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memorial against some intended arrangements at French according to the usual manner, Frederic, the opera, the king's postscript is—“Elle est but ever afterwards Federic. payée pour chanter et non pas écrire."* Thus, From six till seven o'clock the king had again, when a veteran general had asked permis- usually a small concert, in which only musicians sion to retire, the official answer bids him recon- or a few amateurs of the highest rank were sider his request, and there follows, manu propriâ, admitted, and in which he himself played the the significant remark—"The hens that will not flute. By long practice he had acquired excellent lay I will not feed !"'

skill with that instrument. In his very last years, But, perhaps, the most curious of all is the fol- however, the decay of his front teeth deprived him lowing in five words to Baron Arnim, in which of this daily recreation. Thus losing the power five words it will be seen that three languages are to execute, he lost also the wish to hear, music; blended, and each of the three incorrectly :- and from that time forward he seldom appeared at “Scriptus est scriptus ; nicht raisoniren.”'I any concert.

In some, though not numerous, cases the post- During Frederick's earlier years his suppers script seems to us utterly at variance with the let- had become justly renowned from the wit of the ter. Thus when Colonel Philip Von Borcke guests whom he there gathered round him, and wished to retire from the army and to live on his from his own. Voltaire thus alludes to them in estates in Pomerania, the king (May 30, 1785) a sketch at that period of his royal patron's daily desired a letter to be drawn out for his royal sig- life :nature, stating “ that the said colonel has been

“ Il est grand Roi tout le matin, always found faithful, brave, and irreproachable in

Après dîner grand écrivain, times of war, and that his majesty has been con

Tout le jour philosophe humain, stantly satisfied with him ;" but in signing this

Et le soir convive divin ; document the king added with his own hand some

C'est un assez joli destin :German words to the following effect :-"Abschied

Puisse-t-il n'avoir point de fin!" for a Prussian who will not serve, and one ought But when, after 1763, the king discontinued his therefore to thank God that one gets rid of him." suppers, the void thus left in his evenings was Surely, whatever satisfaction or advantage the let- supplied by still frequently receiving a circle of ter might be intended to confer must have been distinguished men, as some of his generals, the turned into the very opposite by such an addition. Marquis d'Argens, Lord Marischal and Lucchesini.

When this correspondence was completed, the His usual plan was to begin by reading aloud to king sometimes took a walk-out of doors if the them a passage from some book, which served as weather was fine, or through his saloons if it a kind of text for the lively conversation which rained. Sometimes he conversed with his friend ensued. During the rest of the evening, or for Colonel Guichard, whom he had by patent new- the whole of it when no visitors came, the king named Quintus Icilius, or some other staff-officer ; was read to by one or more lecteurs, selecting sometimes he received the artists who had exe- either original French works or translations into cuted his commissions, or who brought him their French of the Greek and Latin classics. At about works to view. But whenever his leisure served, nine o'clock he went to bed. the hours between four and six, or what remained Such was the daily life of Frederick ; a life not of them, were devoted to his literary labors. It at all varied on Sundays or other holydays, but was during this interval that he composed nearly diversified by annual reviews of his troops and all the volumes in prose and verse which are now journeys to his provinces. From his alternate toils to be reprinted. Numerous, indeed, they are. in the field and labors in the administration, it As Voltaire says of him and to him, (March 24, might be supposed that he had in truth an iron 1772,) “Il a fait plus de livres qu'aucun des frame ; on the contrary, however, his health from princes contemporains n'a fait de bâtards !” his childhood was delicate and variable. But the

It is very remarkable, however, and not easily want of bodily strength was well supplied by his explained, that though Frederick practised author- ardent and indomitable soul. The following are ship for almost half a century—though every day his own expressions in a letter to Voltaire of the he was reading and writing German for business 7th September, 1776 :and French for pleasure—yet he never in any

“Quant à ma méthode de ne me point ménager, degree mastered the spelling of either language. elle est toujours la même. Plus on se soigne et To the last we find the strangest errors even in the plus le corps devient délicat et faible. Mon métier most common words. Thus he writes winter veut du travail et de l'action : il faut que mon corps HIVERD, old vieu, flesh CHER, actress ACCTRISSE, et mon esprit se plient à leur devoir. Il n'est pas and the word which in private life he most dis- nécessaire que je vive, mais bien que j'agisse. "Je liked, PEYER.

m'en suis toujours bien trouvé. Cependant je ne It is also singular that up to the close of May, prescris cette méthode à personne, et me contente

de la suivre." 1737, his majesty always signed his name in * June 30, 1776.

It may be observed that the sketch of the king's + To General Von Lax-Dehnen, January 8, 1773. daily life makes no reference whatever to a queen Two days after the king (according to his hint) granted consort; yet in 1733, under his father's dictation, the general his retirement, but refused him his pension.

1 Oct. 26, 1776-Urkunden-buch, vol. iii., p. 196. Frederick had espoused the Princess Elizabeth of


Brunswick-Bevern, who survived not only through told, he only remarked, “I did not think that the his whole reign of almost half a century, but even fellow had so much courage."* for eleven years afterwards, namely, till 1797. Frederick used to show especial anger and disThis princess was of exemplary character, filled pleasure whenever any man-servant contracted with admiration for the great deeds of her husband, either matrimony or a less legitimate connection and grateful for the slightest token of his notice ; with the other sex. The same prejudice subsisted and so benevolent, that of the 41,000 dollars as- against the marriages of his familiar friends and signed her yearly she devoted no less than 24,000 associates, as D'Argens, Quintus Icilius, and Le to purposes of charity. Like Frederick she had a Catt. It is said, however, that in the last few taste for literature; but, unlike him, loved to en- years of Frederick's life, and when himself probcourage the German rather than the French ; and, ably conscious of decay, he had become in all unlike him, also, she was embued with a deep and respects less ungracious and exacting to his housefervent, though unostentatious, feeling of religion. hold. For some years Frederick, dreading the resentment But although gusts and sallies of passion were of his imperious and brutal father, had lived with by no means uncommon with Frederick, we scarceher on apparently good terms; but on his own ly ever find them impel him in the transaction of accession to the throne he allotted to her the state-business. A few cases to the contrary might château of Schönhausen for her separate residence. be gathered from Dr. Preuss' volumes, but should To the end of her life she never even saw the new be considered as only exceptions. Thus, on one palaces at Potsdam. At Berlin, however, during occasion, a young man, a Land-Rath, in Brandenwinter, she had apartments in the royal palace ; burg, wrote to the king to state that a flight of the king used to dine with her in state three or locusts had appeared in his district. The king, in four times every year, and on all occasions showed his answer, expressed his disbelief that any of the her, as her character deserved, marks of his high plagues of Egypt could have strayed so far north. respect and esteem. But the union had been, Upon this the young Land-Rath sent to court some from the first, a constrained one; and he had little of the locusts in a box with air-holes, which box taste for hers, or indeed for any female, society; was no sooner opened by Frederick than the locusts men were, on all occasions, his chosen and favorite emerged and flew about the room, to his majesty's companions.

great annoyance and ire. He immediately deThere are some points however, real or alleged, spatched a cabinet order, which still exists, under in Frederick's private life, which we do not wish the date of September 27, 1779, directing that in to discuss at large. We shall waive any further future no man shall be admitted a Land-Rath withtestimony, and merely insert without comment the out being at least thirty-five years of age-his following extract from a despatch of our own dis- majesty, it adds, being determined to have hencetinguished countryman, Lord Malmesbury, when forth no “ children nor pert young fellows" in envoy at Berlin :

office-[Kinder und junge nase-weise.) “ At these moments when he (Frederick) lays

Another curious point in Frederick's private life aside the monarch and indulges himself in every was his passion for snuff and for lap-dogs. Of kind of debauchery, he never suffers the instruments the former, Lord Malmesbury (Diaries, vol. i., p. or partakers of these excesses to have the smallest (6) speaks as follows : influence over him. Some few he has rewarded ; discarded several; but left most of them in the same

“ The king is a great taker of snuff

. I could not situation he found them.'

even get a sight of his snuff-boxes, of which he has

a most magnificent collection. That he carries is The conduct of Frederick, as a master and in of an enormous size ; and he takes it not by pinches, his household, cannot be held deserving of praise. but by handfuls. It is difficult to approach him Some of his warmest admirers, as Dr. Preuss, that comes to the valets de chambre from the snuff

without sneezing. They pretend that the perquisite acknowledge that he was extremely harsh towards they get by drying his handkerchiefs is very conhis servants, chary in wages or rewards to them ; siderable." but, on the other hand, liberal of sharp reproofs and of blows both with his fist and with his cane.

With respect to his four-footed favorites, the king These, however, were their lighter punishments ;

had always about him several small English greywhen their offences seemed more serious they were

hounds ; but of these only one was in favor at a at once discarded, or sent to prison, or enlisted as

time, the others being taken merely as companions common soldiers. Thus, for instance, one valet and playmates to the fondling. Thus the others de chambre named Deesen or Deiss, was thought

were carried out at night and brought in again in to have embezzled some money, and had been the morning, while the chosen one slept in his ordered to enter the army as a drummer, when, on

majesty's own bed, and by day was allowed a the 23d of July, 1775, the unhappy man put a

special chair, well cushioned, and close at his side. pistol to his head, and fell a corpse in Frederick's All of them, however, had license as they pleased own ante-chamber. The king was startled at the to jump over or to spraw] upon the most costly noise, and asked what had happened ; on being articles of furniture ; and stuffed leather balls, as

* Compare Preuss, Lebens-Geschichte, vol. i., P: 424, * Despatch to the Earl of Suffolk, Berlin, March 18, note, with the despaich of Lord Malmesbury of July 29, 1776.

1775, giving a milder version of the king's reply.


playthings for them, were provided in the several stipends, as during his father's reign. The tragic apartments. Even during his campaigns Fred- fate of Luicius, who had been the Prussian envoy erick went attended by these canine companions. at the Hague in the time of Frederick William I., Thus, on the 8th of December, 1760, when the is told by Voltaire with much humor, and no doubt Marquis d'Argens entered the king's quarters at some exaggeration. During a severe winter this Leipsic, he found Frederick seated on the floor poor man had no money to buy fuel, and ventured with the dogs around, and a dish of fricasseed to cut down for fire-wood some trees in the garden chicken before him, out of which his majesty with of his official residence ; but the fact came to the a stick was pushing the most dainty morsels to his ears of his royal master, who by return of post favorite. As these greyhounds died they were sent him a reprimand, and told him that he should buried on the terrace of Sans Souci, with the name be mulcted on that account a whole year's pay! of each on a gravestone ; and Frederick in his will Upon this, says Voltaire—“Luicius désespéré, se expressed his desire that his own remains might coupa la gorge avec le seul rasoir qu'il eut. Un be interred by their side— parting token of his vieux valet vint à son secours, et lui sauva malattachment to them and of his contempt for man- heureusement la vie." kind! On this point, however, his wishes have There were only two of the king's tastes in not been complied with.

which he ever allowed himself to step beyond the Of fine horses, also, Frederick, like most emi- bounds of the most exact economy-in eating and nent commanders, was fond. Several chargers in building. As to the former, we have shown alwhich he rode were killed or wounded under him ready that he belonged to the Apician school. But during his wars. Many of them bore the names even there he closely weighed the cost.

He might of celebrated and contemporary ministers, as Choi- sometimes, though rarely, be extravagant beforeseul, Brühl, Kaunitz, Pitt, and Bute, not as being hand, but when once the dainties were devoured, gifts from these statesmen, but as a compliment to he would often murmur at the bill. Here is an them. But poor Bute's was a hard fate. When instance. On the 9th of November, 1784, there his namesake, the Scottish peer, forsook the alli- were several additional dishes at his table, and an ance with Prussia, and concluded a separate peace account of the extra expenses then incurred was with France, Bute, the thorough-bred steed, was next day presented to him. It amounted to 25 in requital condemned to be yoked with a mule, thaler 10 groschen and if pfennigs. But his and employed in drawing to and fro the orange- majesty, with his own hand, wrote upon the martrees on the terraces at Potsdam.

gin : A robbery ; for there were at table about During the last ten years of his life, Frederick's an hundred oysters, which would cost 4 thalers ; favorite horse for his own riding was called Condé. the cakes 2 thalers ; the quab's liver 1 thaler; the Almost every day he was brought before his royal cakes of Russian fashion 2 thalers: altogether it master, and fed with his own hand with sugar, figs, might be, perhaps, 11 thalers; the rest a robbery. and melons.

To-day there was one extra dish ; herrings with The strict economy of Frederick had been at pease ; it may cost 1 thaler ; therefore everything first enforced from the straits in which his father above 12 thalers is an impertinent robbery. left him; it was afterwards recommended by the "(Signed)

FREDERICK." poverty of his provinces. From such provinces it As to building—if we observe the passion for was no light matter to raise, the sinews of war it, whenever it is once engaged in, it may perhaps against Austria, Russia, and France combined. deserve to be ranked among the highest and most From such provinces, even during the later years engrossing of human pleasures. The case of of peace, it was no easy task to maintain the larg- Frederick was no exception to this rule. He took est standing army in Europe, and to accumulate an ever fresh delight in the construction of new as treasure in reserve several millions of dollars in palaces and in the adornment of the old. In this the vaults of Magdeburg. Yet still this great department, as in most others, he had by his invirtue of economy, to which, next to his military domitable application acquired both knowledge and genius, Frederick owed his triumphs, when it came skill, and was able, though not always quite sucto be extended to trifles, or applied to points where cessfully, to direct his architects. There comsplendor is one element of usefulness, seems to monly lay at his side the volumes of Palladio and belong to the domain of Molière, and grow into Piranesi, from which he would give designs, or the part of Harpagon. Thus, at the king's own suggest ideas, for any of the new constructions in table, not a bottle of champagne was to be opened progress. He never issued any order for a buildwithout his own special command. Thus again, ing without a previous estimate of its expense. as we are told by Müller, the historian of Switzer- Yet, notwithstanding this wise precaution, when land, Frederick on one occasion, when examining his palace of Sans Souci came to be completed, the budget of his principality of Neuchatel, detected he was himself startled at the cost, and ordered and exposed an error of only three sous. Thus, that the accounts should be burned, so that no exalso, to the very close of his reign, he never ena- act knowledge of them might reach posterity. bled the Prussian envoys at foreign courts to as- The correspondence of Frederick was most mulsume a state at all commensurate to the importance tifarious, extending not only to ministers and stateswhich their country had acquired, but condemned men, but to many eminent authors and familiar them to languish in obscurity on most inadequate friends. On business his letters were always clear, brief, and to the point, and frequently deserve the We will subjoin the baron's' reply ;praise of an humane and benevolent spirit greatly in “Sire-Je supplie très-hemblement votre Mar advance of his age. Thus, when one of his sub- jesté d'agréer mes très humbles remercimens pour jects, in 1782, applied for the use of the Prussian le beuf qu'elle a bien voulu m'envoyer. Si je ne flag in carrying on the slave trade, the king replies l'ai pas adoré comme le Dieu Apis, je l'ai du moins as follows :

reçu avec toute la vénération que mérite son air

respectable. Une foule de peuple l'a admiré à ma “ La traite des nègres m'a toujours paru flétris- porte, et a cru que je l'en régalerais, et l'a vu consante pour l'humanité, et jamais je ne l'autoriserai duire avec envie dans mon écurie, dont il ne sortira ni la favoriserai par mes actions. D'ailleurs vous que pour être sacrifié au plus grand des Monarques ; prétendez acheter et équiper vos vaisseaux en cérémonie qui sera accompagnée de cris sincères France et décharger vos marchandises de retour de Vive le Roi ! Votre Majesté me permettra de dans tel port de l'Europe que vous jugerez à pro- finir ma lettre par ce cri, que je réunirai toute ma pos, et c'est encore un motif de plus pour vous vie au profond respect avec lequel je suis, Sire, &c. refuser mon pavillon. Toutefois si ce négoce a PÖLLNITZ.* tant d'appas pour vous, vous n'avez quà' retourner Berlin, ce 7 Février, 1765.” en France pour satisfaire votre goût! Sur ce je

But the favorite correspondence of Frederick at prie Dieu qu'il vous ait en sa sainte et digne this time, as the most interesting to us now, was garde. FEDERIC." *

with Voltaire. Considering the violent and public To estimate the full merit of this letter, let it breach between them in 1753—the contumelious be remembered how far in the rear was still the arrest on one side, and the biting pleasantries on the feeling of England on this subject at this date of other—it might have been supposed that these two 1782. How large a majority amongst ourselves eminent men would have ever thenceforth stood asunwere still firmly determined to maintain that in- der ; but the king's admiration for his late prisoner famous traffic! How many years of unrewarded at Frankfort was most ardent and sincere. He thortoil were still in store for Wilberforce and Clark- oughly believed, as he says in more than one passon !

sage of his writings, that Voltaire, as an epic poet The letters of Frederick to his friends, personal surpassed Homer, as a tragic poet Sophocles, and and literary, seem to us greatly superior in merit as a philosopher Plato. He never doubted that and interest to any of his other writings. Though the author of the “ Henriade," and of the “ Agsometimes to our misfortune studded with his own nales de l'Empire,” would be the main dispenser mawkish verses, they are often instructive and al- of fame for his own day. On the other hand, most always entertaining. The following may Voltaire was by no means insensible to the honor serve as a short but agreeable specimen of his of numbering a monarch amongst the imitators of lighter style. It is addressed to one of his cham- his versification and the pupils of his philosophy. berlains, the veteran Baron Pöllnitz, who had just Nor can any man who writes history be insensible presented him with an unusual dainty—a turkey to the higher merits of him who makes it—who, fattened upon walnuts.

instead of merely commemorating, performs great "Monsieur le BARON-Le dindon que votre deeds. Thus, even in the midst of their quarrel, Sérénité a eu la bonté de m'envoyer a été servi ce the seeds of reconciliation remained ; and withio midi sur ma table. On l'a pris pour une autruche, a very brief period there again arose between tant il était grand et pompeux; le goût s'en est them a regular correspondence, and an exchange trouvé admirable ; et tous les convives ont convenu of graceful compliments. In 1775, for example, avec moi que vous étiez fait pour vous acquitter bien de tout ce que vous entrepreniez. Il me serait dou- the king sent to Ferney a bust of Voltaire in Berloureux, Monsieur le Baron, de rester en arrière lin porcelain, with the motto IMMORTALI ; and vis à vis de vous, et de ne pas songer à votre cui- Voltaire replied in the following lines : sine comme vous avez eu la bonté de penser à la “ Je dis à ce héros, dont la main Souveraine . . mienne ; mais comme je n'ai pas trouvé parmi les Me donne l'immortalité, volatiles d'animal assez grand, et digne de vous Vous m'accordez, grand homme, avec trop de bonté, être offert, je me suis rejeté sur les quadrupèdes. Des terres dans votre domaine !'' Je vous avoue que si j'avais pu trouver un éléphant

“ Avoir vécu dans le siècle de Voltaire ; cela blanc du Chah de Perse, que je me serais fait un plaisir de vous l'envoyer. Faute de cela, j'ai eu me suffit !" | exclaims the king. “Je mourrai," recours à un bæuf bien engraissé. Je me suis dit cries the philosopher, avec

le regret

de n'avoir à moimême ; un bæuf est un animal utile, labo- pas achevé ma vie auprès du plus grand homme rieux et pesant; c'est mon emblême ; l'age qui me de l'Europe, que j'ose aimer autant qu'admirer !” I mine m'apesantit tous les jours ; je voudrais être The two friends, however, while thus exchanging laborieux et utile, et pour vous l'être en quelque laurel crowns, knew each other well; and whenfaçon vous voudrez bien accepter, Monsieur le Baron, le petit meuble de basse-cour que je prends

ever they wrote or spoke to third parties were far la liberté de vous offrir ; et comme je ne me suis from gentle in their epithets. Sir Andrew Mitchpas fié sur ma propre habileté, je l'ai fait choisir ell, for many years our envoy at Berlin, informs chez le plus expert de tous les engraisseurs. Sur us : " What surprises me is, that whenever Volce, je prie Dieu, &c. FEDERIC.

taire's name is mentioned, his Prussian majesty " à Potsdam, ce 6 Février, 1765."

never fails to give him the epithets he may do* Potsdam, ce 18 Avril, 1782. Urkunden-buch, vol. iv., * Underkun-buch, vol. iii., pp. 134, 135.

+ A Voltaire, le 24 Juliet, 1775. t Urkunden-buch, vol. iii., pp. 134, 135.


* Au Roi de Prusse, le 11 Février, 1775.

P. 296.

serve, which are the worst heart and greatest ras- With strangers, on the contrary, or with those cal now living ; and yet with all this he continues whom he wished to please, Frederick knew how to correspond with him !" * Voltaire, on his to pay a compliment with inimitable taste and skill. part, handled the character of Frederick with How graceful, for example, his exclamation to more wit, but equal rancor. In his secret cor- General Laudohn, the most able of his adversaries, respondence with D'Alembert and others he often during the interviews with the emperor's court in -besides other bitter jests—gives the king a 1770, when he saw the general seated on the other covert nickname intended to convey a most foul side of the table : “ Pray, sir, take a place at my reproach. And whenever during the seven years' side ; I do not like to have you opposite !" war any disaster befell the Prussian arms, there In his correspondence, as in his conversation, the went forth two sets of letters from Ferney—the king seldom referred to the Christian faith without one to Frederick expressing his sympathy and sor- a scoff or a sneer. Having entirely made up his row—the other to some minister or general on the mind against its truth, he seems to have considered opposite side, urging the allies to pursue their vic- it unworthy of serious argument or even of reverent tory and to complete the ruin of his friend. mention. He alludes with peculiar contempt to

The rich flow of Frederick's conversation is the piety of the poorer classes : “ Ce paysan," acknowledged and praised by all who had ap- says he, in one passage, “ qui parlait du Seigneur proached him, and chiefly by those who had them- Dieu avec une vénération idiote !"* But there selves a similar skill. In that respect there can were several points of philosophy or natural rebe no higher testimony than the following from ligion which Frederick loved to discuss and to hear the Prince de Ligne :

discussed in his presence. Foremost among these “ Il avait un son de voix fort doux, assez bas, et was the immortality of the soul. It is not easy to aussi agréable que le mouvement de ses lèvres, qui say to which side of that great question his own avait une grâce inexprimable ; c'est ce qui faisait je belief inclined. Passages on both sides might be crois qu'on ne s'apercevait pas qu'il fût, ainsi que cited from his writings. Nay, there is one letter les héros d'Homère, un peu babillard mais sublime. to Voltaire which, as it seems to us, assumes each On ne pouvait certainement pas trouver un plus opinion by turns in the course of the same sengrand parleur que le Roi, mais on était charmé qu'il

tence : le fut!"

“ Ma santé baisse à vue d'æil, et je pourrais bien It is plain, however, that the king, who was, as we shall presently see, a warm partisan of monop- dans ce pays où nos chagrins, nos plaisirs, et nos

aller entretenir Virgile de la Henriade, et descendre 'olies in commerce, used to extend the same sys- espérances ne nous suivent plus, où votre beau génie tem to his conversation. The Prince de Ligne, et celui d'un goujat sont réduits à la même valeur, in the same account of his interview, adds with ou enfin on se trouve dans l'état qui précède la much naïveté ; " Encore, me disais-je à moi-même, naissance." (31 Oct. 1760.) il faudra bien que je dise un mot !” + With his own dependents Frederick loved to

Now, if, as the latter part of the sentence intimates,

Frederick really held the gloomy faith of the anseason his conversation with practical jests. Thus,

cient Roman : finding that the Marquis d'Argens was a hypochondriac as to health, he was wont sometimes in their “Quæris, quo jaceas post obitum loco ? interviews to interrupt himself with an exclamation Quo non nata jacent”on the ill-looks of his friend, upon which the poor —it is plain that there could be no prospect, as in marquis used to hurry home in affright and keep the first part of the sentence, of communing with his bed for the twenty-four hours following! Thus the spirit of Virgil or with any other. So inconagain, one day with the Baron de Pöllnitz, who sistent with itself is infidelity! was always in want of money, and who had al

The private life of Frederick in his later years ready changed his religion, the king slily threw out

as we have now portrayed it, without, as we besome hints as to a rich canonry in Silesia then lieve, either exaggeration or concealment, contains vacant and ready for a friend, upon which Pöllnitz, beyond all question much that is harsh and strange, as Frederick had foreseen, swallowed the bait, and

many things which may be laughed at, and many that very evening publicly abjured the Protestant which must be lamented. With such a life it for the Roman Catholic faith. But when next day

seems at first sight incredible how even the interhe hastened back to court to announce his conver- ested adulation of the French philosophists could sion and to claim the benefice, he was told by award him the epithet of “Great.” Perhaps, too, Frederick, to his great dismay, that the prize had

our satisfaction at this epithet will hardly increase just before been granted to another candidate. His when we are told how freely it was adopted by majesty added with a bitter taunt, though with hiniself-how frequently the words FRIDERICVS affected sympathy, “Que puis-je faire pour vous Magnvg" appear on his own inscriptions. But maintenant ? Ah! je me rappelle qu'il me reste how changed the scene when we come to view the encore à nommer à une place de Rabbin ; faites

same character from another aspect—as a statesvous Juif, et je vous la promets !''I

man or a warrior! The injustice of all his wars * See the Chatham Papers, vol. ii., p. 30.

--since all arose in fact from his robbery of Silesia + Lettres du Maréchal Prince de Ligne, vol.i., p. 46, ed. in the first year of his reign, with no other right 1809. * Thiebault, Souvenirs de Berlin, vol. iii., p. 84, ed.

* A Voltaire, le 3 Février, 1742.


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