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to be accomplished. Will you leave it in the power slave, a fine horse, a splendid house ?—they all beof posterity to say that in Lombardy you have found long to the Mamelukes. If Egypt be really their a Capua? Let us go on! We have still forced farm, let them show what grant God has given marches to make, enemies to subdue, laurels 10 them of it. But God is just and merciful towards gather, and insults to avenge,
his people. All Egyptians have equal rights. Let “ To reestablish the capitol, and reërect the stat- the most wise, the most enlightened, and the most ues of its heroes ; to awake the Roman people sunk virtuous rule, and the people will be happy. under the torpor of ages of bondage ;-behold what “ There were in former days among you great remains to be done! After accomplishing this, you cities, great canals, and vast trade. What has dewill return to your hearths ; and your fellow-citi- stroyed all these, if it be not the cupidity, the inzens, when they behold you pass them, will point justice, and the tyranny of the Mamelukes? at you and say-He was a soldier of the army of “Cadis, Sheiks, Imans, Charbadgys, tell it to Italy!”
the people that we also are true Mussulmans. Was Such language was never before addressed to a tions to war on the Mussulmans? Are we not also
it not we that subdued the pope, who exhorted naIt excited the soldiers even to de- friends of the Grand Signor? lirium. They would have followed him to the “ Thrice happy those who shall be on our side! ends of the earth. Nor was such an event foreign -happy those who shall be neuter : they will have to his thoughts. The army no longer obeyed time to be acquainted with us, and to join with us. it was devoted. It was not led by a mortal com- the Mamelukes
, and who shall combat against us!
“ But woe, woe to those who shall take arms for mander-it followed a demigod.
For them there will be no hope! They shall perWhen he sailed from the shores of France, on ish!" the celebrated expedition to Egypt, the destination of the fleet was confided to none but himself. Its
After quelling the revolt at Cairo, he availed course was directed first to Malta, which, as is himself of the terror and superstition of the Egypwell known, submitted without resistance. When tians, to present himself to them as a superior belying off its harbor, Bonaparte thus addressed the ing, as a messenger of God, and the inevitable splendid army which floated around him :
instrument of Fate :“ Soldiers !—You are a wing of the army of Eng
“ Sheiks, Ulemas, worshippers of Mahomet, tell land. You have made war on mountain and plain, the people that those who have been my enemies and have made sieges._It still remains for you to shall have no refuge in this world or in the next! make a maritime war. The legions of Rome, which Is there a man among them so blind as not to see you have sometimes imitated, but not yet equalled, Fate itself directing my movements ? warred with Carthage by turns on the sea and on “ Tell the people that since the world was a the plains of Zama. Victory never abandoned them, world, it has been written, that after having debecause they were brave in combat, patient under stroyed the enemies of Islamism-after having fatigue, obedient to their commanders, and firm beaten down their crosses, I should come from the against their foes. But, soldiers ! Europe has its depths of the west, to fulfil the task which has been eyes upon you ; you have great destinies to fulfil, committed to me. Show the people that in the holy battles to wage, and fatigues to suffer."
volume of the Koran, in more than twenty places,
what happens has been foretold, and what will hapWhen the men from the mast tops discovered
pen is likewise written. the towers of Alexandria, Bonaparte first announced “I can call each of you to account for the most to them the destination of the expedition :- hidden thoughts of your heart ; for I know all, even
the things you have not whispered to another. But “ Frenchmen !-You are going to attempt con- a day will come when all the world will plainly see quests, the effects of which on the civilization and that I am conducted by orders from above, and that commerce of the world are incalculable. Behold no efforts can prevail against me!” the first city we are about to attack. It was built by Alexander."
Where Charlatanism was the weapon most efAs he advanced through Egypt he soon per
fective, he there scrupled not to wield it for the ceived that he was among a people who were fa-attainment of his ends. natical, ignorant, and vindictive, who distrusted the
After the 18th Brumaire, surrounded by his Christians, but who still more profoundly detested brilliant staff, he apostrophized the Directory with the insults, exactions, pride, and tyranny of the the haughty tone of a master who demands an acMamelukes. To flatter their prejudices and con
count of his servants, and as though he were alfirm their hatred, he addressed them in a procla- ready absolute sovereign of France : mation conceived in their own Oriental style :- “ What have you done with that France which
“Cadis, Sheiks, Imans, Charbadgys, they will I left you surrounded with such splendor? I left say to you that I have come to destroy your reli- you peace- I return and find war. I left you the gion! Believe them not. Tell them that I come millions of Italy -I return and find spoliation and to restore your rights, and to punish your usurpers, misery! What have you done with the hundred and that I, much more than the Mamelukes, respect in glory, and in toil? They are dead!"
thousand brave French, my companions in arms, God,
his prophet, and the Koran ! “ Tell it to the people that all men are equal before God. Say that wisdom, talents, and virtue,
Bonaparte was remarkable for contemptuously alone constitute the difference between man and man.
breaking through the traditions of military practice. “ Is there on your land a fine farm ?-it belongs Thus, on the eve of the battle of Austerlitz, he to the Mamelukes. Is there anywhere a beautiful adopted the startling and unusual course of dis
closing the plan of his campaign to the private The Oder, the Warta, the deserts of Poland, the soldiers of his army :
bad weather, nothing has stopped you. All have
fled at your approach. The French eagle soars “ The Russians," said he, “ want to turn my over the Vistula; the brave and unfortunate Poles right, and they will present to me their flank. Sol- imagine that they see again the legions of Sobieski. diers, I will myself direct all your battalions ; “Soldiers ! we will not lay down our arms until depend upon me to keep myself far from the fire, a general peace has restored to our commerce its so long as, with your accustomed bravery, you liberty and its colonies. We have, on the Elbe and bring disorder and confusion into the enemy's ranks; the Oder, recovered Porrdichery, our Indian estabbut, if victory were for one moment uncertain, you lishments, the Cape of Good Hope, and the Spanish would see me in the foremost ranks, to expose my colonies. Who shall give to the Russians the hope self to their attack. There will be the honor of the to resist destiny? These and yourselves. Are we French infantry—the first infantry in the world. not the soldiers of Austerlitz ?" This victory will terminate your campaign, and then the peace we shall make will be worthy of France,
He commenced the Prussian campaign by a of you, and of me!"
speech that burned and flashed like lightning
itselfWhat grandeur, combined with what pride, we find in these last words !
“Soldiers ! I am in the midst of you. You are His speech after the battle is also a chef-d'ouvre the vanguard of a great people. "You must not
return to France unless you return under triumphal of military eloquence. He declares his content- arches. What! shall it be said that you have ment with his soldiers—he walks through their braved the seasons, the deep, the deserts, conquered ranks—he reminds them who they have con- Europe, several times coalesced against you, carquered, what they have done, and what will be ried your glory from the east to the west, only to said of them; but not one word does he utter of return to your country like fugitives, and to hear it their chiefs. The emperor and the soldiers
said that the French eagle had taken flight, terrified France for a perspective-peace for a reward
at the aspect of the Prussian armies? Let us
advance, then ; and since our moderation has not and glory for a recollection! What a commence awakened them from their astonishing intoxication, ment, and what a termination !
let them learn that if it is easy to obtain any increase “Soldiers ! I am content with you; you have of power from the friendship of a great people, its covered your eagles with immortal glory. An enmity, is more terrible than the tempests of the
ocean. army of one hundred thousand men, commanded by the emperors of Russia and of Austria, have been, On the eve of his celebrated entry into Berlin, in less than four hours, cut to pieces and dispersed; he excited the pride of his troops by placing before whoever has escaped your sword has been drowned them the rapidity of their march, and the grandeur in the lakes. Forty stand of colors the standards of their triumphs :of the imperial guard of Russia-one hundred and twenty pieces of cannon, twenty generals, and more “ The forests, the defiles of Franconia, the Saale, than thirty thousand prisoners, are the results of this and the Elbe, which your fathers had not traversed day, forever celebrated. That infantry, so much in seven years, you have traversed in seven days, boasted of, and in numbers so superior to you, could and in this interval you have fought four fights and not resist your shock, and henceforth you have no one pitched battle. You have sent the renown of longer any rivals to fear.
your victories before you to Potsdam and to Berlin. “Soldiers ! when the French people placed upon You have made sixty thousand prisoners, taken my head the imperial crown I entrusted myself to sixty-five standards, six hundred pieces of cannon, you ; I relied upon you to maintain it in the high three fortresses, and more than iwenty generals; splendor and glory, which alone can give it value and yet nearly one half of you still lament not hav. in my eyes. Soldiers ! I will soon bring you back ing fired a shot. All the provinces of the Prussian to France; there you will be the object of my most monarchy, as far as the banks of the Oder, will be tender solicitude. It will be sufficient for you to in your power.” say, ' I was at the battle of Austerlitz,' in order that your countrymen may answer, Voila un brave!'” It is true, and it will occur to every mind, that
a large part of the force of this eloquence of the On the anniversary of this battle, he used to
camp in the case of Bonaparte, depended on the recapitulate with pleasure the accumulated spoils astounding character of the facts which he had the that fell into the hands of the French, and he used to inflame their ardor against the Prussians by the cles of military prowess have been repeated in as
power of repeating. Even now, after these mirarecollection of those victories ; thus, on the morn
many versions by a hundred contemporary historiing of another fight, he apostrophized his soldiers
ans in every living language, we cannot read these in the following manner :—“Those," pointing to simple references to them without being overthe enemy, " and yourselves, are you not still the whelmed with amazement. The narrative of them soldiers of Austerlitz?" This was the stroke of a borders often on the impossible, and forcibly immaster.
presses us with the justness of the adage, that "Soldiers ! it is to-day one year, this very hour, truth is often more wonderful than fiction, and that that you were on the memorable field of Austerlitz. the historian has often to record that from which The Russian battalions fled terrified; their allies the novelist would shrink. were destroyed; their strong places, their capitals,
At Eylau, he thus honored the memory of his their magazines, their arsenals, two hundred and
brave warriors who had fallen :eighty standards, seven hundred pieces of cannon, five grand fortified places, were in your power. “ You have marched against the enemy, and you
have pursued him, your swords in his reins, over a | also, you have treachery to revenge. Soldiers ! you space of eighty leagues. You have taken from him have surpassed the renown of modern armies, but sixty-five pieces of cannon, sixteen standards, and have you equalled the glories of the legions of killed, wounded, or captured, more than forty-five Rome, who, in the same campaign, triumphed on thousand men. Our braves who have remained on the Rhine and on the Euphrates, in Illyria and on the field of battle have died a glorious death. the Tagus?" Theirs is the death of true soldiers."
Let us now pass to the penultimate act of this At Friedland, he again apostrophized his gorgeous drama. Behold! the scene is the court army :
of Fontainbleau. Listen to his solemn adieut to " In ten days you have taken one hundred and who could not bring themselves voluntarily to sep
the faithful remains of his army—to those soldiers twenty pieces of cannon, seven standards, killed, wounded, or captured sixty thousand Russian pris- arate from their general, and who were weeping oners; taken from the enemy all its hospitals, all around him. Antiquity affords no scene at once its magazines, all its ambulances, the fortress of so heart-rending and so solemn :Koenigsburg, the three hundred vessels that were
“ Soldiers ! I make you my adieux. For twenty in the port, laden with every species of munitions, years, that we have been together, I have been conand one hundred and sixty thousand muskels that ient with you! I have always found you on the England had sent to arm our enemies. From the road to glory. banks of the Vistula you have passed 10 those of armed against me alone ; some of
All the powers of Europe are the Niemen, with the rapidity of the eagle. You betrayed their duty and France. France has de
f my generals have celebrated at Austerlitz the anniversary of my cor- served other destinies. With you and the other onation ; you have this year celebrated here the braves who have remained faithful to me I could anniversary of Marengo. Soldiers of the grand have maintained a civil war, but France would have army of France, you have been worthy of your been unhappy. Be faithful to your new king—be selves and of me!"
obedient to your new chiefs
and do not abandon In 1809, when prepared to punish Austria for your dear country. Do not lament my fate. I her trcachery, he again adopted the bold and unex
shall be happy so long as I know that you also are
happy. I might have died. If I have consented pected course of confiding to the army his great to live, it is still to your glory. I will write the designs. He mingled amongst the soldiers, and great deeds that you have done. I cannot embrace made them share the spirit of his vengeance; he you all, but I embrace your general. Come, Gennever allowed himself to be separated from them, eral Petit, let me press you to my heart. Bring and made his cause their cause. What a military me that eagle, and let me embrace it also. Ah! elan there is in the following speech :
dear eagle, may this kiss which I give you be re
membered by posterity. Adieu, my children. My “ Soldiers! I was surrounded by you when the prayers will always accompany you. Preserve my sovereign of Austria came to my bivouac in Mora- memory!” via ; you heard him implore my clemency, and
He departed, and in the island of Elba he organswear eternal friendship for me, his victor in three ized that expedition, the mere narrative of which campaigns. Austria owed everything to our generosity ; three times has she perjured herself. Our seems almost fabulous. past successes are a sure guarantee of the victories He had not yet set foot on the shores of France, ihat await us; forward, then, and let the enemy when already, from the deck of that frail skiff acknowledge its conqueror in our very aspect." “ which bore Cæsar and his fortunes,” he gave to It was with a like ardor he animated the army tion. He evoked before the eyes of his soldiers
the winds and the waves his celebrated proclamasent to Naples against the English, His speech the images of a hundred fights, and sent his eagles appeared to move with the pas de charge :
before him, as the harbingers of his triumphant “ Soldiers ! march ; throw yourselves upon them return :in a torrent, if these feeble baitalions of the tyrants of the deep will even wait for your approach. Do
“ Soldiers ! in my exile I heard your voice. not wait to inform me that the sanctity of treaties has We have not been conquered, but betrayed. We been vindicated, and that the manes of my brave must forget that we have been the masters of nasoldiers, murdered in the ports of Sicily, on their tions, but we must not allow others to iningle themreturn from Egypt, after having escaped all the selves in our affairs. Who shall pretend to be perils of the deep, of the deserts, and of a hundred master in our country? Resume those eagles that fights, have at last been appeased!”
you had at Ulm, at Austerlitz, at Jena, at Montmi
rail. The veterans of the army of the Sambre and It was also to beat down the power of his im- the Meuse, of the Rhine, of Italy, of Egypt, of the placable and eternal enemy, that he harangued the west, of the grand army, are humiliated. Come, army of Germany, on its return, and that he opened place yourselves under the flag of your chief. Vicbefore its view the conquest of Spain :
tory will march at the pas de charge. The eagle,
with the national fiag shall fly from steeple to “Soldiers ! after having triumphed on the Dan- steeple, until she lights on the towers of Notre ube and the Vistula, you have traversed Germany Dame!" by forced marches-I order you now to traverse
On the morrow of his arrival at the Tuileries, France without a moment's repose. Soldiers ! I have need of you. The hideous presence of the and amidst the astonishment which followed that leopard defiles the peninsula of Spain and Portugal; night of enthusiasm and intoxication, he called his let it fly terrified at your look. Carry your victo-old guard around its flag, and presented to it his rious eagles even to the columns of Hercules; there, brave companions of the island of Elba :
“ Soldiers ! behold the officers of the battalion “Soldiers !” said he, “I will follow your steps, who have accompanied me in misfortune. They although absent. It was the country you served are all my friends—they were dear to my heart; in obeying me; and if I have had any share in your wherever Í saw them, they represented to me the affections, I owe it to my ardent love for France different regiments of the army. Among these six our common mother. Soldiers! some few efforts hundred veteran companions were men of all the more, and the coalition will be dissolved. Naporegiinents. All reminded me of those great days, leon will be grateful to you for the blows you are the memory of which is so dear to me-for all were going to give." covered with honorable wounds, received in those
From on board the Bellerophon, anchored in memorable batiles. In loving them I loved you
all. Soldiers of the French army! they bring you back
British waters, he addressed the following letter those eagles, which will serve you as a rallying to the prince regent :point. In giving them to the guard, I give them “ Your Royal Highness,- Overcome by the to the whole army. Treason and unhappy circum- factions which divide my country, and by the hosstances have covered them for a time with mourn- tility of the great powers of Europe, I have termiing ; but, thanks to the French people and to you, nated my political career, and I come, like Themisthey reappear, resplendent with all their former tocles of old, to sit down at the hearth of the British glory. Swear that they shall be found always people. I place myself under the protection of wherever the interests of the country shall call their laws, which I claim from your royal highness, them. Let the traitors and those who invade our as the most powerful, the most constant, and the territory never be able to stand before their looks."
most generous of my enemies.” Some days afterwards, at the assembly in the
At St. Helena, his imagination retraced his Champs de Mars, he speaks not of the glory of past life, reverted to Egypt and the East, and the the battles, nor of the devotion of the soldiers, brilliant recollections of his youth. but, being in the presence of the people, and of the legislative bodies, he extols the grand princi
“I should have done better," said he, striking ple of the national sovereignty :
his forehead, “not to have quitted Egypt. Arabia
waited for a hero. With the French in reserve, Emperor, consul, soldier–I hold all from the and the Arabians and Egyptians as auxiliaries, I people. ' In prosperity, in adversity, on the battle- should have rendered myself master of India, and field, at the council-board, on the throne, in exile, should now have been emperor of all the East." France has ever been the only and constant object of my thoughts and of my actions. Like that king
Dwelling still on this grand idea, he used to of Athens, I sacrificed myself for my people, in the sayhope of seeing realized the promise given, to preserve for France its national integrity, its honor, have nown to Damascus and Aleppo, and, in the
“ St. Jean d'Acre taken, the French army would and its repose.”
twinkling of an eye, would have been on the On the meeting of the chambers, he addressed Euphrates. The Christians of Syria, the Druses, them, conjuring them to forget their quarrels in the Armenians, would have joined it. The poputhe face of the imminent danger of the nation :- lation was about to be shaken. I should have
reached Constantinople and India ; and I should " Let us not imitate the example of the lower have changed the face of the world.” empire, which, pursued on all sides by barbarians, exposed itself to the laughter of posterity, by occu- Then, as if liberty, fairer than the empire of pying itself with paltry dissensions at the moment the world, had shed on him a new light, he wheu the battering ram struck on the walls of the exclaimedcity. It is in difficult times that great nations, like great men, develop all the energy of their charac- “The great and noble truths of the French revoters.'
lution will endure forever. We have covered them
with so much lustre, associated them with such monFalling unexpectedly amongst the army, he re
uments and such prodigies—we have washed away called to its recollection that it ought not to allow their first stains with waves of glory. They are itself to be alarmed by the great numbers of its immortal ; issuing from the tribune, cemented by enemies ; that it had atrocious insults to avenge ; the blood of battles, adorned with the laurels of victhat surrounding nations were impatient to shake tory, saluted with the acclamations of the people
and of nations, sanctioned by treaties, they can off the yoke, and to combat the same enemies :
never retrograde. They live in Great Britain, they “ These, and ourselves—are we no longer the are resplendent in America, they are nationalized in same men? Soldiers ! at Jena, against these same France. Behold the tripod from which will issue Prussians, now so arrogant, you were one against the light of the world !” two, and, at Montmirail, you were one against three. Let those among you who have been pris- Images of war floated continually before his oners with the English tell you the tale of iheir imagination during the maladies which preceded prison-ships, and of the frightful evils that they his death. have suffered.
“ The Saxons, the Belgians, the Hanoverians, “Go, my friends," he used to say, “and revisit the soldiers of the confederation of the Rhine, groan your families ; as for me, I shall see again my brave at being obliged to lend their arms to princes who companions in the elysium of futurity. Yes! Kleare hostile to justice and the people's rights."
ber, Dessaix, Bessières, Duroc, Ney, Murat, Mas
sena, Berthier, all will come to meet me. When And when all was finished—when the light- they see me, they will be wild with enthusiasm and ning of Waterloo had struck him, how touching glory; we shall talk of our wars with the Scipios, were his last words to his army !
the Hannibals, the Cæsars, the Fredericks, unless,"
added he, with a smile, “ the people there below insurrection—was the flag surmounted by the should be afraid to see so many warriors together." French eagle—it was the flag of Austerlitz, of
In an excess of delirium, which occurred during Jena, and of Wagram, and not that of Jemappes his illness, he imagined that he was at the head or Eleurus; it was the flag that was unfurled in of the army of Italy, and that he heard the drums the squares of Lisbon, of Vienna, of Berlin, at beating. He excla:med,
Rome, at Moscow, and not that which floated over "Steingel, Dessaix, Massena, away, away, run the federation of the Champs de Mars. It was the -to the charge !—they are ours!”
flag riddled by the bullets of Waterloo ; it was the
flag which the emperor embraced at Fontainbleau, Pondering on his melancholy situation on the
when he bade adiou to his old guard ; it was the rock of St. Helena, he used to soliloquize
fag which had shaded his expiring brow at St. " Another Promethus, I am nailed to a rock, Helena—it was, in one word—the FLAG OF NAPOwhere a vulture devours ine. Yes! I had robbed fire from heaven to give it to France ; the fire has
He—this man-had dispelled the popular illureturned to its source, and behold me here! The love of glory is like that bridge which Satan threw sion which attached itself to the blood of kings over chaos to pass from hell to paradise : glory sovereignty, majesty, and power. He raised the joins the past to the future, from which it is separ- people in their own esteem, by showing to them ated by an immense abyss. Nothing remains for kings, descended from kings, at the foot of a king my son save my name.'
who had sprung from the people. He so overThe concluding words of his testament were whelmed hereditary monarchs by placing them in marked by his usual eloquence.
juxta-position with himself-he so oppressed them
with his own greatness, that, in taking then one “I desire,” said he, “ that my ashes may repose by one, all these kings, and all these emperors, on the banks of the Seine, in the midst of the peo- and bringing them beside himself, that they were ple whom I have so much loved.”
scarcely perceivable, so small and obscure did they But let us now endeavor to dispel the illusions cre- become by the comparison with this Colossus. ated by the sublimity of his genius, and to look at But let us listen to what the severe voice of Napoleon as he will be viewed by the wisdom of history will pronounce against him. posterity.
He dethroned the sovereignty of the people. As a statesman, he had at once too much The emperor of the French republic, he became genius and too much ambition to lay down the a despot-he threw the weight of his sword into supreme power, and to reign under any master the scales of the law-he incarcerated individual whatever, be it parliainent, people, or king. liberty in his state prisons-he stifled the liberty
As a warrior, he fell from the throne, not for of the press, by the gags of the censorship—he having refused to reëstablish legitimacy, not for violated trial by jury–he trampled under his feet having smothered liberty, but as a consequence of the tribunals, the legislative bodies, and the senate conquest. He was not, and he could not be, -he depopulated the workshops and the fieldseither a Monk or a Washington, for the simplest he engrafted on the army a new noblesse, which of all reasons, that he was a Napoleon.
soon became more insupportable than the ancient He reigned as reign all the powers of this one, because it had neither the same antiquity nor world, by the force of his principle ; he perished, the same prestige ; he levied arbitrary taxes—he as perish all powers of this world, by the violence desired that in the whole empire there should be and the abuse of his principle.
but one voice—his voice; and but one law, his Greater than Alexander, Charlemagne, Peter, will
. The capital, the cities, the armies, the or Frederick, he, like them, has imprinted his fleets, the palaces, the museums, the magistrates, name on an age ; like them, he was a legislator; the citizens, became his capital, his cities, his like them, he established an empire ; and his armies, his fleets, his palaces, his museums, his memory, which is universal, lives under the tent magistrates, and his subjects. He drew the of the Arab, and crosses, with the canoes of the nation out to conflict and to battle, where we have Indian, the far waters of the Oceania. The peo- nothing left remarkable save the insolence of our ple of France, who forget so svon, have retained victories, our corpses, and our gold. In fine, nothing of that revolution, which disturbed the after having besieged the forts of Cadiz—after world, except his name. The soldiers, in their having in his hands the keys of Lisbon, of Madrid, discourses of the bivouac, speak of no other cap- of Vienna, of Berlin, of Naples, and of Rometain ; and when they pass through our cities, after having made the pavement of Moscow tremdirect their eyes to no other image.
ble under the wheels of his artillery, he left France When the people accomplished the revolution less great than he found her—bleeding with her of July, the flag, all soiled with dust, which was wounds, dismantled of her fortresses, naked, unfurled by the soldier-artisans—the chiefs of the impoverished, and humiliated.