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brandy or iron, or any other commodity, when | last year (1847.) The list comprises, of regular once its durability and unchangability were demon- troops, fourteen regiments of infantry, three brigstrated.

ades of artillery, fifty-four battalions of Georgians,

Caucasians, and Cossacks, one regiment of dragThe various modes of applying the principle of

oons, and several battalions and companies of sapair-exhausted reservoirs may be thus summed up. pers and miners, sharpshooters, &c.; of irregulars, As Fired Reservoirs.

nineteen regiments of Cossacks of the line, with 1. Granaries for seaports and dockyards.

three brigades of horse artillery, forty-three regi

ments of Tchernomorsky, Don, and Ural Cossacks, 2. Ditto, for rivers and canals. 3. Ditto, farms.

with a numerous militia raised in the provinces con4. Ditto, for railways.

tiguous to the theatre of war. This immense force

is under the sole direction of the governor-general 5. Ditto, for mills and breweries.

of the Caucasus, Prince Woronzoff, who has re6. Reservoirs for butchers.

ceived, from his imperial master, powers liule short

of dictatorial for the conduct of the war. 7. Ditto, for fishmongers.

M. Hommaire de Hell, in his valuable work, The 8. Ditto, for fruiters. 9. Ditto, for private dwellings

Steppes of the Caspian Sea, gives the Russian state10. Ditto, for dairies.

ment, for 1843, at 160,000 men; but supposes that 11. Ditto, for government dockyards.

The official number is considerably above the vruth.

This, however, is not the opinion of Professor Koch As Movable Reservoirs for

and other late authorities--and, indeed, does not 12. Grain ships.

seem very probable in itself; for, considering the 13. Combustibles in ships.

continual losses and defeats endured by the Russian 14. Fresh meat in ships as provisions or cargo. troops, it would be manifestly for the interest of the 15. Fruit and vegetable ships.

commanders to rate their own forces at the lowest 16. Fish vessels.

amount, and to exalt those of the enemy as much as 17. Damageable goods generally.

possible. Accordingly, they do not scruple, in their 19. Canal boats.

bulletins, to assign to their most formidable oppo19. Railway wagons.

nent, Shamil, a force of 40,000 warriors, being about 20. Road wagons.

the total number of men, capable of bearing arms,

within the territories subject to his sway. In these simple means will be found an eco- With regard to the chief just named, a very gennomic and ample security against those fluctua- eral misapprehension prevails in this country. He tions in the price of food that really constitute the is commonly supposed to be a Circassian, and the groundwork of the greater part of the miseries of present Russian contest in the Caucasus is almost

G. A. H. always styled the war in Circassia. The proper

Circassians, however, who inhabit the western part

of the Caucasian range, bordering on the Black Sea, From the United Service Magazine.

are quite distinct from the Lesghians and TchetTHE RUSSIAN WAR IN THE CAUCASUS. chens, the followers of Shamil, who live in the

eastern mountains, near the Caspian. I'welve Europe owes a great debt to the Kabyles of Al- years ago, it is true, the Circassians were engaged geria and the mountaineers of the Caucasus. It is in a desperate struggle with the Russians, for their to their determined spirit of independence that is own independence. They came off triumphant; due the profound peace which has, of late years, but, at the same time, their losses had been severe prevailed among all the greater powers of Christen- enough to make a strong impression upon them. dom. The two most warlike and aggressive nations Thus they have welcomed with pleasure the respite of the continent have found ample employment for from strife which the insurrection of the eastern their arms in the vain attempt to reduce a few myr-tribes has afforded them, and all Shamil's endeaviads of semi-barbarians to the condition of submissive ors to engage them to take part in the present consubjects. How truly this has been the case with test have as yet proved fruitless. To this result, France is sufficiently notorious. But it is not gen- the presents profusely distributed by the Russian erally known that the assertion is even more appli- commanders among the Circassian chieftains have cable to the contest which Russia is now waging no doubt effectively contributed ; and still more the with the tribes of the Caucasian mountains. How license now accorded to their slave-trade with Conmany are aware that 30,000 Muscovite soldiers per- stantinople—particularly the trade in female slaves. ish every year in this inglorious strife—either slain It is curious enough that one of the liberties for in actual conflict or carried off by disease? Most which the Circassians contended so desperately was persons in this country will probably be surprised to the liberty of selling their own daughters to the learn that the Russian army at present engaged in Turks; and it is said that the maidens themselves the prosecution of this war amounts to the enormous were particularly indignant at the interference of total of more than 150,000 men. A work recently the Russians with this time-honored custom. The published in Germany (Travels in Georgia, along statement is not at all improbable. Considering the Caspian Sea, and in the Caucasus, by Professor that in Circassia, as in other eastern countries, Koch) gives us a detailed statement of all the divi- wives are always bought, and are treated as the sions and corps employed in that quarter during the property of their husbands, there is, in fact, no ma

* The suggestions contained in the preceding article terial difference, in point of actual freedom, between appearing to us of great public importance, and eminent- the position of a Circassian woman as a slave in a ly practical, we shall feel happy to be the medium of harem of Constantinople and that which she would communication between any parties desirous of trying hold as the wife of one of her own countrymen ; the experiment, and the author ; for whom a line may he while, as regards those pleasures to which oriental left with our publisher. The best mechanical arrange: females are most addicted—namely, idleness, gosments involved in the principle have been the subject of some recent patents.-Ed.

sipping, gay adornment, and good living—the advan

tages are all on the side of slavery. At present, as positions which would otherwise have been impreghas been remarked, the Russians, to prevent the nable. Circassians from joining with Shamil, have given A Russian incursion into the mountains is usually op their opposition to this singular commerce, and conducted pretty nearly in the following manner. the freeborn sons of the mountains now go on sell- A column of several thousand men advances from ing their offspring in peace and contentment. one of their military stations towards a stronghold

The Tcheichens and Lesghians, who form the of the enemy. It experiences, at first, but slight main body of Shamil's adherents, share with the resistance. The mountaineers, lurking along its Circassians the palm of superior personal beauty flanks, in the encompassing forest, waich its proamong all the races of the world. There is, how-gress from a distance. Each bears in one hand his ever, some difference between them. The Circas- long and heavy gun, in the other a forked stick. sians, by their graceful forms, dark blue eyes, At length one of them catches the glimpse of an chestnut hair, and oval faces, recall the lineaments epaulet within the range of his piece. Planting the of the ancient Greeks, to whom they bear perhaps sharp end of the stick in the ground, he lays his greater resemblance than any other people of the gun in the fork, and, with this rest, takes long and present day. The Lesghians, on the contrary, may steady aim at the shining mark. Powder and lead rather be compared with the modern Italians; they are too precious to the mountaineer to be thrown are more strongly made than the Circassians, with away. Presently the report rings through the hills, full black eyes, dark brown hair, and bold features. the officer falls, and his company is thrown into They have a proud and martial expression of coun- confusion. Russian soldiers, excellent in a war of tenance, with something of the wildness natural to tactics, are of all troops the least adapted for mounmen who lead the free and reckless life of mountain tain warfare, which requires especially individual freebooters ; for such, it must be confessed, was the energy, sagacity, and promptness of resource. Of calling of the present followers of Shamil, before these a Russian private has nothing whatever. He they adopted that of patriots. The united numbers is a mere machine, and of little more use without a of the two tribes are estimated at about 500,000 leader than a steam engine without an engineer. souls. All of these, however, do not acknowledge This fact is perfectly understood by Shamil and his the supremacy of the warlike chieftain. Many of followers, as is evinced by the disproportionate loss the lowland clans have submitted to the Russian of officers during the present war. domination. It is probable that the total of Shamil's At length, the advancing columon reaches a naradherents and subjects, of all classes and conditions, row pass, which is found closed by a barricade. A does not exceed 300,000. With this petty follow- sharp conflict ensues. The artillery is ordered up, ing, he has maintained, for ten years, an equal con- the logs fly in splinters, and the enemy disappears. test with the absolute ruler of sixty millions of The column then proceeds, but a strong detachment human beings. Such an enormous disparity of is left to guard the pass. In this way the advance force was probably never seen since the days when continues, the barricades becoming more frequent, “ baffled Persia's despot fled" before the united and the resistance more stubborn, as the invading contingents of half-a-dozen little Greek republics. force approaches the stronghold. At length, weakEven in that case, the circumstances were by no ened by many losses and by the separation of numermeans similar. The semi-barbarous host of Xerxes ous detachments, it arrives at the intended goal. was inferior in all respects, but number, to the Here, on ascending a lofty height, is found a small well-equipped and well-disciplined army of Rus- plateau, upon which are the smoking ruins of a sia ; while the Greeks had every advantage over score or two of mountain huts. Sometimes, inthe Caucasian mountaineers, except in the natural deed, a strongly fortified hold occupies the summit, strength of their country.

and is defended by the natives with desperate valor. This, after all, is Shamil's main reliance for suc- But, more often, it is, as before said, a small mouncess, as it was of Montrose and Zumalacarregui, and tain hamlet, which Shamil has selected as a place as it has been of the Swiss in all ages. The Cauca- of deposit for his stores of ammunition. sian mountains are even better adapted for purposes Having thus attained the object of their useless of refuge and defence than the Alps, or the Pyre- search, the Russians prepare to descend. But their nees, or the Scottish Highlands. In all thuse case proves to be the converse of that of the Trojan regions, the dwellings of the inhabitants are in the hero in his Stygian expedition. To ascend is comvalleys which divide the heights ; and an enemy paratively easy; but to retrace their steps and rewho can penetrate to these glens and ravage the turn to the lower regions, hic labor, hoc opus est. hamlets and cultivated grounds, will inflict a severe Now, around them, on every side, swarm the fierce and perhaps irreparable injury upon the mountain- mountaineers, seemingly in countless numbers.

In ihe Caucasus, on the contrary, it is only From every quarter are heard the yell of execrathe high table-lands on the slopes of the mountain- tion, the report of the unerring musket, and the ridges which are habitable. The valleys are deep whistling of the fatal lead. One gallant officer falls and narrow ravines, often the beds of torrents, ex- after another. Front, flank, and rear are driven in tremely difficult to cross, and presenting a serious upon the centre, and the column becomes a conobstacle to the advance of an invading force. The fused mass of useless and helpless soldiers. Somemountain-sides, moreover, are covered by dense for- times the commander-in-chief, awaking to his danests, through which a single wanderer often finds ger, pushes desperately onward, and reaches his great difficulty in foreing his way. It may well be station with the loss of half his force. Sometimes supposed that an army, encumbered by artillery and he waits, in a favorable position, until he is released baggage, can make but slow progress through the by the advance of reinforcements. In either case, country. Cannon, however, are indispensable in as soon as he regains his fortress, he writes a long this contest, since they are the only arms of which and grandiloquent dispatch, detailing his successful the mountaineers really stand in dread. The terri- operations, which have ended in destroying the ble effects of artillery upon their breastworks of chief stronghold of the rebels, and inflicting upon timber have often compelled them to retreat from them a blow from which they will not readily re





cover. He has hardly sent off his despatch to St. mand with great strietness and equity. Life and Petersburg, before he hears that Shainil, at the property are perfectly safe, his armed followers not head of a strong force, is in the plains, ravaging being allowed the slightest license in their own the country almost up to the very gates of the Rus-country. Every crime, by whomsoever committed, sian forts.

meets with prompt and just punishment. He is not A brief account of the origin and early history of accused of cruelty, except in the case of certain this chieftain may not be uninteresting. In all Mo- offences connected with the contest which he is hammedan countries there are men called Moorshids, waging. Woe to the individual or the tribe that who devote themselves expressly to the explication deserts or betrays the common cause! Instances of the Koran and the Sunna, (or body of Moslem are known of entire villages, whose inhabitants had traditions,) and are consequently held in high esti- been guilty of this offence, having been destroyed mation by the people. Each of them generally has by Shamil and his host as suddenly and completely about hiin a number of youths who attend him as as though they had been swept away by a flood, or scholars, and are called his Murides, or acolytes. buried under an avalanche. Nor is it merely for Such a Moorshid was Kasi Mollah, who about the treason that he inflicts such dire punishments. On year 1830 aroused the first great insurrection of the one occasion, when he was besieging a Russian deeastern tribes against the Russians. He was re- tachment in a small fort, and had nearly compelled garded not merely as a teacher, but as a prophet, it to surrender, the commander of the force, expectand displayed also some capacity as a military ing to be soon relieved, sent a messenger to Shaleader. He was, however, two years afterwards, mil, avowedly for the purpose of negotiating a surbesieged by General Rosen, in his stronghold called render, but with secret orders to protract the parley Gimri, and fell, pierced with many ba yonet wounds, as long as possible, in order to give time for the " with his hand on his beard,” says the traveller assistance to arrive. He followed his instructions, Eichwald, “and a last prayer murmuring from his and succeeded in the object of his mission. The lips.' His name is still a spell of power in the relieving force came up before the terms were setCaucasus.

tled, and Shamil then became aware of the decepOne of his disciples was Shamil, a Tchetchen by tion that had been practised upon himn. When birth, and whose early residence was in the large Napoleon was similarly tricked by Alexander, after village or town of Tchirkei, a place of some 3000 the battle of Austerlitz, his resentment exhaled in inhabitants, on the Koissoo river. Although he the bitter speech—“Grallez le Russe, et vous trouwas more than thirty years of age at the death of verez le Tartare.Shamil, it appears, is not one Kasi Mollah, he was still considered too young, ac- whose vengeance can be satisfied with a pungent cording to the established usage, to become a leader. apothegm; and besides, his situation was somewhat In Lesghistan, as in Circassia, none but men who different from that of the victorious emperor. It is have passed the middle term of life, and whose said that the unfortunate messenger was literally years afford a warrant both of experience and dis- cut in pieces. This was called cruelty, and a viocretion, are considered worthy to occupy a post of lation of the laws of war; but it is not recorded that such responsibility. It was not before the year any other officer has ever since attempted so to de1838 that Shamil's name was first known to the ceive the uncompromising mountain chief. Russians as that of an eminent Moorshid, and the The first attempt which the Russians made to leader of a considerable body of Tchetchens and crush the growing power of Shamil was in the Lesghians. He was, at that time, about forty years year 1839. In the spring of that year, the com of age. He is described as a man of moderate stat- mander-in-chief of the Caucasian army-who bore ure and slender frame. His physiognomy seems the onheroic designation of General Grabbe-asto indicate some infusion of Tartar blood. He has, sembled a considerable body of troops on the north however, unlike most Tartars, am ample beard, on side of the mountains, and proceeded to ascend which ornament he, as a Moslem teacher, sets a them, with the intention of capturing the fortress peculiar value.

of Achulko, which was then Shamil's stronghold. The title which Shamil assumes in his proclama- It was situated on the summit of a steep mountain, tions, and by which he is best known in the moun- which rose near the swift Koissoo, the chief river tains, is that of “Imam of the Caucasus." Pro- of Lesghistan. As the Russians advanced op the fessor Koch says that, according to the Koran, river, they encountered some slight opposition, there can be but one Imam and successor of the which was easily overcome. They soon arrived at Prophet, and that the Sultan of Constantinople is the populous village of Tchirkei, rich in orchards now regarded as such; but as he has ceased to ex- of many species of fruit. The inhabitants, though tend protection to the Mohammedans of the north, strongly disposed in favor of their warlike fellowthey have transferred the title, and the reverence citizen, were dismayed at the prospect of seeing connected with it, to Shamil. This is not exactly their fields and gardens ravaged by the enemy; correct. The title of Imam, or “ preacher," was they submitted to the favorable conditions offered adopted by Mohammed in sign of humility, and was by the Russian general, and the latter pressed onretained, for the same reason, by the Khalifs, or ward towards the interior of the mountains. At “ successors.” But it was not, like the latter term, length he reached a spot which Shamil had appapeculiarly appropriated to that line of monarchs. rently selected for the first serious resistance ; for a On the contrary, every priest of a mosque is called battle ensued, which is described as the most bloody its Imam; and the title is, moreover, frequently as- and fiercely contested that had been fought for sumed by princes who desire to unite a religious many years in the Caucasus. The conflict lasted prestige to their secular power. For this reason, two days. The mountaineers disputed every foot it has been adopted by the ruler of Muscat, in pref- of ground with desperate fury, and yielded at last erence to that of Sulian or Malek, to either of which only when the artillery was brought to bear upbe would be fairly entitled by the extent of his do- on their position. Again the Russian columns minions.

moved forward. Another fierce encounter awaited Shamil is said to rule the districts under his com- them before they attained the term of their expedi


The emperor

tion. It ended in a similar manner; and at length operations, and winning over the numerous indepenthe division found itself at the base of the height dent tribes of the mountains to his standard. The on which stood the fortress of Achulko.

Russians vainly attempted, by frequent razzias The siege began on the 12th of July, and lasted to intimidate the natives, who grew overy month. till the 23rd of August. During that time every more confident and daring in their enterprises, peneattempt to take the fort by storm was repulsed with traling far into the lowlands, and laying siego to heavy loss to the assailants. But the defenders isolated posts along the frontier. began at length to suffer from the want of provis- became at last so disquieted by the intelligence ions. Shamil once tried to make terms, offering which arrived from the Caucasus, that he despatched his son as a hostage; but the Russian commander the minister of war, Count Tchernitcheff, to examwould accept nothing but unconditional surrender, ine personally into the state of affairs in that quarter, to which the chief would not submit. Three days and report concerning the most advisable method afterwards a furious assault was made, and the re- of carrying on the contest. sistance, though finally successful, showed that the Tchernitcheff arrived just in time to witness the besieged were too weak to hold out much longer. return of the Russian commander-in-chief from a Shorily after this affair, the Russian general was disastrous attempt to penetrate to Shamil's new informed by his spies of Shamil's intention to have asylum, the village of Dargo, situated near the himself lowered down at the steepest part of the source of the River Yaksai, some distance west of precipitous rock on which Achulko stood, and thus Achulko. It is worthy of remark that, in all his to elude the grasp of his enemies. His desertion changes of residence, Shamil has been gradually of his followers at such a juncture might perhaps advancing towards the centre of the Caucasian isthbe justified in his eyes by the certainty that they mus, as if in furtherance of his expressed design of would not, if taken, meet with the fate which would uniting the whole mountain region between the assuredly await him-namely, that of being sent Black Sea and the Caspian into a single compact away into the interior of Russia, never to return to government. The Russian general, anxious to dis his native land. On learning this design, the gen- tinguish himself before the minister's arrival by some eral ordered a close watch to be kept around the shining enterprise, similar to the capture of Achulko, whole mountain, but particularly at the spot desig- had set out, with a body of 8600 men, up the course nated. Suddenly a suspicious movement was ob- of the Yaksai. The mountaineers, according to served. The watch crept cautiously forward, and their custom, made at first only a faint show of perceived a man, suspended by a rope, descending resistance. When, however, he had reached a spot the side of the precipice. On reaching the ground, which they considered favorable for their purpose, the mountaineer freed himself from the rope, which they suddenly closed around him with such overwas then drawn up, and two more men were suc- whelming fury, that he was compelled to retreat ; cessively lowered down. All then crouched on the and it was with the greatest difficulty that he reached ground, and were crawling away, when the trium- the fort from which he had started, having left all phant Russians seized them, and dragged them off his baggage and most of his artillery in the hands to the camp. One of them owned himself to be of the enemy. Out of 60 officers only 24 returned ; Shamil, and the news of the capture caused the and 2000 soldiers remained dead on the field or greatest joy at the quarters of the general, who had along the line of march. promised the emperor to bring him the Caucasian Such was the intelligence which greeted Count hero, dead or alive. While he was receiving the Tchernitcheff on his arrival. It is not surprising, congratulations of his officers, the rope was cau- therefore, that he should, after a careful examinatiously lowered again, at the same spot, now left tion of all the peculiar difficulties of the contest, unguarded; the real Shamil slipped quietly down, have come to the conclusion that the wisest plan and crept away unseen. Presently a raft, bearing would be to confine all future operations strictly to a single human figure, was observed floating swiftly defensive measures. This counsel was adopted. down the impetuous Koissoo. The Russian mus- A cordon of posts was established around the mounkets instantly rang from the shore, but the fugitive tains, to prevent the incursions of the enemy into reached the opposite bank in safety.

the plains ; thus, as was said, leaving the fire of In the morning the deception was discovered and, fanaticism to burn itself out. It was, however, too the general, rendered furious by his disappointment, late for the success of such a plan. The mountainordered a last assault. Fifteen hundred men ascend- eers were now conscious of their strength, and exed the height, and when the action terminated, and asperated by the injuries which they had suffered. the Russian Aag waved over the ruins of the fort, They judged the forbearance of the Russians to be only a hundred and fifty of the storming party re- an evidence of weakness and not altogether withmained unhurt. Of the seven hundred defenders of out rcason. Accordingly, their marauding descents the fortress, very few escaped alive. Such was the into the lowlands became more frequent and daring capture of Achulko, the first of many similar enter than ever before. The imperial government was prises undertaken by the Russians against Shamil, compelled again to change its policy. General and which, however various in their circumstances, Neidhardt, an officer of the highest reputation for have all been attended with only one effect—that of both civil and military talents, was sent as goverexalting the reputation of the bold and astute chief-nor-general. The army was at the same time tain.

increased to the force, at which it now stands, of In the present case, his singular escape added not 150,000 men—a greater mass of troops than had a little to the peculiar reverence with which he was been assembled between the Black and Caspian regarded by the mountaineers ; for it was the general Seas since the time of Gengis-Khan. belief among them that the angel Gabriel himself Neidhardt, however, was fated to be quite as unhad borne off the prophet-chief from the midst of fortunate as any of his predecessors. His plans, bis enemies. His fame and intluence spread through well-laid in the commencement, were frustrated by the whole of the Eastern Caucasus. During the a succession of unlucky accidents. Before he could next two years he was busily employed in organ- venture to set his immense force in motion, accordizing his adherents, extending the circle of his ing to his instructions, so as to envelope the disturbed districts on every side, it was necessary to lay in which so completely commanded the plateau of an ample store of provisions. With this object, an Dargo that several of the Russians, mostly officers, agent was sent to Ástrachan, with a million of silver were picked off by the Lesghian sharpshooters, and roubles, (about 187,0001.,) to purchase the necessary Woronzoff was compelled io remove his camp to a supplies. The commissary and the money both safer locality. Finding, at the same time, that his disappeared, and were never heard of afterwards. provisions were about 10 fail, he despatched five Hardly had this loss been, with much difficulty, battalions, under Generals Von Klukenau, Passek, made good, when a native prince, hitherto esteemed and Victoroff, to bring up a supply of rations which one of ihe most faithful adherents of Russia—Daniel, had been left at a depôt on the way. The detachthe Sultan of Elisui, a small but important province ment, in returning, was set upon with resistless fury on the south side of the mountains-suddenly threw by the mountaineers; Generals Passek and Victoroff off his allegiance, and joined the party of Shamil. were killed, and almost the whole of the provisions A division of the army was sent to reduce the prov- was captured. Count Woronzoff's situation now ince, and the general plan of operations for the year became truly alarming. It would be hardly possible 1844 was completely broken up. A few villages for his force, diminished as it was, and nearly destiof the cnemy were destroyed, and some revolted tute of provisions, to fight its way through the host districts were subdued ; but no real progress was of enemies that encompassed it. Fortunately the made towards the general pacification of the country. governor succeeded, by large offers of reward, in

Early in the following year Neidhardt was re-inducing two men, natives of the Caucasus, to make called, and Count (now Prince) Woronzoff sent to an attempt to elude the vigilance of the hostile bands, supply his place. This nobleman is one of the few and carry the intelligence of his situation 10 the fort men in Russia whose rank, wealth, and abilities of Gersel-Aul, where Freitag, one of the ablest and exact some consideration even from the autocrat most experienced of the subordinate generals, comhimself. The count received his cducation in manded. England, where his father was for some years the The attempt succeeded. Freitag did not lose a Russian ambassador. He possesses immense riches, moment. Drawing together all the force immediateand is thus enabled to maintain that outward state ly at hand-about 8000 men-he hurried to the which is so important an element in all Oriental relief of the governor-general. Shamil heard of governments. He ruled for many years the exten- his advance, and attempted, but too lato, to intersive provinces of New Russia and Bessarabia, includ- cept him. Freitag, after a bloody encounter, in ing the Crimea, and evinced administrative talents which he suffered severely, broke through the of a high order. In addition to these personal opposing force, pushed on rapidly over the mounqualifications, he received, as has been already tains, and reached Woronzoff's encampment. The stated, almost absolute powers in all that related to united columns then took up their march for the the prosecution of the war. It is not surprising, Russian line, pursued and harassed all the way to therefore, that he should have indulged a confident the edge of the forest by their relentless enemies. expectation of speedily putting an end to the contest. On the 4th of August, Woronzoff, with his worn-out Three years, however, have since passed away, and and famished troops, found refuge within the walls that comsurmation seems as distant as ever. of Gersel-Aul. From thence he despatched to St.

Woronzoff's first undertaking was, as usual, an Petersburg intelligence of his late exploit; and the expedition against Shamil's ordinary place of abode, Russian newspapers announced to the world the or, rather, of rendezvous—the village of Dargo. capture of Dargo, and the complete overthrow of On the 12th of June, 1845, the governor-general Shamil. Woronzoff, in token of the value which set out, at the head of a division of 20,000 men, to the emperor affixed to his success, was raised to the penetrate into the central mountains. At every rank of a prince. Not long afterwards news arrived pass which he reached on his march he found a that Shamil had broken out of the mountains, ravbarricade of logs, defended by a considerable force aged the northern plains, and carried off a convoy of mountaineers. But as soon as an attempt was of provisions from under the guns of one of the Rusmade to turn them, or the artillery was brought to sian fortresses. bear upon their defences, they immediately retreated. It would be useless to pursue the history of the A detachment was left to guard the pass, and the war through the iwo following years, which offer army, thus diminished, continued its advance. litile variety of event and nothing decisive in results. Gradually, however, the resistance of the enemy It is clear that Shamil's power becomes every year becaine firmer, and the barricades increased in num- more extended and consolidated, and that all the ber and strength. Within the last twenty miles of projects of the Russian commanders, however well Dargo there were no less than eighteen ; and at devised and gallantly prosecuted, have failed to prosome of them the mountaineers rushed down, sabre duce any permanent effect favorable to their cause. in hand, upon the bayonets of the Russians, and The latest authentic advices from the seat of war bloody struggles took place before the numbers and are dated the 22nd of October last. On the 26th o! discipline of the invaders finally prevailed.

the preceding month the Russians had succeeded, Ai length the term of the expedition was reached. after a siege of several days, in capturing a small Dargo was found to be a hamlet of sonie fifty houses, village, called Weila Salta, in South Daghestansituated on a lofty platcau, and surrounded by a probably not far from Shamil's earliest stronghold, wood of gigantic beech-trees. Nothing whatever Achulko. The village must have been well fortified was gained to repay the labors and losses of the and desperately defended ; for it was only taken incursion, except the advantage of being enabled to after several unsuccessful assaults, though aided by send a despatch to St. Petersburg, announcing the a tremendous bombardment from 80-pound mortars. destruction of Shamil's famous stronghold. But in three days—from the 19th to the 21st—the Rusit soon became somewhat questionable whether the sians lost 24 officers and 480 men, killed and governor would ever have an opportunity of trans- wounded. The total loss of the enemy is set down mitting such an announcement. He now found at 3000; but, as the German papers cautiously rethat the most difficult part of his enterprise was to mark, this number must be taken with the usual come. Shamil had retreated to a neighboring height, allowances for Russian accounts.

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