indul- in the sun or crawling at his feet, they testified the



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