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daughter of Colonel Graham.) When she found side in religion ; and he won and wore the mitre herself dying, she carried on the melancholy farce in better style than any man of his age. His to the last. She sent for Anstis, the herald, and eldest son, William, was educated as a barrister; arranged the whole funeral ceremony with him. he lost his fortune in the South Sea bubble, and She was particularly anxious to see the prepara- was sent to America as governor of New York. tions before she died. Why," she asked, “won't Subsequently he was removed to Boston, with they send the canopy for me to see ? Let them send which he was discontented, and after long altercait, even though the tassels are not finished.” And tions with the general assembly of the province, finally, she exacted from her ladies a promise, that he died of a fever, probably inflamed by vexation. if she became insensible, they should not sit down Gilbert, the second son, was appointed chaplain to in the presence of her body, till she was completely George I., was a man of clear understanding, and dead!

exhibited his knowledge of courts by siding with Such things told in a romance, would be criti- Hoadley. With all the distinctions of his profescised for their extravagance, but nothing is too sion opening before him, he died young. Thomas, extravagant for human nature. Reared in folly, the third son, differed from both his brothers, in pampered with self-indulgence, and bloated with the superiority of his talents, and the wildness of vanity, the wholesome discipline of adversity would his temper. The manners of the time were a have been of infinite value to this woman and her mixture of vulgar riot and gross indulgence. The tribe. Six months in Bridewell, varied by beating streets were infested with ruffianism, and a society hemp, would have been the most fortunate lesson among the young men of rank and education, which she could have received from society. which took to itself the name of “ The Mohocks,"

Another of those persons, yet more remarkable and whose barbarous habits were worthy of the for her position in life, was the second daughter name, insulted alike public justice and endangered of George II., the Princess Amelia. She was personal safety. Thomas Burnet was said to have supposed to have been attached to the Duke of been engaged in some of their violences, though Grafton ; but remaining single, and having nothing he, perhaps, was not one of the “affiliated.” It on the earth to do, she became a torment to the may be naturally supposed, that those excesses king, the court, and everybody. Idleness is the grieved so distinguished a man as his father; and rice of high life, and discontent its punishment. it is equally to be supposed that they led to freThe princess became proverbial for peevishness, quent remonstrance. If so, they operated effeosarcasm, and scandal. Of course, fashion took its tively at last. revenge; and where every one was shooting an One day the bishop, observing the peculiar arrow, some struck, and struck deep. The princess gravity of his son's countenance, asked, “On grew masculine in her manners, and coarse in her what he was thinking.” mind. Her appointment as ranger in Richmond “On a greater work than your · History of the Park, one of those sinecure offices which are scat- Reformation.'— My own," was the answer. tered among the dependants of the throne, made “I shall be heartily glad to see it,” said the her enemies. Little acts of authority, such as father, “though I almost despair of it.” stopping up pathways, brought the tongues of the It was undertaken, however, and vigorously neighboring population and gentry upon her, until pursued. The young roué became a leading lawher royal highness had the vexation of seeing an yer, and finally attained the rank of chief justice action brought against her. After some of the of the common pleas. He died in 1753. usual delays of justice, she had the mortification There is, perhaps, in public history, no more of being beaten, and ultimately resigned the ranger- curious instance of the power which circumstances ship. From this period she almost disappeared may place in the hands of a private individual, than from the public eye, yet she survived till 1786, the deference paid to Mrs. Clayton. Her whole dying at the age of 71.

merit seems to have been caution, a perpetual Mrs. Clayton still held her quiet ascendancy, sense of the delicacy of her position, and an undeand her position was so perfectly understood, that viating deference to the habits, opinions, and purher interest seems to have been an object of solic- poses of the queen. Those were useful qualities, itation with nearly every person involved in public but not remarkable for dignity, and rather opposed difficulties. Of this kind was her intercourse with to personal amiability of mind. Yet this cautious, the three sons of Bishop Burnet, all individuals of considerate, and frigid personage was all but worintelligence and accomplishment, but all in early shipped by the world of fashion, of talents, and of life struggling with fortune. The character of the celebrity. bishop himself is best known from his works : Among those worshippers was the man who gossiping, giddiness, and imprudence in taking did the most evil, and gained the most renown, of everything for granted that he had heard, but hon- any man of his generation. The wit, who eclipsed esty in telling it, belonged to the bishop as much all the witty pungency of France in his sportive as to his books. The chances of the revolution sarcasm ; all the libellers of royalty in his scorn placed him in the way of preferment; chances, of thrones ; and all the grave infidelity of England, however, which, if they had turned the other way, in his restless and envenomed antipathy to all might have cost him his head. But he was on religion—the memorable Voltaire. the right side in politics, and not on the wrong He was then only beginning his mischievous

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career, but he had already made its character suf-| fearful as the plunge was, out of that raging torficiently marked to earn an imprisonment in the rent the three nations have struggled to shore, Bastille, and, on his liberation, an order to quit refreshed and invigorated by the struggle. EngParis.

land seems now to be entering on another career, In England he occupied himself chiefly with more perilous than the exigencies of war—a moral literature; published his “Henriade," for which and intellectual conflict, in which popular passions he obtained a large subscription ; wrote his tragedy and rational principles will be ranged on opposite of “ Brutus,” his “ Philosophical Letters," and sides ; and the question may involve the final shape other works.

which government shall assume in the British At length he was permitted to return to that empire, or, perhaps, in the European world. spot out of which a French wit may be scarcely The characteristics of our time are wholly said to live; and kept up his intercourse with Mrs. unshared with the past. In calling up the recolClayton by the following letter:

lections of the great ages of English change, we Paris, April 18, 1729.

can discover but slight evidence of their connec“Madame—Though I am out of London, the tion with our own. To the stately, but religious, favors which your ladyship has honored me with, aspect of the republic of 1641, we find no resemare not, nor ever will be, out of my memory. i blance in the general features of our religious tolwill remember, as long as I live, that the most erance. To the ardent zeal for liberty which respectable lady, who waits, and is a friend to the marked the revolution of 1688, we can find no most truly great queen in the world, has vouch-counterpart in the constitutional quietude of the safed to protect me, and receive me with kindness while I was at London.

present day. The fiery ferocity of continental “ I am just now arrived at Paris, and pay my

revolution has certainly furnished no model to the respects to your court, before I see our own. 1 professors of national regeneration, since the reform wish, for the honor of Versailles, and for the im- of 1830. And yet, a determination, a power and provement of virtue and letters, we could have here a progress of public change, is now the acknowlsome ladies like you. You see, my wishes are edged principle of the most active, indefatigable, unbounded. So is the respect and gratitude I am and unscrupulous portion of the mind of England. with, Madame, your most humble, obedient servant,


And among the most remarkable and most men

acing adjuncts of the crisis, is the singular sense We pass over a thousand triflings in the subse- of inadequacy to resist its career, which seems to quent pages—the alarms of court ladies for the paralyze the habitual defenders of the right cause. loss of a royal smile, the sickness of a favorite The consecrated guardians of the church seem only monkey, or the formidable “ impossibility” of to wait the final blow. The great land-holders in matching a set of old china. Such are the calam- the peerage are contented with making protests. ities of having nothing to do. We see in those The agricultural interest, the boast of England, pages instances of high-born men contented to lin- and the vital interest of the empire, has abandoned ger round the court for life, performing some petty a resistance, too feeble to deserve the praise of office which, however, required constant attendance fortitude, and too irregular to deserve the fruits of on the court circle, and submitting, with many a victory. The moneyed interest sees its gigantic groan, it must be confessed, to the miserable opulence threatened by a hundred-handed grasp ; routine of trivial duties and meagre ceremonial, but makes no defence, or makes that most dangermuch fitter for their own footmen; while they left ous of all defences, which calls in the invader as their own magnificent mansions to solitude, their the auxiliary, bribes him with a portion of the noble estates unvisited, their tenantry uncheered, spoils, and only provokes his appetite for the posunprotected, and unencouraged by their residence session of the whole. in their proper sphere, and finally degenerated into This condition of things cannot last. A few feeble gossips, splenetic intriguers, and ridiculous years, perhaps a few months, will ripen the bitter encumbrances of the court itself.

fruit, which the meekness of undecided governDifficulty seems essential to the vigor of man. ments has suffered to grow before their eyes. Difficulty seems essential even to the vigor of The ballot, which offers a subterfuge for every nations. The old theory, that luxury is the ruin fraud ; extended suffrage, which offers a force for of a state, was obviously untrue ; for in no condi- every aggression ; the overthrow of all religious tion of the earth could luxury ever go down to the endowments, which offers a bribe to every desire multitude. But the true evil of states is, the decay of avarice-above all, that turning of religion into of the national activity, the chill of the national a political tool, that indifference to the true, and ardor, the adoption of a trifling, indolent, vegeta- that welcoming of the false, in whatever shape it tive style of being. Into this life France had may approach, however fierce and foul; however sunk, from the time of Louis XIV. Into this life coldly contemptuous, or furiously fanatical, howGermany had sunk, from the peace of Westphalia. ever grim or grotesque, whose first act must be to Into this life England was rapidly sinking, from trample all principle under foot, and place on its the reign of Anne.

altar the worship of the passions ;—those are the But the visitation came at last, at once to pun- demands which are already made, and those will ish and to stimulate. France, Germany, and be the trophies which the hands of political zealEngland were plunged into war together; and 'otry and personal rapine, in the first hour of their


triumph, will raise on the grave where lies buried | But let the song of triumph proudly swellthe constitution.

The deathless spirit owneth not thy spell ! Yet nothing is done by the natural defenders of The trembling limbs may tell a mournful tale the rights of Englishmen. No leader comes for

Of prostrate strength, the languid eye may speak ward; no new followers are to be found ; no ban- of fading hopes most precious though so frail, ner is raised as the rallying point for the fugitives, While the still, folded hands, in posture meek, already broken. We see the approach of the evil, Show that the spirit waiteth to fulfil, as the men of the old world might have seen the Even through pain and grief, its Maker's will ! approach of the deluge ; awaiting with folded bands, ind feet rooted to the ground, the surges

Bend to me, Father, while alone I lie,

Striving to guide my wandering thoughts to which nothing could resist ; looking with an indo

thee! lent despair at the mighty inundation, before Thou knowest how the fruitful earth, the sky, which the plain and the mountain alike began to The rush of waters and the storm-wind free, disappear; and sullenly submitting to an extinc- Have been rich founts of gladness, flowing deep tion, of which they had been long offered the Within the heart whose passions may not sleep! means of escape, and perishing, with the pledge Let me not love the creatures thou hast made, of security floating before their eyes.

Nor this fair world too proudly for my peace! We are by no means desirous of being prophets Oh, rather, when these changing prospects fade, of public misfortune ; but, with the tenets publicly May all vain, earth-ward Jongings gently cease! avowed, in the elections which have just clused, By the stern ministry of sorrow tried, with the strong popularity attached to the most Henceforth with thee my spirit shall abide !

Boston, Mass.

H. J. W. daring opinions, with thirty pledged Repealers from

Christian Witness. Ireland, with the wildest doctrines of trade advocated by the popular representatives in England, with sixty subjects of the pope sitting in a Protes

MEMORY. tant legislature, and with the evident determination to bring into that legislature individuals (and who

I am an old man-very old ; shall limit their numbers, when its doors are once

My hair is thin and gray: thrown open to their wealth ?) who pronounce

My hand shakes like an autumn leaf,

That wild winds toss all day. Christianity itself to be an imposture—we can con- Beneath the pent-house of my brows, jecture no consequences, however hazardous, which My dim and watery eyes ought not to present themselves to the soberest Gleam like faint lights within a pile, friend of his country. That the worst conse

Which half in ruin lies. quences may not be inevitable, is only to hope in

All the dull years of middle age a higher protection ; that even out of the evil

Have faded from my thought ; good may come, is not unconformable to the ways While the long-vanished days of youth of Providence; but that times are at hand in which

Seem ever nearer brought. the noblest energy of English statesmanship will Thus often, at the sunset time, be required to meet the conflict, we have no more

The vales in shadow rest, doubt, than that the pilot who, in a storm, uses

While evermore a purple glow

Gilds the far mountain's breast. neither compass nor sail, must run his ship on shore; or that the man who walks about in clothes O'er happy childhood's sports and plays, dipped in pestilence, will leave his corpse as a tes

Youth's friendships, and youth's love, timony to the fact of the contagion.

I ofttimes brood in memory,

As o'er its nest the dove.

In fancy through the fields I stray,

And by the river wide,

And see a once beloved face STRENGTH, that again my weary feet may tread

Still smiling at my side. The paths of life! So dark the shades which

I sit in the old parlor nook, Upon my heart, that life's uncertain thread

And she sits near me there ; Thrills to sad melody within my breast !

We read from the same book-my cheek
Oh! let me view them yet—those countless springs
That seem too distant for my crippled wings !

Touching her chestnut hair.
I have grown old—oh, very

old! Let me go forth! The spring's soft genial air

But she is ever young, Calls to my spirit with an angel's voice,

As when through moonlit alleys green Waking anew the earnest gush of prayer,

We walked, and talked, and sung.
And a vain wish to mingle and rejoice
With earth's glad children, who with song and

She is unchanged—I see her now

As in that last, last view, Welcome the summer sun's returning glance !

When by the garden gate we took

A smiling short adieu. How have I striven, Sickness, to unfold

Oh Death, thou hast a charmed touch, The mantle with which thou hast darkly bound

Though cruel 't is and cold; My feeble tenement; but strong thy hold

Embalmed by thee in memory, On the frail victims in thy shadow found !

Love never can grow old.


AN ENGLISHMAN UPON AMERICAN LITERA- great pains, in a well written dissertation, to viaTURE.

dicate the social development of America from these

and similar imputations : but he may rest assured [In looking over a file of English papers received that, in this country at least, they were never by late arrivals we encounter the following article deemed worthy a moment's attention by anybody in the London Morning Chronicle, suggested by a who possessed the means of forming an opinion. recent American work. The tone of it is far su

Coming so late into the field as the Americans perior to that of ordinary newspaper criticisers. have done, and finding the harvest well-nigh Such articles are well calculated to foster a gener- reaped, it is rather surprising that they should ous international respect between England and the have seen so much to do, and have done it so well. United States. We

copy it with pleasure.—Pic- Philosophers like Franklin and Edwards, theologians ayune.]

and moralists like Dwight and Channing ; jurists The Prose Writers of America ; with a Survey of such as Marshall, Kent, and Story; political es

the Intellectual History, Condition, and Prospects sayists like Hamilton and Everett ; novelists like of the Country. By Rufus Wilmot Griswold. Brown and Cooper (Washington Irving is a uni-Bentley.

versal genius ;) historians like Bancroft, Prescott, A volume such as this is a treasure to all who and Sparkes, are names which in their mere menwatch with eager hopefulness, and hail with joy- tion carry their own ovation; and if America has ful gratulation the daily extending triumphs of our yet given the world no great poet, the cause must English language. Apart from its excellence as be sought neither in the nature of her population a collection of miscellanies, and the intrinsic beauty nor the circumstances of her society. They are of the many noble specimens of eloquence it con- made of the same stuff as the people from whom tains, it will possess, for a considerable section of Shakspeare sprung, and the elements of poetry are our reading public, all the interest of literary news. rife in their glorious scenery, and the striking inThe biographical notices of the various writers, cidents of broil and battle, of adventure and some of them not so well known in this country romance, which abound in the history of the settleas they deserve to be, give many curious illu ra- ment of their country, the Indian wars, and the tions of American society and manners, and the revolutionary struggle. Nor, whilst felling their summaries of their literary labors contain much primeval forests, and subduing the untilled earth well conceived and finely expressed criticism. It to the uses of man, have the muse's notes been is true that the editor's eulogies are often too large silent amongst them. In our own day Halleck, and indiscriminate, but this is very excusable in a Bryant, and Longfellow are men who belong to a book of which a principal object is to assert and high, perhaps the highest order of lyrical genius. vindicate the literary claims of his countrymen.

But why ask of the dawn the effulgent glories of He must be a bold man who, with such a vol- noon-day, or the softer radiance of eventide? They ume as this before him, would decry the Ameri- have yet chosen rather to worship reverently at the cans as indifferent to literature, as unambitious of shrine of the great bards who have gone before, its distinctions, or incapable of its achievements. in the land from which their fathers came, than to Such sneers as these have indeed been hazarded ; essay new ways of poetizing. In these they take but they have proceeded only from a few travelling pride, for they are to them, as to us, an imperishbook-makers, incapable of observing truly or infer- able heritage. And now that the sources of disring rightly, and from critics whose only inspiration cord between Britain and America have been dried was to be found in their presumptuous malice and up, we look to such recollections as these to tighten crapulent ignorance. Sometimes we have been the bonds of unity, and to restore that intimacy of told that the Americans could not produce good feeling which should exist between the two great writers because they produced good politicians and branches of the British race. The year which has good citizens; that they could not be literary be passed brought with it noble and affecting proofs cause they were democratic. As if the history of of the warmth of fraternal interest in our destinies the whole world did not tell us that republics have which still exists beyond the Atlantic ; and the always been as fertile in great authors as in great tongue we speak in common should be for those statesmen and commanders, and that the home of families of mankind the pledge of a concord and liberty is ever the home of arts and letters. It is harmony which, we deeply trust, will endure fortrue that the democracy of the United States is a ever, unbroken by anything more serious than a different thing from the democracies of Athens or brother's bickering. If ever again the horizon Florence, but it differs only in being a more perfect should be darkened by the prospect of a fratricidal exemplification of its type, and a more logical de- war, the language in which we should be inclined velopment of the principles on which these were to address America would be that in which the adconstructed. Again, it is said that the Americans vent of civil strife was deprecated by one of the cannot be literary because they are practical ; just chief lights of our elder poesy : as if the greatest English authors, from Chaucer, Spencer, Shakspeare, and Milton, down to Sir

“Come the eleventh plague, rather than this should Walter Scott and our own contemporaries, had Come sink us rather in the sea ; not been men eminently practical in the scope and Come rather pestilence and reap us down ; objects of their lives. Mr. Griswold has taken Come God's sword rather than our own.

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Let rather Roman come again,

had placed the rights and the destinies of countless Or Saxon, Norman, or the Dane.

millons in the keeping of the widow's son." In all the bonds we ever bore, We grieved, we sighed, we wept; we never blushed before."

THE MORMON COLONY. The Americans may take pride in their histor- The St. Louis Republic of the 1st, contains ical laurels, for in no department of literary exer- some information concerning the progress of the tion has their success been more signal. We Mormon colony which is to be located at the “Great cannot forget that the distinguished man who now Salt Lake City” in California, derived from a Mr. represents the United States in this country has Little who has just arrived from that place, which

he left in August.

The Republican says: also preëminent claims to be regarded as the rep

We learn from him that the country selected for resentative of American letters. Mr. Bancroft's the habitation of the Mormons is about twenty historical style is marked by a severe simplicity miles east from the Great Salt Lake. In company and grandeur which might be imitated with advan- with others, he explored the valley, and he repretage by some of our writers, as will be perceived sents that they found a range of some eighty miles from the following fine passage, descriptive of the in length, and perhaps ten to twenty miles in width. youth of Washington :

The preparations for the reception of the advancing " After long years of strife, of repose, and of company of Mormons, were not, we should infer,

very extensive. A field of about one hundred acres strife renewed, England and France solemnly of ground had been planted with corn, potatoes, agreed to be at peace. The treaties of Aix la turnips, and other edibles, but as the rain seldom Chapelle had been negotiated by the ablest states- fell there, they had to resort to the uncertain and men of Europe, in the splendid forms of monarchi- laborious process of irrigation. They had engaged cal diplomacy. They believed themselves the in the erection of a stockade, to protect the colony arbiters of mankind, the pacificators of the world from the attacks of the Indians, covering some ten

acres of ground, within which from a hundred and -reconstructing the colonial system on a basis

sixty to two hundred dwellings were to be erected. which should endure for ages-confirming the Some parts of the valley have a very fertile appear, peace of Europe by the nice adjustment of mate- ance, but others, again, are exceedingly poor, and rial forces. At the very time of the congress of cannot be made to produce anything. Aix la Chapelle, the woods of Virginia sheltered On his return route, Mr. Little, who holds, we the youthful George Washington, the son of a believe, some high office in the Mormon church, widow. Born by the side of the Potomac, beneath met the Mormon emigrants in detached parties. He the roof of a Westmoreland farmer, almost from though with some sanguine hopes, they were stis

does not speak very flatteringly of their condition, infancy his lot had been the lot of an orphan. No moving on to their destination. Many of the heads academy had welcomed him to its shades, no col- of the families were, it will be remembered, taken lege crowned him with its honors : to read, to to fill up the California battalion and are still in write, to cipher—these had been his degrees in California, and the women and children were left to

little knowledge. And, now at sixteen years of age, in get along as they best could. In many cases, quest of an honest maintenance, encountering in- boys were found driving the teams, barefoot, and

the advanced parties were reduced to some extolerable toil; cheered onward by being able to tremity for the want of food. Two hundred of the write to a schoolboy friend, “Dear Richard, a oxen used in their teams had died after leaving Indoubloon is my constant gain every day, and some- dependence Rock, from eating some poisonous subtimes six pistoles ;' himself his own cook, having stance and exhaustion, and they were compelled to no spit but a forked stick, no plate but a large get along by using cows in their stead. All were, chip;' roaming over spurs of the Alleghanies, and it is feared, stinted for provisions, and even after along the banks of the Shenandoah ; alive to na- their hunters, there is room to apprehend suffering

their arrival, unless game could be procured by ture, and sometimes spending the best of the day from starvation-Mr. Little representing, at the in admiring the trees and richness of the land ; same time, that in and around the Salt Lake valley, among skin-clad savages, with their scalps and very little game was to be found. On the whole, rattles, or uncouth emigrants, that would never we are fearful that most distressing accounts will speak English ; rarely sleeping in a bed ; holding be received from this people, by the first arrivals a bearskin a splendid couch ; glad of a resting-place next spring. for the night upon a little hay, straw, or fodder, ficulties which the California battalion had to en

The following order, illustrating some of the dif and often camping in the forests, where the place counter, has been placed at our disposal :nearest the fire was a happy luxury-this stripling " HEADQUARTERS Mormon Battalion, surveyor in the woods, with no companion but his Mission of San Diego, 30th January, 1847. ) unlettered associates, and no implements of science “ Order No. 1. but his compass and chain, contrasted strangely “ The lieut. colonel commanding, congratulates with the imperial magnificence of the Congress of the battalion on their safe arrival on the shores of the Aix la Chapelle. And yet God had selected, not Pacific Ocean, and the conclusion of its march of Kaunitz, nor Newcastle, not a monarch of the in vain for an equal march of infantry : nine tenths

over two thousand miles. History may be searched house of Hapsburg, nor of Hanover, but the Vir- of it has been through a wilderness, where nothing ginia stripling, to give an impulse to human affairs, but savages and wild beasts are found; or deserts and, as far as events can depend on an individual, where, for want of water, there is no living crea

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