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as appeared, and indeed almost a pain to the eye | limit, in the family and still wider circles, might —and too probably to the mind. Poring in which, ensue.—On the whole, he would consider of it; nevertheless, my unknown correspondent professed was heartily disposed to do for me, and for the to have discovered various things. Strange, un- interests of truth (with what peril soever) all in his known aspects of affairs, moving accidents, adven- power ;-hoped, for the rest, to be in London soon, tures, such as the fortune of war in the obscure where, it appeared, the papers were then lying in Eastern Association (of Lincoln, Norfolk &c.) in some repository of his; would there see me, and the early obscure part of Oliver's career, hitherto do as good will guided by wise caution might entirely vacant and dark in all histories, had dis- direct. closed themselves to my unknown correspondent, To all which I could only answer with thanks painfully spelling in the rear of that destructive for the small valuable hint concerning young Oli.vermin : onslaughts, seizures, surprises ; endless ver's death; with a desire to know more about activity, audacity, rapidity on the part of Oliver ; those old papers ; with astonishment at my corstrict general integrity too, nay rhadamanthine jus- respondent's apprehension as to publishing them, tice, and traits of implacable severity connected which I professed was inconceivable, and likely to therewith, which had rather shocked the otherwise fly away as a night-dream if he spoke of it in strong but modern nerves of my unknown corre- intelligent circles ;—and finally with an eager wish spondent. Interspersed, as I could dimly gather, for new light of any authentic kind on Oliver Cromwere certain Letters, from Oliver and others, well and his acts or sayings, and an engagement (known or hitherto unknown, was not said ;) kept, that whatever of that sort my correspondent did presumably, by Auditor Squire, the ironside sub- please to favor me with, should be thankfully altern, as narrative documents, or out of private turned to use, under such conditions as he might fondness. As proof what curious and to me see good to prescribe. And here, after a second interesting matter lay in those old papers, journals or perhaps even a third letter and answer, (for sevor journal, as my unknown correspondent indis- eral of these missives, judged at first to be without criminately named them, he gave me the following importance, are now lost,) which produced no new small excerpt ; illuminating completely a point on information to me, nor any change in my correwhich I had otherwise sought light in vain. See, spondent's resolutions, the matter had to rest. To in Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, Letter an intelligent friend, partly acquainted in my cor5th July, 1644 ; which gives account of Mars- respondent's country, I transmitted his letters ; ton-Moor Battle, and contains an allusion to Oliver's with request that he would visit this remarkable own late loss, “Sir, you know my own trials this possessor of old manuscripts; ascertain for me, way,”—touching allusion, as it now proves; dark more precisely, what he was, and what they hitherto for all readers :-Meeting Colonel Crom- were ; and, if possible, persuade him that it would well again after some absence, just on the edge of be safe, for himself and for the universe, to let me Marston Battle, (it is Auditor Squire that writes,) have some brief perusal of them! This friend “I thought he looked sad and wearied ; for he had unfortunately did not visit those my correspondent's had a sad loss; young Oliver got killed to death localities at the time intended : so, hearing nothing not long before, I heard : it was near Knaresbor- more of the affair, I had to wait patiently its ulteough, and 30 more got killed.”

rior developments; the arrival, namely, of my Interesting papers beyond doubt, my unknown correspondent in town, and the opening of his correspondent thought. On one most essential mysterious repositories there. Not without surpoint, however, he professed himself at a painful mises that perhaps, after all, there might be little, pause : How far, or whether at all, these papers or even nothing of available, in them; for me ought to be communicated to the public, or even nothing, but new dreary labor, ending in new disto myself? Part of my correspondent's old kin- appointment and disgust; tragic experience being dred had been roundheads, part had been royalists ; already long and frequent, of astonishingly curious of both which sorts plentiful representatives yet old papers on Oliver, vouchsafed me, with an effort remained, at present all united in kindly oblivion and from favor, by ardent patriotic correspondents of those old sorrows and animosities ; but capable —which, after painful examination, proved only to yet, as my correspondent feared, of blazing up be astonishing old bundles of inanity, dusty desointo one knew not what fierce contradictions, should lation, and extinct stupidity, worthy of oblivion the question be renewed. That was his persua- and combustion : surmises tending naturally to sion, that was his amiable fear. I could perceive, moderate very much my eagerness, and render indeed, that my correspondent, evidently a simple patience easy. and honorable man, felt obscurely as if, in his own So had some months passed, and the affair been new conviction about Oliver's character, he pos- pretty well forgotten, when, one afternoon in June sessed a dangerous secret, which ought in nowise last, a heavy packet came by post ; recognizable even to be lightly divulged. Should he once inconsid- on the exterior as my unknown correspondent's : erately blab it, this heterodox, almost criminal and hereby, sooner than anticipation, and little as secret, like a fire-spark among tinder and dry flax ; I could at first discern it, had the catastrophe -how much more if, by publishing those private arrived. For within there lay only, in the meanpapers, confirinatory of the same, he deliberately while, copied accurately in my correspondent's shot it forth as mere flame! Explosion without | hand, those five-and-thirty letters of Oliver Cromwell which the public are now to read : this, with which I, and mankind in general, might now make here and there some diligent though rather indis- whatsoever we pleased. tinct annotation by my correspondent, where need- With my unknown correspondent I have not yet ful; and, on a note from himself, some vague hint personally met; nor can I yet sufficiently explain of his having been in town that very day, and even to myself this strange procedure of his, which naton the point of calling on me, had not haste and urally excites curiosity, amid one's other graver the rigor of railways hindered ; hints too about the feelings. The friend above alluded to, who has old dangers from royalist kindred being now happily now paid that visit, alas too late, describes him to surmounted—formed the contents of my heavy me as a gentleman of honorable, frank aspect and packet.

manners; still in his best years, and of robust The reading of these old Cromwell letters, by manful qualities; by no means, in any way, the far the most curious that had ever come to me from feeble, chimerical, or distracted entity, dug up from such a source, produced an immediate earnest, the seventeenth century and set to live in this almost passionate request to have sight of that old nineteenth, which some of my readers might fancy “ Journal by Samuel Squire,” under any terms, him. Well acquainted with that old journal, on any guarantee I could offer. Why should my " which went to 200 folio pages;" and which he respectable, obliging correspondent still hesitate? had carefully, though not with much other knowlThese letters, I assured him, if he but sold the edge, read and again read. It is suggested to originals as autographs, were worth hundreds of me, as some abatement of wonder: “He has pounds; the old Journal of an Ironside, since such lived, he and his, for 300 years, under the shadow it really seemed to be, for he had named it defi- of a cathedral city : you know not what kind of nitely in the singular, not“ journals" and“ papers” sleepy hollow that is, and how Oliver Cromwell is as heretofore—I prized as probably the most curi- related to it, in the minds of all men and nightous document in the archives of England, a piece birds who inhabit there! This gentleman had not to be estimated in tens of thousands. It had felt that, one way or other, you would inevitably become possible, it seemed probable and almost in the end get this MS. from him, and make it certain, that by diligent study of those old papers, public; which, what would it amount to but a by examination of them as with microscopes, in all new Guy-Faux cellar, and infernal machine, to varieties of lights, the veritable figure of Crom- explode his cathedral city and all its coteries, and well's Ironsides might be called into day, to be almost dissolve nature for the time being? Hence seen by men once more, face to face, in the linea- he resolved to burn his papers, and avoid catastroments of very life! A journey in chase of this phes.” unknown correspondent and his hidden papers ; But what chiefly, or indeed exclusively, concerns any journey, or effort, seemed easy for such a us here, is that, from the first, and by all subseprize.

quent evidence, I have seen this gentleman to be Alas, alas, by return of post, there arrived a a person of perfect veracity, and even of scrupuletter beginning with these words : “What you lous exactitude in details ; so that not only can his ask is impossible, if you offered me the Bank of copies of the Cromwell letters be taken as correct, England for security : the journal is ashes,”—all or the correctest he could give, but any remark or was ashes! My wonderful unknown correspon- statement of his concerning them is also to be dent had at last, it would appear, having screwed entirely relied on. Let me add, for my own sake his courage to the sticking place, rushed up to and his, that, with all my regrets and condemnatown by rail ; proceeded straight to his hidden tions, I cannot but dimly construe him as a man of repositories here; sat down, with closed lips, with much real worth ; and even (though strangely concentred faculty, and copied me exactly the inarticulate, and sunk in strange environments) Cromwell letters, all words of Cromwell's own of a certain honest intelligence, energy, generosity, (these he had generously considered mine by a which ought not to escape recognition, while passkind of right ;)—which once done he, still with ing sentence ;-least of all by one who is forced closed lips, with sacrificial eyes, and terrible hand unwillingly to relate these things, and whom, as and mood, had gathered all his old puritan papers is clear, he has taken great pains, and made a great and small, Ironside “journal,” Cromwell strong effort over himself, to oblige even so far. autographs, and whatever else there might be, and And this is what I had to say by way of introducsternly consumed them with fire. Let royalist tion to these new letters of Oliver Cromwell, which quarrels, in the family or wider circles, arise now are now all that remains to the world or me from if they could ;-"much evil,” said he mildly to that adventure. me, “hereby lies buried." The element of With regard to the letters themselves, they may olution," one may well add, “is strong in our now be read without further preface. As will be family;" unchangeable by men, scarcely by the seen, they relate wholly to the early part of Olivery gods! And so all was ashes; and a strange ver's career; to that obscure period, hitherto vaspeaking apparition of the past, and of a past cant or nearly so in all histories, while “ Colonel more precious than any other is or can be, had Cromwell” still fought and struggled in the Eastsunk again into the dead depths of night. Irre-ern Association, under Lord Grey of Groby, under coverable ; all the royal exchequer could not buy the Earl of Manchester, or left much to his own it back! That, once for all, was the fact; of shifts; and was not yet distinguished by the public


NOS. 1.VI.



He has pity tude.

NO. I.

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from a hundred other colonels. They present to is the same old Oliver whom we knew, but in still

The first six letters are of dates prior to the more distinct lineaments and physiognomy; the actual breaking out of the civil war, but while its features deeply, even coarsely marked—or, as it were, enlarged to the gigantic by unexpected near- in strange lugubrious chiaroscuro, committees of

rapid approach was too evident; and bring to view, It is Oliver left to himself ; stript bare of

“association for mutual defence,” (or however they all conventional draperies; toiling, wrestling as

phrased it,) and zealous individuals, Samuel Squire for life and death, in his obscure element; none looking over him but Heaven only. He “can ties-tremulous under the shadow of high treason

among others, tremulously sitting in various localistand no nonsenses ;" he is terribly in carnest ; on the one hand, and of Irish massacre on the will have his work done—will have God's justice other ;-to whom of course the honorable memdone too, and the everlasting laws observed, which ber's communications, in such a season, were of shall help, not hinder, all manner of work! The breathless interest. The king has quitted his parAlmighty God's commandments, these, of which liament; and is moving northward, towards York this work is one, are great and awful to him; all

as it proved, in a more and more menacing attielse is rather small, and not awful. -pity as of a woman, of a mother, we have known in Oliver ;—and rage also as of a wild lion, where need is. He rushes direct to his point : “If The address, if there ever was any except a resistance is made, pistol him ;" “ Wear them, verbal one by the bearer, is entirely gone, and the (these uniforms,) or go home :" “ Hang him out date also ; but may be supplied by probable conof hand; he wantonly killed the poor widow's boy ; jecture : God and man will be well pleased to see him pun- To the Committee of Association at Huntingdon.' ished !” The attentive reader will catch not only curious minute features of the old civil war, in

• London, March, 1641.'

DEAR FRIENDS, these rude letters; but more clearly than elsewhere

It is not improbable that the King may go significant glimpses of Oliver's character and ways; through Huntingdon on his way to Stamford. Pray and if any reader's nerves, like my correspondentis, keep all steady, and let no peace be broken. Beg be too modern—all effeininated in this universal, of all to be silent; or it may mar our peaceable very dreary, very portentous babble of “abolishing settling this sad business. Such as are on the capital punishments,” &c. &c., and sending Judas County Array bid go; all of you protect, at cost of Iscariot, Courvoisier, Praslin, Tawell, and Nature's deed—as you love the Cause. From

life, ihe King from harm, or foul usage by word or own scoundrels, teachable by no hellebore, “ to

Yours faithfully, the school-master," instead of to the hangman, or

OLIVER CROMWELL. to the cesspool, or somewhere swiftly out of the way (said “school-master” having not yet over

The transcriber, my unknown correspondent, taken all his other hopefuller work, by any manner adds from the burnt journal this note : "Journal of means !) —perhaps the sight of a great natural mentioned a sad riot at Peterborough on the king's hunian soul once more, in whom the stamp of the going to Stamford, between the townsmen and the divinity is not quite 'abolished by ages of cant, array.” March, 1641, as is known, means 1642, and hallow wiggery of every kind, ending now in according to the modern style ; new-years-day is an age of “abolition principles,” may do such 25th March. reader some good! I understand one of my correspondent's more minute reasons for burning the

The date exists, though wrong written, from Ironside Journal was, that it showed Cromwell un- haste ; but the address must be supplied : commonly impatient of scoundrels, from time to time; and might have shocked some people !

"To the Committee of Association at Stilton.' I print these letters according to their date, so ELY, April 11th day, 1641 (for 1612 ; misfar as the date is given ; or as the unwritten date

written, Newyears-day being still recent.) can be ascertained or inferred—which of course is

Dear FRIENDS, not always possible ; more especially since the

The Lord has hardened his (the King's]

heart more and more ; "he bas' refused to hear accompanying "journal” was destroyed. With some hesitation, I decide to print with modern reason, or to care for our Cause or Religion or

. spelling and punctuation, there being no evidence Let our Friends have notice of the sad news. I that the partially ill-spelt copies furnished me are will be with you at Oundle, if possible, early next exact to Oliver's ill-spelling ; which at all events week; say Wednesday, as I return now to London is insignificant, the sense having nowhere been at this day. Things go on as we all said they would. all doubtful. Commentary, except what Auditor We are all on the point of now openly declaring Squire and his transcriber have afforded, I cannot ourselves; now may the Lord prosperus in the

good Cause! undertake to give; nor perhaps will much be

Commend me in brotherly love to our chosen needed. Supplementary words added by myself Friends and vessels of the Lord : I name no one, to are marked by single commas, as was the former all the same. I write myself wont; annotations, if inserted in the body of the Your Friend in the Lord's Cause, letter, are in Italics within brackets. And now

0. to business, with all brevity.

P. S. Be srre and put up with no affronts. Be as




NO. V.



a bundle of sticks ; let the offence to one be as to brated Tawnies or Ironsides. They wore brown all. The Parliament will back us.

coats, -as did most farmers, and little country

freeholders ; and so do now, as you or me may To Mr. Samuel Squire (subsequently Cornet and see any day.—Oliver had some 200 foot also Auditor Squire.)

armed by him, who did great service.” LONDON, 3 May, 1642. Dear FRIEND,

I heard from our good Friend W. (Wild- No date, no address now left. Probably adman?] how zealous in the good Cause you were. dressed to the committee at Cambridge, or whichWe are all alive here, and sweating hard to beat those ever was the central committee of those associaPapists : may the Lord send to us His holy aid to tions; and to judge by the glorious ripeness to overcome them, and the Devils who seek to do evil. which matters have come, dated about the begin

Say to your Friends that we have made up our Demands to the control of the Navy, and Trainning of July. A very curious letter. We have bands of the Counties' Militia, also all Forts and prospered to miracle ; the Eastern Fen regions Castles; and, with God's aid, we will have them are all up or rising, and royalism quite put down if he [the King] likes or dislikes. For he is more there, impossible as that once seemed. Miracushifty every day. We must do more also, unless lous success ;—and greater is yet coming, if we he does that which is right in the sight of God and

knew it! man 10 his people. I shall come to Oundle, in my way down, this

To time ; as I learn you live there a great time now.

LONDON, July, 1642.' So may you prosper in all your undertakings, and

DEAR FRIENDS, may the Lord God protect and watch over you. Let them all know our mind.-From

Your Letters gave me great joy at Your Friend,

reading your great progress in behalf of our great 0. C. Cause.

Verily I do think the Lord is with me! I do un

dertake strange things, yet do I go through with To the Committee of- Association' at Cambridge.' them, to great profit and gladness, and furtherance LONDON, • June, 1642.'

of the Lord's great Work. I do feel myself lifted GENTLEMEN,

on by a strange force, I cannot tell why. By night I have sent you, by Hobbes' Wain,

and by day I am urged forward on the great work. those you know of. You must get lead as you may

As sure as God appeared 10 Joseph in a dream, althe Churches have enough and to spare on them so to Jacob, He also has directed -- [some words We shall see the Lord will supply us. Heed well eaten out by moths)

—Therefore I shall not fear

what man can do unto me. I feel He giveth me your motions (learn well your drill-exercise] : and laugh not at Rose's Dutch tongue; he is a zealous the light to see the great darkness that surrounds

us at noonday. -to my-ht—ly (five words gone, servant; and we may go further and get worse

by moths,] I have been a stray sheep from the Fold: man to our hand than he is.

I learn from R. you get offences from the Bul- but I feel I am born again ; I have cast offlards (?) at Stamford. Let them heed what they (moths again; nearly three lines lost) are about, or they may get a cake more than they Snaphances; also 300 Lances, which when com

• I have sent you 300 more Carbines, and 600 bargain for for their penny. V. says come ill to the time fixed for muster: pray heed plete I shall send down by the Wain with 16 bar

rels Powder. well their loss of time; for I assure you, if once we let time pass by, we shall seek in vain to recover and raise an Army forthwith : Essex and Bedford

We (of the Parliament] declare ourselves now, it. The Lord helpeth those who heed His com

Throw off fear, as I shall be with mandments : and those who are not punctual in small matters, of what account are they when it you. I get a Troop ready to begin ; and they will shall please Him to call us forth, if we be not Lord; my soul is with you in the Cause. I sought

shew the others. Truly Í feel I am Siloam of the watchful and ready? Pray beat up those slug: the Lord; and found this written in the First Chapgards.-I shall be over, if it please God, next

ter of Zephaniah, the 3d verse : See, I will consume Tuesday or Wednesday. I rest, till then,

&c. (Here is the rest of the passage ;

• Consume Your Friend and Well-wisher,

0. C.

man and beast; I will consume the fowls of

heaven, and the fishes of the sea, and the stumMy correspondent, who rather guesses this let- bling blocks with the wicked ; and I will cut off man ter to have gone to Huntingdon, subjoins in ref- from off the land, saith the Lord.' erence to it the following very curious note gath. seek daily, and do nothing without first so seeking

Surely it is a sign for us. So I read it. For I ered from his recollections of the burnt journal : the Lord.] -"Huntingdon regiment of Horse. Each armed

I have much to say to you all, when I do see you. and horsed himself ; except Mr. Ol’ Cromwell's Till I so do, the Lord be with you : may

His grace Troop of Slepe Dragoons, of some 30 to 40 men, abound in all your houses. Peace be among you, mostly poor men or very small freeholders : these loving Friends : so do I pray daily for your souls the journal mentioned often ; I mean the Slepe health. I pray also, as I know you also do,' for Troop of hard-handed fellows, who did as he told His mercy to soften the heart of the Kingthem, and asked no questions. The others, de- (moth-ruins to the end ; the signature itself half

caten ; indistinctly guessable to have been :} spite all that has been said and written, armed I shall be at Godmanchester, 'if it please the themselves and horsed also. I mean the cele-Lord, on,' Monday.

Oliver Cromwell.

that many

are our men.


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are curious glimpses into that old house by Ely No date; presumably, August, 1642, at Ely or Cathedral, too, and the Mother and the · Dame' somewhere in that region ; where Parliament there ! musters or "surveys' are going on, and brabbles To Mr. Samuel Squire, at his Quarters at Stan with recusant royalists are rife, -in one of which

ground. the excellent Mr. Sprigg has got a stroke. My

29 November, 1642. correspondent, the transcriber, thinks house at Dear FRIEND, Peterborough' must mean merely quarters in a

I have not at this moment Five Pieces by house there, the house or home of Squire ap- man is as nought." Pray now open thy pocket, and

me; loan I can get none; and without money a pearing in a late letter to be at Oundle.

lend me 150 Pieces until my rent-day, when I will To Mr. Squire, at his House, Peterborough. repay,-or say 100 Pieces until then. Pray send

(No date.]

me them by Alister your Music; he is a cautious

Tell W. I will not have his men cut folk's grass I regret much to hear your sad news. I regret much that worthy vessel of the Lord, Sprigg, Dame I have gone into Essex: my house is open

without compensation. If you pass mine, say to my came to hurt. I hope the voice of the Lord will soften the Ma- Oundle, or I shall be cross. If you please ride over

to you ; make no scruple; do as at your house at lignant's heart even yet at the eleventh hour: we

to Chatteris, and order the quartering of those (that) rejoice at the hope' much;—but do keep it quiet, Suffolk Troop, hear they have been very bad; and not to take air.

-and let no more such doings be. Bid R. horse* We had a rare survey about us; and did much any who offend; say it is my order, and shew him good. I expect to see you all at Stilton on Tues

this. day. To prevent hindrance. bring your swords and

Pray do not forget the 100 Pieces ; and bid Alis+ [hieroglyph for muskels?]—From

ter ride haste. I shall be at Biggleswade at 11. Your Friend,

Send me the accounts of the week, if possible by 0. C.

the Trumpet; if not, send them on by one of the Troopers. It were well he rode to Bury, and wait

[waited] my coming. Keinton or Edgehill Battle, the first clear burst- I hope you have forwarded my Mother the silks ing into flame of all these long-smouldering ele- you got for me in London ; also those else for my ments, was fought on Sunday, 23 October, 1642.

Dame. If not, pray do not fail.-From

Your Friend, The following eighteen letters, dated or approx

OLIVER CROMWELL. imately dateable all but some two or three, bring us on, in a glimmering fitful manner, along the as

*W.' I suppose means Wildman, ‘R.’ Rainsyet quite obscure and subterranean course of Col-borough. My correspondent annotates here: onel Cromwell, to within sight of the skirmish at

"" The Journal often mentioned trouble they” (the Gainsborough, where he dared to beat and even to officers generally) “ got into from the men taking, slay the Hon. Charles Cavendish, and first began without leave, hay and corn from Malignants, whom to appear to the world.

Oliver never allowed to be robbed, -but paid for all justly to friend and foe.”



NO. X.




To Auditor Squire.' Wisbeach, This day, 11 November, 1642.

To Cornet Squire, at his Quarters, Tansor : These. Dear Friend,

HUNTINGDON, 22 January, 1642. Let the Sadler see to the Horse-gear. I learn, from one, many are ill-served. If a man has News has come in, and I want you. Tell not good weapons, horse and harness, he is as my Son to ride over his men to me, as I want to see nought. I pray you order this :—and tell Rains- him. Tell White and Wildman also I want them. borough I shall see to that matter of his ;' but do Be sure you come 100: do not delay. not wrong the fool.-From

I have ill news of the men under my Son : tell Your Friend,

him from me I must not have it. Bring me over O. C. those Papers you know of. Desborow has come in with good spoil,—some £3,000 I reckon.

Your Friend, The following is dated the same day, apparently

0.[Crotled off.) at a subsequent hour, and to the same person.

Dated on the morrow after this, is the celebrated To Auditor Squire.'

letter to Robert Barnard, Esquire, now in the posNovember, 11th day, 1642. session of Lord Gosford :f “subtlety may deceive Take Three Troops, and go to Downham ; I care

you, integrity never will !"not which they be.

Oliver CROMWELL. * That is, wooden-horse, (used as a verb.)-"Do mil

itary men of these times understand the wooden-horse ? He is a mere triangular ridge or roof of wood, set on tour

sticks, with absurd head and tail superadded : and you • Stanground' is in the Peterborough region ; ride him bare-backed, in face of the world, frequently with

Music' means ' Alister your Trum- muskets tied to your feet, --in a very uneasy manner !" peter,' of whom there will be other mention. Oliver -(Cromwell's Lellers and Speeches, second edition, ii.

22.) inds himself at a terrible pinch for money ;-there | Cromwell's Lellets and Speeches, i. 59.


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Alister your


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