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when, at midnight, and under the light of a waning | believe that her biography will be a monument to moon, the monster was born, is his sudden appa- his memory, as lasting as the Euganean hills ; and rition upon a glacier among the high Alps. This her lament over his loss as sweet as the everlasting scene strikes us the more, as it seems the fulfil- dirge, sung in their “late remorse of love," by the ment of a fear which all have felt, who have found waters of the Italian sea. themselves alone among such desolate regions. Who has not at times trembled lest those ghastlier

From Chambers' Journal. and drearier places of nature, which abound in our

SCHOOL OF INDUSTRY FOR TAUGS. own Highlands, should bear a different progeny from the ptarmigan, the sheep, the raven, or the

Some years ago we gave our readers a sketch eaglelest the mountain should suddenly crown

of the race of hereditary robbers and murderers in itself with a Titanic spectre, and the mist, dispart- strange as it is pleasing, of describing a series of

India called Thugs; and we have now the task, as ing, reveal demoniac forms, and the lonely moor measures by which, in the part of the country where discover its ugly dwarf, as if dropped down from the experiment has been iried, these preternatural the overhanging thunder cloud—and the forest of monsters have been already converted into quiet and pines show unearthly shapes sailing among their useful citizens. We are enabled to do this by the shades—and the cataract overboil with its own wild kindness of a stranger who dates in July last from creations ? Thus fitly, amid scenery like that of Jubbulpoor, in the Saugor and Nerbudda territory.

He describes himself as some dream of nightmare, on a glacier as on a but one interested in his fellow-beings ;” and he

a poor uneducated man, throne, stands up before the eye of his own maker, addresses himself to this journal in gratitude for its the miscreation, and he cries out,

efforts in the cause of human amelioration, and from “Whence and what art thou, execrable shape ?” his desire to take advantage of a circulation which

is not confined to one country, or one hemisphere, In darkness and distance, at last, the being dis- in giving publicity to some important suggestions. appears, and the imagination dares hardly pursue He begins his communication by referring to our him as he passes amid those congenial shapes of account of the Dundee School of Industry in March colossal size, terror, and mystery, which we fancy should be glad to have a sketch of a similar estab

last, a perusal of which led him to suppose that we to haunt those outskirts of existence, with, behind lishment in India, whose objects are not pilferers them at midnight, “all Europe and Asia fast and beggars, but outlaws of nature as well as of asleep, and before them the silent immensity and man, who inherited from their ancestors, as their Palace of the Eternal, to which our sun is but a sole fortune and profession in the world, the trade porch-lamp."

of assassination ! Altogether, the work is wonderful as the work Jubbulpoor, we may premise, is a town of about of a girl of eighteen. She has never since fully in India, for ignorance and superstition. Its neigh

20,000 inhabitants, and somewhat remarkable, even equalled or approached its power, nor do we ever borhood was specially infested with Thugs and poiexpect that she shall. One distinct addition to our soners, and its citizens, to a man, were—and most original creations must be conceded her-and it is of them are still-devout believers in the grossest no little praise ; for there are few writers of fiction species of sorcery. We mention this to show that who have done so much out of Germany.

What the singular school of industry we are to describe are they, in this respect, to our painters—to Fu- set out with no peculiar advantages of locality. seli, with his quaint brain, so prodigal of unearthly suppression of Thuggee, arose from the vast extent

The grand difficulty that was at first found in the shapes—to John Martin, who has created over his of the territory it pervaded, and the want of local head a whole dark, frowning, but magnificent courts for the special cognizance of that gigantic worldor to David Scott, our own most cherished crime. Such tribunals were at length formed in the friend, in whose studio, while standing surrounded capital cities of various native princes, with our resby pictured poems of such startling originality, idents for their judges; while at Jubbulpoor, Colosuch austere selection of theme, and such solemn nel Sleeman established himself, in 1836, as chief dignity of treatment, (forgetting not himself, the of this meritorious officer, murder was now no

superintendent of the whole. Thanks to the energy grave, mild, quiet, shadowy enthusiast, with his longer permitted to traverse the country unchecked. slow, deep, sepulchral tones,) you are almost Upwards of a thousand Thug families were appretempted to exclaim, “How dreadful is this hended, and sent in to Jubbulpoor for trial; and as place!"

everything is on a great scale in India, it was no Of one promised and anticipated task we must, uncommon thing to see in a single morning fifteen, ere we close, respectfully remind Mrs. Shelley ; it wenty, even twenty-five,

of these wretches swing

ing upon the gallows. The consequence of this is of the life of her husband. That, even after virtually humane severity was, that the whole race Captain Medwyn's recent work, has evidently yet was seized with a panic; the gangs separated and to be written. No hand but hers can write it well. fed ; their individual members, of course, found Critics may anatomize his qualities—she only can their occupation gone; and in a space of time wonpaint his likeness. In proclaiming his praise, ex- derfully short, a system that had been for hundreds aggeration in her will be pardoned ; and in unveil- of years rooted in habit and religion was broken up

and destroyed. ing his faults, tenderness may be expected from

But all the convicts could not be hanged, and her; she alone, we believe, after all, fully under

many were found useful as approvers in obtaining stands him ; she alone fully knows the particulars the conviction of the rest, as they were captured of his outer and inner history; and we hope and from time to time. Of these there had collected


at Jubbulpoor, in the year 1837, 450 men with their within a week. The latter, however, were rewives and families, who resided during the day in jected; for Mr. Williams had become uneasy at a walled village in the neighborhood built on pur- the idea of leaving so many desperate men together pose for their reception, while at night the men in a village guarded by only four sentries. It was were locked up in the jails of the town. Each necessary to proceed by degrees, and let the cifamily, according to size, received from four to devant Thugs feel their way to the comparative eight shillings a month for its support; but as the freedom of the village. mouths increased in number, this grew more and The first twenty boys were taught the manufacmore inadequate, and the children were sent out by ture of Brussels carpeting by an expert weaver their parents to work, beg, pilfer, or forage for from Mirzapore, and in three months were able to themselves in any way they thought proper. Col- go on without their master. Another score of boys onel Sleeman saw that this system could not go on. were then admitted ; and in six months there were As the children grew up, their wants would be in all fifty boys, under ten years of age, busily emgreater, and their will stronger, and the convict ployed in carpet-weaving. But although such a village would turn out to be a nursery of crime. luxury as Brussels carpets might employ fifty boys Under these circumstances, he suggested to his even in India, it could not afford occupation for hunable and energetic assistant, Lieutenant Brown, the dreds; the overseer, therefore, constructed another necessity of their attempting to introduce habits of shed similar to the one built by Lieutenant Brown, industry among the convicts and their families. and set more approvers and boys to the manufac

Lieutenant Brown set to work with his custom- ture of cotton cloth. And coiton cloth they did ary alacrity, and erected a few sheds near his own manufacture to a considerable extent; but, unluckhouse, where he induced about two hundred of the ily, when they came to sell it, they found the long approvers themselves to repair, for the purpose of cloths of another hemisphere offered in the bazaar working at some common manufacture. These at two shillings for six yards, while for the same men, however, had never in their lives tried their money they could not afford more than seven of hands at anything but murder, and such work as their own, as coarse as dowlas. This now, of they were now set to did not come kindly to them. course, remained unsalable. “ Read this, men of Their reward was to be the profit on the articles Manchester !” says our correspondent. “ In the manufactured ; but the manufacture was so bad, I valley of the Nerbudda, where cotton is cheaper and the profit, in consequence, so small, that the than in any part of India, and where labor is ihe laborers became first discontented, then disgusted, cheapest in the world—being six shillings a monih . and then enraged, at their having condescended 10 for weavers who will work with an Indian loom anything at once so mean and unprofitable as reg- twelve hours a day—in that valley you can sell ular industry. One day, in order to make an end cheaper cloth than is produced at our very doors, of the business, they set fire to the whole plant, although, to say nothing of the sea voyage of so and burned it to the ground. Here they had reck- many ihousand miles, you have to bring your manoned, however, without their host, Lieutenant ufacture 800 miles inland, and pay duly on it four Brown; for the circumstance only made him the times after it has left Calcutta !" more determined and peremptory. He turned out What was to be done? The cloth must be used the whole village morning and evening for six —the work must go on. It was suggested by the hours, to make bricks sufficient for a shed eighty overseer to turn the stuff into tents; and although feet by forty; and having completed the building, these had hitherto been supposed to require expert he borrowed £50 from the government to roof it workmen, no one now saw a difficulty in teaching in. The lieutenant himself, however, had to attend the Thugs anything. Expert workmen were brought to his magisterial and other duties from ten till five from Futryghur; and in twelve months, 100 people o'clock; and the native guards were useless in su- were employed in making tents, stamping the chintzes perintendence, as they stood in the most abject awe for lining, turning the poles, making carpets, ropes, of their desperate prisoners, and allowed them to and a score of other articles indispensable for a Benwork or play just as they pleased. He applied, gal tent. From the year 1840 to 1847, this estab therefore, for an overseer, and obtained, in 1840, lishment has increased tenfold; it has now upwards the services of a Mr. Williams, a daring and inde- of twenty large workshops, built in good style by the fatigable officer, who kept four hundred deperadoes Thugs themselves; and among the hands are 150 at work from seven A. M. till five P. M., thrashing boys, most of whom earn more than ordinary workwith his own hands the idle and refractory. Under men in the town. The original 450 murderers by this discipline, the convicts were able in two years birth and profession who have thus been brought to spin hemp, weave common carpeting, make into habits of industry, are represented as exhibitcoarse towels, door-mats, &c., all of which were ing every appearance of contentment and comfort : sold at Jubbulpoor and the surrounding stations. their children are growing up respectable members

It was now considered advisable to make an at- of the new form of society of which they are a part ; tempt with the children; and the approvers were their wives keep their houses and village clean, and informed that all who chose might bring their sons add to the family funds by spinning thread at their to the factory, who would be caught a trade, and leisure hours, which is purchased at the factory. receive a monthly stipend. Not one appeared. It The wages paid to them average £80 a month ; was the idea of the parents that the real object of and the goods sold exceed £300 a month. In fine, the government was to make their children Chris- the paltry outlay of the government has been already tians; and although they, the prisoners, must work returned, and the establishment supports itself. under compulsion, they were determined to place We have but one more trait to add to this cheertheir offspring, who were free, under no such sus- ing picture. The question is no longer how 10 picious subjection. Mr. Williams at length offered, induce the attendance of the children at the factory ; as a premium to such parents as should comply, but, on the contrary, the advantages derivable from the privilege of sleeping in the village, instead of permission to do so are so manifest, that the superbeing locked up in the jail at night; and the conse- intendent is able to make a condition with their quence was, that twenty boys appeared at the fac- parents. The condition is, that the children attend tory the next morning, and one hundred more la school provided for them, and learn to read and

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write before being admitted to work! Notwith them all be off, or he would have their heads from standing all this growing prosperity, our readers their shoulders. He had a bow and quiver full of will be surprised to hear that Mr. Williams has as arrows over his shoulders, a brace of loaded pistols yet no assistant but a single native clerk to keep in his waistbelt, and a sword by his side, and was the accounts of the establishment. This would be altogether a very formidable-looking cavalier. In incredible to those who are not aware of the wild the evening, another party, that lodged in the same extravagance of the company in matters of show surae, became very intimate with the butler and and bloodshed, and the miserable per centage on groom. They were going the same road; and as their princely revenue which they devote to the the Mogul overtook them in the morning, they made purposes of education and national progress. There their bows respectfully, and began to enter into are various persons in this country, however, who conversation with their two friends the groom and have an opportunity, as our correspondent suggests, the butler, who were coming up behind. The Moof assisting the solitary overseer, and in a way per- gul's nostrils began again to swell, and he bade the haps conducive to the gratification of their own strangers be off. The groom and butler intertastes. Models, for instance, of such simple ma- ceded; for their master was a grave, sedate man, chines as would assist him in his labors would be and they wanted companions. All would not do ; all-important to him; such as a brick-and-tile-mak- and the strangers fell in the rear. The next day, ing machine, a common windmill, or a warping- when they had got to the middle of an extensive mill.

and uninhabited plain, the Mogul in advance, and In the account already referred to of the Dundee his two servants a few hundred yards behind, he School of Industry, we gave some details of the came up to a party of six pour Mussulmans sitting previous habits of the objects of the institution ; but weeping by the side of a dead companion. They a picture of the same kind in the present case, be- were soldiers from Lahore, on their way to Lucksides being infinitely more painful, would have no now, worn down by fatigue, in their anxiety to see compensating utility, referring, as it would do, to their wives and children once more, after a long and a state of society so widely different from our own. painful service. Their companion, the hope and Still, with reference to the above history of their prop of his family, had sunk under the fatigue, and reform, we must say enough to dispossess our read they had made a grave for him ; but they were ers of the idea, if any of thein have formed it, that poor unlettered men, and unable to repeat ihe futhe Thugs were mere ignorant and brutal wretches, neral service from the holy Koran: would his highwho murdered from an innate ferocity of character. ness but perform this last office for them, he would On the contrary, their worst crimes were tinged no doubt find his reward in this world and the next. with a sort of wild feeling of religion. In the es- The Mogul dismounted; the body had been placed tablishment at Jubbulpoor they are never unwilling in its proper position, with its head towards Mecca. to relate their adventures, asserting that they were A carpet was spread; the Mogul took off his bow themselves but blind instruments of a higher power, and quiver, then his pistols and sword, and placed sent into the world for the purpose of punishing them on the ground near the body; called for wasuch objects of divine wrath as were delivered into ter, and washed his feet, hands, and face, that he their hands. Our correspondent states that the ap- might not pronounce the holy words in an unclean provers in question were supposed to have mur- state. He then knelt down, and began to repeat dered, collectively, 25,000 persons by strangulation; the funeral service in a clear, loud voice. Two of but he must mean, we presume, that this was the the poor soldiers knelt by him, one on each side, in number of the victims of the gangs to which these silence. The other four went off a few paces, to individuals belonged. The patience, perseverance, beg that the butler and groom would not come so and ingenuity they are now exercising in the arts near as to interrupt the good Samaritan at his deof civilized life, receive a remarkable illustration votions. All being ready, one of the four, in a low from the following anecdote related by Colonel under-tone gave the shirnee (signal;) the handkerSleeman himself :

chiefs were thrown over their necks, and in a few “A stout Mogul officer, of noble bearing and minutes all three—the Mogul and his servantssingularly handsome countenance, on his way from were dead, and lying in the grave in the usual manthe Punjaub to Oude, crossed the Ganges at Gur- ner—the head of one at the feet of the one below muktesur Ghat, near Meeruth, to pass through him. All the parties they had met on the road Moradabad and Bareilly. He was mounted on a belonged to a gang of Jumaldehee Thugs, of the Sine Turkee horse, and attended by his khidmutgar kingdom of Oude. In despair of being able to win (butler) and groom. Soon after crossing the river, the Mogul's confidence in the usual way, and dehe fell in with a small party of well-dressed and termined to have the money and jewels which they modest-looking men, going the same road. They knew he carried with him, they had adopted this accosted him in a respectful manner, and attempted plan of disarming him; dug the grave by the side to enter into conversation with him. He had heard of the road, in the open plain, and made a handsome of Thugs, and told them to be off. They smiled at young Mussulman of the party the dead soldier. his idle suspicions, and tried to remove ihem ; but The Mogul being a very stout man, died almost all in vain : the Mogul was determined : they saw without a struggle, as is usually the case with such, his nostrils swelling with indignation, took their and his two servants made no resistance." leave, and followed slowly. The next morning he In conclusion, we must permit ourselves to exovertook the same number of men, but of a different press the pleasure we feel in having had an opporappearance, all Mussulmans. They accosted him tunity of recording in these pages the names of the in the same respectful manner; talked of the dan- individuals who have been the proximate agents in ger of the road, and the necessity of their keeping bringing about so happy a moral revolution. We together, and taking advantage of the protection of have strong hope that the good work will spread, any mounted gentleman that happened to be going and that the government of India will at length be the same way. The Mogul officer said not a word awakened more fully to a sense of its duty, and in reply, resolved to have no companions on the even to a sense of the glory it may acquire-if road. "They persisted : his nostrils began again to glory be its object-by following up the bloodless swell, and putting his hand to his sword, he bade I triumphs of peace and humanity.

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From the Quarterly Review. his death in 1786, Frederick may be said to have 1. Euvres de Frédéric le Grand, Roi de Prusse, enjoyed uninterrupted peace. For although a

Nouvelle Edition. Berlin : chez RODOLPHE declaration of war was called forth by the Bavarian Decker, Imprimeur du Roi, vols. i., ii., et succession in 1778, it was merely, as he might

iii. 1846. 2. Friedrich der Grosse: eine Lebens-Geschichte. de boucliers ; it led scarcely even to a skirmish, far

have termed it in his adopted language, une levée Von J. D. E. Preuss, Berlin, 4 vols. 1832. 3. Urkunden-buch zur Lebens-Geschichte. Von J. less to a battle or a siege. But these twenty-three D. E. Preuss, Berlin, 5 vols. 1834. years of public peace were to the king himself

very far from years of repose. A slight sketch of In a convocation held at Oxford on the 1st of his daily life at Potsdam or Sans Souci will best July, 1847, “it was proposed and agreed that the

portray his unremitting activity. university seal should be affixed to a letter of

The value of early hours had been felt by Fredthanks to his majesty the King of Prussia for his erick in his campaigns, especially when opposed to majesty's gracious present of the three first vol- indolent and luxurious courtiers like the Prince de umes of a magnificent edition of the Works of Soubise. “ Je pense bien," says Voltaire, 30th King Frederick the Great." We have no doubt March, 1759—(he is addressing Frederick and that the good taste of the royal donor will limit his alluding to Soubise)—"que celui qui met ses botgift to the earlier volumes, which comprise such tes à quatre heures du matin a un grand avantage writings as the Mémoires de Brandebourg and au jeu contre celui qui monte en carrosse à midi.” L'Histoire de Mon Temps. Were his majesty to These early habits of Frederick were continued in send the complete collection, with what feelings his years of peace. In summer he usually rose at could the reverend heads of houses be expected to three, seldom ever after four; in winter he was read—or with what expressions to acknowledge scarcely an hour later. During the prime of his -the Commentaire Théologique sur Barbe Bleue, manhood five or six hours of sleep sufficed him ; or the Ode, in the style of Petronius, on the French but in his old age the term was extended to seven fugitives after Rosbach !*

or eight. His ablutions, when performed at all, This new edition comes forth with a splendor were slight and few. While still in the hands of well beseeming, if not the value of the works, yet his hair-dresser he opened his first packet of letters certainly the rank of the author. No expense has from Berlin ; this packet contained only such letbeen spared on the paper or the types; and the ters as, either by their seals or by post-office editor, Dr. Preuss, is eminently qualified for the notices, were known to come from Prussian nobles. task from his most full and valuable, and on the All other letters of subjects not of noble birth were whole impartial and discriminating, Life of King opened by some one of the four cabinet-secretaries. Frederick which appeared in 1832.

How would his Prussian majesty, thus nice in We shall not be tempted, however, by this matters of epistolary etiquette, have stared at Sir opportunity to enter into any minute discussion of Robert Walpole, of whom it is recorded that, the writings of the Prussian monarch. On his whenever a batch of letters reached him from the general demerits as an author, the department of country, that from his gamekeeper was always the letter-writing alone excepted, his imperfect mas- first which he perused ! "tery of the French in which he chose to write,

The king next proceeded to dress himself, and and his peculiar tediousness both in his prose and put on his hat, which he wore almost constantly verse, or rather in his two kinds of prose, the within doors, and took off only during interviews rhymed and unrhymed—we imagine that all critics with persons of high birth and at dinner time. of all countries (unless possibly his own) are en- His strict economy was manifest in his dress, for tirely agreed. Nor do we propose to descant his uniforms were usually patched and thread-bare, either upon the freaks of his youth or the glories while his boots from age and want of blacking of his wars. Both are sufficiently well known- appeared of a tawny red. Two of the cabinetthe former through his own sister, the Margravine secretaries now laid before him extracts of the de Bareith, and his favorite, Voltaire ;—the latter letters which they had opened, together with varifrom the pages of more than one historian. But

ous petitions and memorials. The adjutant of the it seems to us that his system of administration in royal guard brought a report of all strangers who peace has by no means received the same degree had either arrived at or departed from Potsdam the of attention as his military exploits. Nor are the day before. A similar report as to Berlin had habits of his declining age so familiar to us as already reached the king, inclosed in the first those of his early manhood. It is therefore to packet of letters. Next came the adjutant-genthese—the life of Frederick public and private eral, with whom Frederick was wont day by day since the peace of Hubertsburg—that we now to discuss and decide all the affairs of the army. desire to apply ourselves. For this investigation

Having despatched these affairs, Frederick the biography of Dr. Preuss, with his five volumes passed into his writing-room, where he began by of appended documents, will supply our best, though drinking off several glasses of cold water flavored by no means our only, materials.

with fennel-leaves, and employed himself with From the peace of Hubertsborg in 1763 until replies to his letters and notes on his memorials.

Ai intervals he used to sip several cups of coffee, * Congé de l'Armée des Cercles et des Tonnelliers, Euvres Posthumes, vol. IV., p. 217.

which, in the last twenty years of his life, were always mingled with mustard. Not unfrequently, has become later and later. Well may a French also, he indulged in a little fruit which stood novelist of our own time exclaim, “ Tous les jours ready on the side-table ; of stone-fruit, above all, on dîne plus tard ; incessamment on ne dînera plus he was passionately fond. Parsimonious as he du tout !" seemed on most occasions, he would buy the ear- Since the close of the Seven Years' War Fredliest forced cherries in the months of December erick had renounced suppers, and dinner became and January for his private eating at the rate of with him, as with Prince Talleyrand, his single two dollars each.

daily meal. The king was a gourmand of the It was the object of Frederick in this, as in first water ; and had he survived till 1802, would other matters, to bring forward hidden merit. In no doubt have received the honorary presidency of a remote district an avenue of cherry-trees led, and the Jury Dégustateur ; or the dedication of Grimod still leads, from the village of Helmsdorf to the de la Reyniêre's “ Almanach," preferably even to village of Heiligenthal. It excited little notice the second consul Cambacérès. The bill of fare until Frederick, on one of his journeys, having was daily laid before his majesty, comprising not tasted the fruit, was struck with its peculiar rich- merely a list of the dishes, but the name of the ness of flavor ; and gave orders that some basket- cook by whom each dish was to be dressed ; and fuls of it should be sent every summer to Pots- these bills of fare were always well considered, dam.

and often corrected and amended by the royal While still in his writing-room Frederick allowed hand. Sometimes, when they gave promise of himself daily half an hour's relaxation with his some novel experiment or favorite dainty-as flute. But even this short relaxation was by no polentas and eel-pies—the king, in his eagerness, means lost time so far as business was concerned. would order the dinner to be brought in ten or He once said to d'Alembert that during his musical twelve minutes earlier than the appointed hour. exercises he was accustomed to turn over in his After dinner he used to mark with a cross the mind his affairs of state, and that several of his names of those dishes which had afforded him parhappiest thoughts for their administration had ticular pleasure. Of wine he drank sparingly ; occurred to him at those times.

his favorite vintage being from the banks of the Between eight and ten o'clock the king received Dordogne, and in general diluted with water. the cabinet secretaries separately, and gave them The king's meals, however, were highly social his instructions. These men, though inferior both as well as gastronomic. He frequently invited in rank and salary, were the chief instruments of guests in numbers varying from seven to ten, and his sovereign will : for it is not the least among entertained them with a varied and never-failing the singularities of his government, that only by flow of conversation. There was no limitation as exception, and on special occasions, did Frederick to rank in those whom he invited, nor any arroever see his own ministers. It was in writing gance of royalty in his behavior towards them ; that they sent him their reports—it was in writing but they suffered unmercifully from his wit, or as that he sent them his commands.

his butts, for he especially delighted in such jests After the cabinet-secretaries had been de- as were most likely to give pain. Thus, then, spatched, the occupations of Frederick until dinner came his guests, half pleased and half afraid : were not so uniformly fixed as the preceding. Sometimes he attended the review of his guards at

“In quorum facie miseræ magnæque sedebat

Pallor amicitiæ." eleven ; sometimes took a ride, sometimes a walk, sometimes read aloud to himself, and sometimes Politics, religion, and history, with anecdotes of granted audiences. In these—at least with re- court and war, jocular and scrious, were his favorspect to his own subjects who were not of noble ite topics, and were always treated with entire birth, nor admitted to his familiar intercourse-no freedom and unreserve. When the guests amused eastern sultan ever maintained more haughty him, or when the conversation took a more than state. We have now lying before us two reports usually interesting turn, the sitting was sometimes of interviews, as printed in the appendix to one of protracted from noon till past four o'clock; in Dr. Preuss' volumes; the one from a president general, however, it ended much sooner. of the Chambre des Domaines at Cleves, the other On rising from table Frederick allowed himself from his colleague, a second president at Aurich ; another half hour with his flute; after which the and it appears incidentally that although both of cabinet-secretaries brought in the letters which he them parted from the king with full assurances of had directed or dictated, and which now came his approbation and favor, they were not admitted before him again transcribed and ready for his to kiss his hand, but only his coat !

signature. It was not unusual for the king when But whatever might be the previous occupa- signing to enforce the object of the letter by adding tions, as the clock struck noon Frederick sat down to it a few clear sharp words. Many of these to dinner. In his youth twelve had been the din- postscripts are still preserved. Thus, when he ner-hour for all classes at Berlin ; nay, his ances- replied to an application for money, there are tor the great elector had always dined at eleven. sometimes found appended in the royal handwriting But before the close of Frederick's reign the peo- such phrases as, “I cannot give a single groschen," ple of fashion gradually extended the hour till or “ I am now as poor as Job.” Thus, when the two; and ever since at Berlin, as elsewhere, it celebrated singer Madame Mara sent him a long

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