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a low voice, but must be perfectly audible to the bystanders—all absolute farce, nowadays recognised farce, and in the days when it was hoped that such regulations would really secure the end in view, absolutely vain for any such purpose.
At three hours before sunset their Eminences are called again to chapel for the afternoon scrutiny with the same ceremony, and all the same formalities are observed as in the morning. After the second scrutiny of the day is over comes the hour for recreation and visits in the Conclave world. I find in the writers upon the subject the most exact and detailed prescriptions for the dress of those cardinals who employ this evening hour in taking a turn in one of the courts of the building or in the corridors, and for that of such as visit their colleagues in their cells—how the Conclavista. shall stand at the door of the cell visited, when the visitor departs, with two candles, &c, &c.—matters which the reader would hardly thank me for placing before him.
The first evening a solemn meeting of those cardinals who are chiefs of the monastic orders is held, for the purpose of administering a solemn oath to the conclavists and to every other person in the Conclave down to the sweepers, that they will never reveal aught that they may hear or see in the Conclave touching the election! The degree of observance of which oath, administered, as it is, with every circumstance of solemnity and the menace of the most awful penalties to those who should break it, the reader has already had abundant means of verifying!
Cardinals who from infirmity are unable to return visits received in their cells, "like Cardinal Firmo, who went into the Conclave of 1829 at ninety-three years of age," must send round their cards to every cell. That first evening also the dresses (accurately prescribed) which were furnished at the cost of the Apostolic Chamber to all the servants in the Conclave are served out by a * bursar, on presentation of written requisitions from the different conclavists. The same bursar supplies fuel, candles, and the like for the cell of each cardinal. But "if" (I find it oddly enough stated in connection with the above details) "any donatives of eatables which ought to belong to the Pope arrive in the Conclave, they are distributed to the members of the Sacred College, giving a share also to the secretary and sacristan of the Conclave!" It is difficult to imagine how any such present intended for the Pope should arrive, at the earliest, ten days after his death, and what the nature of the "eatables" could be which, after such a delay, their Eminences were still desirous of sharing!
Finally, the day closes by another ringing of his bell by the junior master of the ceremonies two hours after sunset, a second time half an hour later, and a third time three hours after sunset, the last ringing being accompanied by the call, "In Cellam Domini!"—" To your cells, my lords!"
Mode of Procedure at the Scrutiny.—"Ante-scrutiny."—The Four Actions composing it.—Description of the voting papers.—The Eight Actions composing the Scrutiny more properly so called.— Infirm Cardinals.—The Manner of their voting.—Belatives may not be Conclavists.—How this rule is evaded.—The '* Accessit."—The "Post-scrutiny."—Different procedure in case an election has or has not been accomplished.—Care to ascertain that an elector has not mado the necessary majority by voting for himself.—Cases of conscience as regards the voting.—Objects intended to be ensured by Conclave rules impossible of atta inment.—Conclusion.
It remains to give an account of the mode of procedure adopted in the scrutiny and the "accessit," which latter operation, however, is more properly considered as a portion of the scrutiny, though often spoken of even by ecclesiastical writers as a separate act.
The scrutiny, as denned by the Bull of Gregory XV., must be secret, and consists of three portions—the "ante-scrutiny," the "scrutiny" more properly so called, and the "post-scrutiny."
Four actions go to the performance of the "antescrutiny ": 1. The preparation of the schedules or voting papers. 2. The drawing by lot of the three scrutators and of the three deputed to wait on the infirm cardinals in their cells. 3. The writing of the voting papers. 4. The folding and sealing of the same.
Of the second of these nothing need be added to what has before been said.
The preparing, writing, folding, and sealing of the voting papers is done as follows.
The schedule, or slip of paper on which the vote is written, is about eight inches long by six wide. These papers have been previously printed and divided thus:—
The voter after "Ego" writes his baptismal name, and after "Card" his surname; fills the third division of the schedule with the name and surname of the cardinal to whom he gives his vote, writing these words as far as possible in such sort that they shall not be recognised by his colleagues as his writing; writes in the fifth division of the paper an Arabic number and a motto; and then folds and seals as described presently.
Here is a specimen of the electoral schedule duly filled:—
24. Salvum me fac, Deus.
The voter then folds the first division down over the second, and seals it in the two places marked by circles; and folds up the fifth division over the fourth, and seals it down similarly; so that only the words written in the middle division, "Eligo in Summum Pontificem," soand-so, remain visible. But before putting the paper into the urn, these also are covered by folding the two remaining portions of the paper yet once again over the central part.
The practice which formerly prevailed of writing more than one name in the voting paper, with the understanding that the elector gave his vote to the