« 上一頁繼續 »
stationary steam-engine. Sometimes there was an One of Mr. Blenkinsop's engines of four horses' inclined plane, terminating in a spout at the ship- power impelled a carriage lightly loaded at the ping place, along which the coals were shot rate of ten miles an hour; attached to thirty coal straight into the hold of the vessel lying under the wagons, it went at one third of that pace. Forriver bank.
tunately, however, it was soon discovered that the In 1767, the experiment was tried at the Cole- conclusion on which Mr. Blenkinsop and others brook iron-works of covering the wooden rails of a had been proceeding—namely, that the amount of tramroad with a plating of iron. The experiment adhesion was insufficient between a smooth wheel was so successful, that some years afterwards rails and a smooth rail—was a hasty one; and that, wholly of cast-iron began to be constructed. About provided the road were tolerably level, the amount the year 1793, also, wooden sleepers began to be of adhesion between such a wheel and such a rail superseded by stone ones—blocks of stone laid was quite sufficient to insure propulsion. Satisfied down underneath the joinings of the rails. Till on this point, engineers devoted their attention more 1801, the rails were all of the kind called the flat- especially to the improvement of the locomotive rail, or tram-plate, consisting of plates of cast-iron itself. The difficulties of various kinds, however, about three feet long, from three to five inches which presented themselves were great ; and the broad, and from half an inch to an inch thick, with horses of England continued to flatter themselves a flange or turn-up on the inside. About that year, that they would be able to retain the monopoly of however, edge-rails began to be used—these edge- locomotion ; and that, although steam-engines rails being bars of cast-iron about three feet long might work well enough in chains at inclined each, laid on their edges, the flange in this case plains, they should still have the run of the counbeing on the wheel.
try. The value of the improvements which had thus Such was the state of matters about the year been gradually introduced during the course of a 1819–20, when Mr. Gray appeared in the field ; a century and a half may be judged of from the fact, great number of tramroads had been laid down in that on a good edge railway, such as was to be particular districts of the island, along which horses found in the beginning of the present century, ten and stationary steam-engines were pulling wagons, horses could do an amount of work, which, on a while here and there a solitary locomotive snorted common road, would require the strength of four along, trying its powers. Locomotives versus hundred. “Iron railways were, in consequence, horses, and railways versus turnpikes and canalsquickly introduced into all the coal and mining dis- such was the question at issue. Mr. Gray's merit tricts of the kingdom. They were employed on consisted not in effecting actual improvements of canals in place of locks, to raise the barges on an in- construction in either locomotives or railways— clined plane from a lower to a higher level ; in some that was the work of Stephenson, and other emcases they were adopted in preference to the canal inent engineers—but in stating the question to the itself; and, on the whole, they began to form an country, in foreseeing the issue, and in boldly important auxiliary to inland navigation, pushing imagining the time when the whole island should the channels of trade and intercourse into districts be covered with a net-work of se tramroads, otherwise inaccessible, and even into the interior of when locomotives should scamper through the counthe mines.” Scarcely any two of these railways try as plentiful as horses, and when canals, stagewere alike in all particulars.
coaches, and turnpike trusts, should be all swamped All this while horse-power continued to be the in a general iron railway. Glimmerings of this only motive force employed, except at those in- idea may have appeared before in other minds. clined planes already mentioned. Thus horses and “ You must be making handsomely out with your steam-engines shared the work between them. canals,” said some one to the celebrated canalThe idea of uniting the two into one, so as to pro- making Duke of Bridgewater. “Oh, yes.“ grumduce a locomotive steam-engine, or a steam-horse, bled he, in reply," they will last my time ; but I
Watt had, indeed, in one don't like the look of these tramroads; there's of his patents, dated 1784, suggested a plan for mischief in them.” What the shrewd duke foreimparting to the steam-engine the animal's faculty saw, others also may have casually anticipated ; of locomotion ; but it was not till 1802 that ex- but Mr. Gray was the first man to realize the whole periments with a view to the construction of an extent of the change, and to advocate it ; and alefficient locomotive engine were commenced. The though this change would doubtless have effected first locomotives put npon trial were those of the itself in any case, yet the first man who conceived engineers Messrs. Trevithick and Vivian. The it, and called the attention of the nation to the subobjection to them was, that there was not sufficient ject, deserves distinction. To say that the change adhesion between the wheels and the rails, so that, would have effected itself, is merely to say that if if the velocity were at all great, the former would re- Mr. Gray's mind had not conceived it so fast, five volve without advancing the vehicle. To remedy or six other minds would have conceived it more this inconvenience, various plans were devised, slowly. among which that of Mr. Blenkinsop obtained the A circumstance which favored Mr. Gray's progreatest celebrity. His plan consisted in making the posal was, that about the time it was first made, rails notched, and the wheels with teeth, so that they or a little later, rails began to be formed of malcontinued to work in a rack all along the road. leable instead of cast-iron ; the malleable possess
was a more recent one.
ing two decided advantages for the purpose over other engines might proceed on with them to their the cast—first, in being less apt to break; and, destination. By a due regulation of the departure second, in being capable of being made in greater and arrival of coaches, caravans, and wagons, along lengths of bar.
these branches, the whole communication throughMr. Gray, in his volume, dashes at once into out the country would be so simple and so comthe midst of his subject ; and his readers twenty- plete, as to enable every individual to partake of six years ago must have been much surprised by the various productions of particular situations, and such passages as the following :—“The plan,” he to enjoy, at a moderate expense, every improvesays, "might be commenced between the towns of ment introduced into society. Steam-engines would Manchester and Liverpool, where a trial could soon answer all the purposes required by the general inbe made, as the distance is not very great ; and the tercourse and commerce of this country, and clearly commercial part of England would thereby be bet- prove that the expenses caused by the continual ter able to appreciate its many excellent proper- relays of horses are totally unnecessary. The ties, and prove its efficacy. All the great trading great economy of such a measure must be obvious towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire would then to every one, seeing that, instead of each coach eagerly embrace the opportunity to secure so com-changing horses between London and Edinburgh, modious and easy a conveyance, and cause branch say twenty-five times, requiring a hundred horses, railways to be laid down in every possible direc- besides the supernumerary ones kept at every stage tion. The convenience and economy in the car- in case of accidents, the whole journey of several riage of the raw material to the numerous manufac- coaches would be performed with the simple extories established in these counties, the expeditious pense of one steam-engine. No animal strength and cheap delivery of piece goods bought by the will be able to give that uniform and regular acmerchants every week at the various markets, and celeration to our commercial intercourse which may the despatch in forwarding bales and packages to be accomplished by railways; however great the the outposts, cannot fail to strike the merchant and animal speed, there cannot be a doubt that it would manufacturer as points of the first importance. be considerably surpassed by mail steamcarriages, Nothing, for example, would be so likely to raise and that the expense would be infinitely less. The the ports of Hull, Liverpool, and Bristol to an un-exorbitant charge now made for small parcels preprecedented pitch of prosperity, as the establish- vents that natural intercourse of friendship between ment of railways to these ports, thereby rendering families residing in different parts of the kingdom, the communication from the east to the west seas, in the same manner as the heavy postage of letters and all intermediate places, rapid, cheap, and effec- prevents free communication, and consequently tual. Any one at all conversant with commerce diminishes very considerably the consumption of must feel the vast importance of such an under- paper which would take place under a less burdentaking in forwarding the produce of America, Bra- some taxation." zils, the East and West Indies, &c., from Liverpool Such passages as the foregoing must have surand Bristol viâ Hull, to the opposite shores of prised the public very much twenty-six years ago ; Germany and Holland ; and, vice versâ, the produce the following, if we are not mistaken, will have of the Baltic viâ Hull to Liverpool and Bristol.” sufficient novelty even for readers of the present Again—"By the establishment of morning and time :-“The present system of conveyance," says evening mail steam-carriages, the commercial in- Mr. Gray, “affords but tolerable accommodation terest would derive considerable advantage; the to farmers, and the common way in which they inland mails might be forwarded with greater de attend markets must always confine them within spatch, and the letters delivered much earlier than very limited distances. It is, however, expected by the extra post; the opportunities of corre- that the railway will present a suitable conveyance spondence between London and all mercantile places for attending market-lowns thirty or forty miles off, would be much improved, and the rate of postage as also for forwarding considerable supplies of might be generally diminished without injuring the grain, hay, straw, vegetables, and every descripreceipts of the post-office, because any deficiency tion of live-stock to the metropolis at a very easy occasioned by a reduction in the postage would be expense, and with the greatest celerity, from all made good by the increased number of journeys parts of the kingdom.” which mail steam-carriages might make. The It was not until after four of five years of agjLondon and Edinburgh mail steam-carriages might tation, and several editions of Mr. Gray's work had take all the mails and parcels on the line of road been published and successively commented upon between these two cities, which would exceedingly by many newspapers, that commercial men were reduce the expense occasioned by mail-coaches on roused to give the proposed scheme its first great the present footing. The ordinary stage-coaches, trial on the road between Liverpool and Manchescaravans, or wagons, running any considerable dis- ter. The success of that experiment, irsured by tance along the main railway, might also be con- the engineering skill of Stephenson, was the signal ducted on peculiarly favorable terms to the public; for all that has since been done both in this island for instance, one steam-engine of superior power and in other parts of the world. I'nfortunately, would enable its proprietors to convey several the public has been too busy these many years in coaches, caravans, or wagons linked together, un- making railways to inquire to whom it owes its til they arrive at their respective branches, where gratitude for having first expounded and advocated
their claims; and probably there are few men now is in vogue amongst the faculty as the seat of living who have served the public as effectually, disease. In Swift's days it was the stomach. with so little return in the way of thanks or ap- He was therefore treated for the stomach for some plause, as Mr. Thomas Gray, the proposer in 1820 half century, while all the time disease was going of a general system of transit by railways. on in his brain. One of their medicines will excite
a smile now-a-days-brandy. He was enjoined to swift's ILLNESS AND HIS
drink this liquor in considerable quantities, till
experience showed that it only made his case Dublin possesses a most respectable medical peri- worse, and he resumed his usual habits of temodical of the first class, conducted by a clever young perance. He wrote thus of physicians in 1737 :native surgeon, Mr. Wilde. The numbers for “ I have esteemed many of them as learned and May and August contain an elaborate paper by ingenious men, but I never received the least benefit the editor, in which the ailments of Swift are from their advice or prescriptions. Poor Dr. for the first time (as appears) distinctly ascertained. Arbuthnot was the only man of the faculty who There has been much mystery on this subject seemed to understand my case, but could not among the biographers of the famous Dean of St. remedy it." Patrick's; his character even has suffered a little In tter life, the sufferings from his disease from the obscurity. Having with great pains were dreadful. He speaks of having felt as in traced the symptoms and treatment through fifty- Phalaris' brazen bull, and roared as loud for eight five years of correspondence, and drawn important or nine hours. Mr. Wilde says-" That Swift illustrations from the appearances presented by the was not, however, at any time, even during the cranium when exhumed in 1835, Mr. Wilde finally most violent attacks, at all insensible, or in any brings his professional knowledge to bear on the way deprived of his reasoning faculties, may be subject, which he seems to have thoroughly ex- learned from the fact, that when Sergeant Betteshausted. Swift had no hereditary tendency to worth threatened his life, and thirty of the nobility nervous disease, as has been surmised, and almost and gentry of the liberty of St. Patrick's waited alleged. He contracted a giddiness in his twenty- upon him, and presented him with an address, seventh year, in consequence of eating a hundred engaging to defend his person and fortune, &c., it golden pippins at a time at Richmond. Not long is related by the most veritable of his biographers, after, he contracted a deafness, from sitting on a that when this paper was delivered, Swift was in damp seat. These were ailments, says Mr. bed, giddy and deaf, having been some time before Wilde, not likely, when once established, to be seized with one of his fits; but he dictated an easily removed from a system so nervous and irri- answer in which there is all the dignity of habitual table as Swift's. “From this period a disease preëminence, and all the resignation of humble which in all its symptoms, and by its fatal termi- piety.'' nation, plainly appears to have been in its com- “ So desponding was the dean at times, and so mencement at least) cerebral congestion, set in, and great was his fear of the loss either of his memory exhibited itself in well-marked periodical attacks, or his reason, that he used to say, on parting with which, year after year, increased in intensity and an intimate friend in the evening—. Well, God duration.” The brain which produced Lilliput, bless you! Good night to you ; but I hope I shall and bothered the whigs, under congestion all the never see you again.' 'In this manner,' says Mr. time!
Dean Swift, he would frequently express the “In early life,” says our author, “he was desire he had to get rid of the world, after a day of remarkably active habits, and always exceed- spent in cheerfulness, without any provocation from ingly sober and temperate, if we except the anger, melancholy, or disappointment.' Upon the instance of gluttony already related. From the occasion of a large pier-glass falling accidentally date of his first attack, he seems to have had a on the very part of the room in which he had been presentiment of its fatal termination ; and the dread standing a moment before, and being congratulated of some head affection (as may be gleaned from by a bystander on his providential escape-'I am innumerable passages in his writings) seems to sorry for it,' answered the dean : ‘I wish the have haunted him ever afterwards, producing those glass had fallen upon me!' Lord Orrery mentions fits of melancholy and despondency to which it is that he had often heard him lament the state of well known he was subject; while the many dis- childhood and idiotism to which some of the greatappointments and vexations, both of a domestic and est men of this nation were reduced before their public nature, which he subsequently suffered, no death. He mentioned, as examples within his doubt tended to hasten the very end he feared.” own time, the Duke of Marlborough and Lord Swift, however, according to Mr. Wilde, never Somers; and when he cited these melancholy was at any time of his life, not even at its close, instances, it was always with a heavy sigh, and “what is usually termed and understood as mad;" with gestures that showed great uneasiness, as if a point in our literary biography which will be he felt an impulse of what was to happen to him acknowledged to be of no small importance. before he died.'”
The unfortunate wit was of course never out of Mr. Wilde adduces many passages from the the hands of the doctors. At all times, some par- writings of the friends immediately around Swift, ticular portion or peculiarity of the human frame to show that he only manifested loss of memory,
and other symptoms of decay of mind, but nothing MARTIN F. TUPPER TO AMERICA. like fatuity or furiosity. One friend says of him the year before his death, that he had never yet talked nonsense, or said a foolish thing. Guardi- COLUMBIA, child of Britain-noblest child ! ans seem to have been appointed for him, merely And fain would see thy great heart reconciled
I praise the growing lustre of thy worth, because of the infirmities above mentioned. He
To love the mother of so blest a birth; at length died in his own house, October 19, 1745, For we are one, Columbia! still the same in the seventy-eighth year of his age. His head In lineage, language, laws, and ancient fame, was dissected ; but all we know of the results is The natural nobility of earth ; confined to the fact, that water was found on the Yes, we are one; the glorious days of yore,
When dear old England earned her storied name, brain.
Are thine, as well as ours, for evermore; Ninety years after the death of this bright
And thou hast rights in Milton, e'en as wegenius, some repairs being then in course of being Thou too canst claim “sweet Shakspeare's woodinade in St. Patrick's cathedral, the remains of notes wild,” Swift and his wife Stella were exhumed, and sub- And chiefest, brother, we are both made free, jected to examination. The bones of Swift lay in Of one religion, pure and undefiled! the position into which they had fallen, when deprived of the flesh which enveloped and held I blame thee not as other some have blamedthem together. The skull, cut as it had been left The highborn heir hath grown to man's estate ; by his own surgeons, was found entire. It was I mock thee not, as some who should be shamed, eagerly taken possession of, with a view to its Nor ferret out thy faults with envious hate ; being examined phrenologically, and for some days Far otherwise, by generous love inflamed, it circulated through the coteries of Dublin. “The Rejoicing in the blaze of good and great
Patriot, I praise thy country's foreign son university,” says Mr. Wilde, “ where he had so
That diadems thy head ;-go on, go on! often toiled, again beheld him, but in another Young Hercules, thus travelling in might, phase; the cathedral which heard his preaching— Boy-Plaio, filling all the West with light, the chapter-house which echoed his sarcasm—the Íhou new Themistocles of enterprise ; deanery which resounded with his sparkling wit, Go on, and prosper— Acolyte of Fate! and where he gossiped with Sheridan and Delany
And-precious child, dear Ephraim—turn those -the lanes and alleys which knew his charity For thee thy mother's yearning heart doth wait.
eyesthe squares and streets where the people shouted his name in the days of his unexampled popularity
THE BACHELOR's COMPLAINT. -the mansions where he was the honored and much-sought guest-perhaps the very rooms he An unfortunate individual laments his solitary state in often visited—were again occupied by the dust of the following stanzas, the concluding one of which inci
cates that we may still have hopes of him :Swift!" The interior of the skull threw some light upon
Returning home at close of day,
Who gently chides my long delay, the mental condition of the great dean in his latter
And by my side delights to stay? days. According to Dr. Houston, “ the cerebral
Nobody. (inner) surface of the whole of the frontal region
Who sets for me the easy chair, is evidently of a character indicating the presence,
Sets out the room with neatest care, during lifetime, of diseased action in the subjacent
And lays my slippers ready there? membranes of the brain. The skull in this region
Nobody. is thickened, Aattened, and unusually smooth and hard in some places, whilst it is thinned and
Who regulates the cheerful fire,
And piles the blazing fuel higher, roughened in others. The marks of the vessels
And bids me draw my chair still nigher ? on the bone exhibit, moreover, a very unusual
Nobody. appearance; they look more like the imprints of vessels which had been generated de novo, in con
When plunged in dire and deep distress,
And anxious cares my heart oppress, nection with some diseased action, than as the
Who whispers hopes of happiness? original arborescent trunks.” Mr. Wilde ex
Nobody. presses his opinion that the appearances showed
When anxious thoughts within me rise, "a long continued excess of vascular action, such
And in dismay my spirit dies, as would attend cerebral congestion."
Who soothes me by her kind replies ? Much detail of an interesting kind is given in
Nobody. the paper of Mr. Wilde ; but for this we must
When sickness racks my feeble frame, refer to the journal in which it appears.
And grief distracts my fevered brain, whole is eminently curious, as tracing material Who sympathizes with my pain? conditions which must have entered largely into
Nobody. the character of one of the most remarkable men
Then I 'll resolve, so help me Fate, of his century. Who can say how much of the
To change at once the single stale, politics of Swift-how much of his satiric and
And will to Hymen's altar takeindignant writings—took their first rise in a sur
Somebody. feit of pippins ?— Chambers' Journal.
Journal of Commerce.
THIRTY-FIVE UNPUBLISHED LETTERS OF OLI- the possession of Mr. So-and-so, as is usual in like VER CROMWELL.
cases; this, which would satisfy the reader's
strict claims in the matter, I have had to engage COMMUNICATED BY THOMAS CARLYLE TO FRA- expressly not to do. Why not?” all readers ser's MAGAZINE.
will ask, with astonishment, or perhaps with other
feelings still more superfluous for our present (Upon us, Mexican-war-mind-entangled, these letters force continual comparisons between degenerate modern object. The story is somewhat of an absurd one, times, and the hearty, unsqueamish, save-of-popery days what may be called a farce-tragedy; very ludiof the Great Protector and Puritan. We of the present crous as well as very lamentable ;—not glorious to Boston are not so entirely fallen away, but that we too relate ; nor altogether easy, under the conditions could“ wreck a nunnery," should it be our manifest duty: prescribed! But these thirty-five letters are OliBut we groan more heavily over the carnal doings of ver Cromwell's; and demand, of me especially, some of our folk in Mexico, than" the Colonel” would, both that they be piously preserved, and that there should he be sent to supersede Gen. Scott. We think he would yield no armistice before Mexico, and would think be no ambiguity, no avoidable mystery or other it a “crowning mercy" should he succeed in catching the foolery, in presenting of them to the world. If deserters. As there is nothing new under the sun, we the letters are not to have, in any essential or see that he has pronounced the law not on them only, but unessential respect, the character of voluntary on those who "lried them sorely by money, whom,” saith enigmas; but to be read, with undisturbed attenhe, “I will hang, if I catch playing their tricks in my tion, in such poor twilight of intelligibility as quarters; by law of arms (second section ?] I will serve
belongs to them, some explanation, such as can be them." How about enemies who violate their parole ? (Would they have been spared to give it ?) It seems that given, seems needful. Gen. Cushing hath a spark of the old fire in him—for he
Let me hasten to say, then, explicitly once decides the case of the men who murmured at the new more, that these letters are of indubitable authenclothing, as did his great forefather. And yet, proud of ticity: further, that the originals, all or nearly all our ancestry as we are, we cannot but fear that more of in autograph, which existed in June last, in the the mantle of Oliver hath fallen upon Texas than upon possession of a private gentleman whose name I am the Plymouth-descended. These Texians make not such on no account to mention, have now irrecoverably thorough work to be sure, but they go at it in the old perished ;—and, in brief, that the history of them, spirit--and "stand no nonsense" from any man.-Living Age.]
so far as it can be related under these conditions,
is as follows: On the first publication of Oliver Cromwell's Some eight or ten months ago, there reached Letters and Speeches, new contributions of Crom- me, as many had already done on the like subject, well matter, of some value, of no value, and even a letter from an unknown correspondent in the disof less than none, were, as the general reader tance; setting forth, in simple, rugged and trust. knows, diligently forwarded to me from all quar- worthy, though rather peculiar dialect, that he, my ters; and turned to account, in the second edition unknown correspondent—who seemed to have been of that work, as the laws of the case seemed to a little astonished to find that Oliver Cromwell was allow. The process, which seemed then to all actually not a miscreant, hypocrite, &c., as heretopractical intents completed, and is in fact very lan- fore represented—had in his hands a stock of guid and intermittent ever since, has nevertheless strange old papers relating to Oliver: mach connot yet entirely ceased; and indeed one knows sumed by damp, and other injury of time ; in parnot when, if ever, it will entirely cease ; for at longer ticular, much “ eaten into by a vermin” (as my and longer intervals new documents and notices correspondent phrased it,) - -some moth, or body still arrive; though, except in the single instance of moths, who had boarded there in past years. now before us, I may describe these latter as of The papers, he said, describing them rather the last degree of insignificance ; hardly even vaguely, contained some things of Cromwell's worth “ inserting in an Appendix,” which was my own, but appeared to have been mostly written by bargain in respect of them. Whence it does, at one Samuel Squire, a subaltern in the famed Reglast, seem reasonable to infer that our English iment of Ironsides, who belonged to “ The Stilton archives are now pretty well exhausted, in this Troop,” and had served with Oliver “ from the particular; and that nothing more, of importance, first mount" of that indomitable corps, as cornet, concerning Oliver Cromwell's utterances of himself and then as auditor,'—of which latter office my in this world, will be gathered henceforth. Here, correspondent could not, nor could I when queshowever, is a kind of exception; in regard to tioned, quite specificate the meaning, but guessed which, on more accounts than one, it has become that it might be something like that of adjutant in necessary for me to adopt an exceptional course ; modern regiments. This Auditor Sqaire had kept and if not to edit, in the sense of elucidating, the some “journal, or diary of proceedings, from contribution sent me, at least to print it straight-" the first mount” or earlier, from about 1642 till way, before accident befall it or me.
the latter end of 1645, as I could dimly gather ; The following letters, which require to be but again it was spoken of as “ journals," as “old printed at once, with my explicit testimony to papers,' manuscripts," in the plural number, their authenticity, have come into my hands under and one knew not definitely what to expect : mothsingular circumstances and conditions. I am not eaten, dusty, dreary old brown papers ; bewildered allowed to say that the originals are, or were, in and bewildering ; dreadfully difficult to decipher,