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dow, and it was twelve times the length of my arm. Now I missed the help of the monk; I let the ladder down to the gutter, so that one end leant against the window, the other stood in the gutter; I drew it up to me again as I leaned over, and endeavoured to get the end in at the window, but in vain; it always came over the roof, and the morning mi ht come and find me here, and bring Lorenzo soon after it; I determined to slide down to the gutter in order to give the ladder the right direction. This gutter of marble yielded me a resting place, while I lay at length on it; and I succeeded in putting the ladder about a foot into the window, which diminished its weight considerably, but it was necessary to push it in two feet more; I then should only have to climb back to the window-roof, and, by means of the line, draw it entirely in; to effect this, I was compelled to raise myself on my knees, and while I was doing so, they slipt off the gutter, and I lay with only my breast and elbows upon it. I exerted all my strength to draw my body up again, and to lay myself on the gutter: I had, fortunately, no trouble with the ladder; it was now three feet in the window, and did not move. As soon as I found I lay firm, I endeavoured to raise my right knee up to the level of the gutter; I had nearly succeeded, when the effort gave me a fit of the cramp, as paralysing as it was painful. What a moment! I lay two minutes motionless; at length the pain subsided, and I succeeded in raising one knee after the other upon the marble again; I rested a few minutes, and then pushed the ladder still further into the window. Sufficiently experienced in the laws of equilibrium by this adventure, I returned to the window-roof, and drawing the ladder entirely in, my companion received the end of it, and secured it; I then threw in the rope and bundle, and soon rejoined him; after short congratulations, I felt about to examine the dark and narrow place we were in.
We came to a grated iron door, which opened on my raising the latch, and we entered a large hall; we felt round the walls, and met with a table, surrounded by arm-chairs. I at length found a window, opened the sash of it, and looked, by starlight, down a fearful depth; here was no descent by rope practicable. I returned to the place where we had left our things, and sat down in an arm-chair, and was seized with such an invincible desire to sleep, that if I had been told it was death, I should have welcomed it; the feeling was indescribabie. At the third hour the noise of the monk awoke me; he said my sleeping at such a time and place was incomprehensible; but nature had overcome me; I, however, gained a little strength by the rest.
I said, as I arose, that this was no prison, and that there must be, therefore, somewhere an exit; I searched till I found the large iron door, and opposite to it was a smaller one, with a key-hole; I put my stiletto in it, and exclaimed, "Heaven grant it may not be a cupboard." After some efforts the lock yielded, and we entered a small room, in which was a table with a key upon it; I tried it; it opened, and I found myself in cupboards filled with papers; it was the archivechamber. We ascended some steps, and passing through a glass-door, entered the chancery of the doge; I now knew where I was, and as in letting ourselves down we might get into a labyrinth of small courts, I seized an instrument with which the parchments are pierced to affix the seals; this tool I bid Balbi stick into the chink in the door, which
I made with my bolt, and worked it about on all sides, not caring for the noise, till I had made a tolerable hole; but the projecting splinters threatened to tear our skin and clothes, and it was five feet from the floor to the opening, for I had chosen the place where the planks were the thinnest; I drew a chair toit, and the monk got on it; he stuck his arms and head through the opening, and I pushed the rest of him through into a chamber, the darkness of which did not alarm me; I knew where we were, and threw my bundle through to him, but left the rope behind. I had no one to aid me, on which account I placed a chair on the top of two others, and got through the aperture to my loins; I desired Balbi to pull me through with all his force, regardless of the pain the laceration of my flesh gave me. We hastened down two flights of steps, and arrived at the passage leading to the royal stairs, as they are called; but these, wide as a town-gate, were, as well as those beyond, shut with four wide doors; to force these would have required a petard, and here my dagger seemed to say, "hic fines posuit." I sat down by Balbi, calm and collected, and told him that my work was done, and that God and fortune would achieve the rest for us.
Abbia, chi regge il ciel, cura del resto
"To-day," I continued, "is All Saints day, and to-morrow, All Souls, and it is not likely any should come here; if any one do come to open the doors, I will rescue myself, and you follow me; if none come, I will remain here and die of hunger, for I can do no more."
Balbi's rage and desperation knew no bounds; but I kept my temper, and began to dress myself completely. If Balbi looked like a peasant, his dress at least was not in shreds, and bloody, like mine; I drew on my stockings, and found on each foot large wounds, for which I was indebted to the gutter and lead plates; I tore my handkerchief, and fastened the bandages with thread I had about me; I put on my silk dress, which was ill assorted with the weather, arranged my hair, and put on a shirt with lace ruffles, and silk stockings, and threw my old clothes into a chair; and now looked like a rake, who is found after a ball in a suspicious place. I approached a window, and, as I learnt two years afterwards in Paris, some loiterer below who saw me, informed the keeper of the palace of it, who, fearing that he had locked some one in by mistake, came to release us; I heard the noise of steps coming up the stairs, and looking through a chink, saw only one man, with some keys in his hand. I commanded Balbi to observe the strictest silence, and hiding my stiletto under my clothes, placed myself close to the door, so that I needed only one step to reach the stairs. The door was opened, and the man was so astonished at my appearance, that I was able, silently and quickly, to pass by him, the monk following me; assuming then a sedate pace, I took the direction to the great staircase; Balbi wanted to go to the church to the right, for the sake of the sanctuary, forgetting that in Venice there was no sanctuary against state crimes and capital offences, but at last he followed me.
I did not expect security in Venice. I knew I could not be safe till I had passed the frontiers; I stood now before the royal door of the ducal palace; but without looking at any one, or being observed in
return, I crossed the "Piazzetta," and reaching the canal, entered the first gondola I found there, and cried out, " another rower, I wish to go to Fusina." Another gondolier soon appeared, and I threw myself negligently on the centre seat, while the monk sat on one side: the gondola put off.
The figure of the monk, without a hat, and wrapped in my cloak, might have caused me to be taken for an astrologer, or an adventurer. We no sooner passed the custom-house than my gondoliers began to exert their strength to cross the waves of the great canal, through which the way lay, as well to Fusina as to Mestre, whither in reality I meant to go. In the middle of the canal I put out my head, and asked the man, if in fourteen hours we should get to Mestre?
"You wished to go to Fusina, did you not?"
"No, blockhead, I said Mestre ;" the other rower, however, maintained the contrary, and Balbi was even absurd enough to contradict me. I affected to laugh, and said I might have erred, but that my wish was to go to Mestre. The gondoliers acquiesced; they were ready to go to England, if I required it; and told me we should reach Mestre in three quarters of an hour.
I cast a look behind us, and saw no gondola in pursuit of us. I rejoiced in the fine day, which was as glorious as could be wished, shining with the first rays of an incomparable sun-rise. Reflecting on the dangers of the past night, on the place where I had spent the preceding day, and on all the fortunately concurring events, which had so favoured me, gratitude filled my soul, and I raised, in silence, my thanks for the mercy of God; overcome by the variety of emotions, I burst into tears, which relieved my heart from the oppression of a joy that seemed likely to burst it.
At present it is sufficient to add, that after many difficulties and narrow escapes, Casanova succeeded in eluding pursuit, and safely quitted the Venetian territory. We shall return to the subject.
HONOURABLE MEN.-There are certain absurdities in France, which in England we could scarcely believe it possible to exist. An instance of this occurs to my recollection at this moment. One morning while we were in Paris, our lacquey de place did not appear as usual. Breakfast passed, the carriage drove to the door, still no lacquey, and Colonel Cleveland, in a passion, had sent to engage another, when, panting with exertion, the gentleman appeared. "He was very sorry-he begged ten thousand pardons-he had hoped to have got his little affair over sooner.' Your affairs, you scoundrel, what are your affairs to us? Do you think we are to sit waiting here, while you are running after your own affairs; "Pardonnez moi, monsieur," said the lacquey with a low bow, and laying his hand on his heart; "but it was an affair of honour!" And the man had actually been fighting a duel that morning with swords, with another lacquey, in consequence of some quarrel while waiting for us at the French Opera the night before! On inquiry, we found this was by no means extraordinary, and that two shoe-blacks have been known to fight a regular duel, with all the punctilios of men of fashion.-Continental Adventures.
PIG-DRIVING IN BUENOS AYRES.-I was one day going home, when I saw a man on foot select a very large pig from a herd, and throw a lasso over his neck; he pulled it with all his strength, but the pig had no idea of obeying the summons: in an instant a little child rode up, and very quietly taking the end of the lasso from the man, he lifted up the sheep-skin which covered the saddle, fixed the lasso to the ring which is there made for it, and then instantly set off at a gallop: never did any one see an obstinate animal so completely conquered! With his tail pointing to the ground, hanging back, and with his four feet all scratching along the ground like the teeth of a harrow, he followed the boy evidently altogether against his will; and the sight was so strange, that I instantly galloped after the pig, to watch his countenance. He was as obstinate as ever until the lasso choked him, and he then fainted, and fell on his side. The boy dragged him in this state, at a gallop, more than three-quarters of a mile over hard rough ground, and at last suddenly stopped, and jumping off his horse, began to unloose the lasso:-"Sta muerto! (he is dead,) said I to the boy, really sorry for the pig's fate. "Sta vivo!" exclaimed the child, as he vaulted on his horse, and galloped away. I watched the pig for some time, and was observing the blood on his nose, when, to my great surprise, he began to kick his hind leg: he then opened his mouth, and at last his eyes; and after he had looked about him, a little like Clarence after his dream, he got up, and very leisurely walked to a herd of ten or twelve pigs of about the same size as himself, who were about twenty yards off. I slowly followed him, and when I came to the herd, I saw they had every one of them bloody noses.-Heud's Rough Notes.
THE GLACIERS OF THE ALPS.-Glaciers have been most inaccurately termed mountains of ice-They are on the contrary more properly vullies of ice. They are uniformly found in the deep vallies or ravines between the mountains-and in the deep hollow cliffs in the sides of the mountains themselves.-They have been obviously formed by the immense avalanches of snow which fall in spring and summer from the precipices and sides of the bordering mountains, into the ravines below. The percolation of the melted water through the snow, which is again frozen in that state, renders it an entire mass of ice.-As the enormous heaps which fall are not nearly melted before the close of summer, and the winter's snow still increases the mass-which the avalanches of the succeeding summer again continue to augment-it is not wonderful that in the course of ages, the enormous vallies of ice, we now behold, many of which are six or seven leagues in length, and of unknown and incalculable depth,(which however in some places has been ascertained by the fissures to be upwards of three thousand feet,) should have been accumulated. The surface of the glaciers of the Alps from the Tyrol to Mount Blanc, is now computed to exceed twelve hundred square miles. As the declivity of these vallies or ravines which the glaciers occupy, is always rapid, their lower extremity pressed onward by the enormous weight of ice above, has always a tendency to descend lower and lower into the larger valley or plain, in which the ravine terminates.-But in proportion as the glacier advances to lower and warmer regions-the dissolution of ice becomes more rapid-consequently during hot summers, and often even during those winters in which the fall of snow has been trifling, they are frequently known to recede-that is, the ice is dissolved faster than it is pushed forward. In severer years, on the contrary, their progress is often alarmingly rapid.-In winter, while they are bound by frost, they are of course quite stationary-and the stream of water which in summer flows from their base, is then either completely stopped or dwindled to a very small runlet.-Continental Adventures.
HOSPITALITY OF THE GAUCHOS.-The character of the Gaucho is often very estimable; he is always hospitable--at his hut the traveller will always find a friendly welcome, and he will often be received with a natural dignity of manner which is very remarkable, and which he scarcely expects to meet with in such a miserable-looking hovel. On entering the hut, the Gaucho has constantly risen to offer me his seat, which I have declined, and many compliments and bows have passed, until I have accepted his offer, which is the skeleton of a horse's head. It is curious to see them invariably take off their hats to each other as they enter into a room which has no window, a bullock's hide for a door, and but little roof. The habits of the women are very curious: they have literally nothing to do; the great plains which surround them offer them no motive to walk, they seldom ride, and their lives certainly are very indolent and inactive. They have all, however, families, whether married or not: and once when I inquired of a young woman employed in nursing a very pretty child, who was the father of the " creatura," she replied, "Quien sabe?"-Head's Rough Notes.
THE JEWS OF POLAND.-The Polish Jew is generally of a pale and sallow complexion, the features small, and the hair, which is mostly black, is suffered to hang in ringlets over the shoulders. A fine beard, covering the chin, finishes the oriental character of the Jewish physiognomy. But few of the Jews enjoy a robust and healthy constitution; an evil resulting from a combination of physical and moral causes,-such as early marriages, innutritious food, the filthiness of their domestic habits, and the perpetual mental anxiety which is so strikingly depicted in their countenance, and forms the most onerous part of the curse of the Almighty to which they are subject in their dispersion. Their breath is absolutely intolerable; and the offensive odour of their apartments is such, that I have more than once been obliged to break off interesting discussions with their rabbins, in order to obtain a fresh supply of a rarefied air. Their dress commonly consists of a linen shirt and drawers, over which is thrown a long black robe, fastened in front by silver clasps, and hanging loose about the legs. They wear no handkerchief about their neck, and cover the head with a fur cap, and Sometimes with a round broad-brimmed hat. In their walk the Jews discover great eagerness, and are continually hurrying towards some object of gain, with their arms thrown back, and dangling as if loose at the shoulder. They generally marry at thirteen and fourteen years of age, and the females still younger. I have heard of a rabbi, who was disposing of his household, preparatory to his departure for Palestine, that gave one of his daughters in marriage who had but just completed her ninth year. a necessary consequence of this early marriage, it often happens that the young couple are unable to provide for themselves; and, indeed, altogether incapable, from youth and inexperience, of managing the common concerns of domestic economy. They are, therefore, often obliged to take up their abode at first in the house of the husband's father, except he be in reduced circumstances, and the father of the bride be better able to support them. The young husband pursues the study of the Talmud, or endeavours to make his way in the world by the varied arts of petty traffic for which this people are so notorious. It is asserted to be no uncommon thing among the Jews, for a father to choose for his son's wife some young girl who may happen to be agreeable to himself, and with whom he may live on terms of incestuous familiarity during the period of his son's minority. Comparatively few of the Jews learn any trade, and most of those attempts which have been made to accustom them to agricultural habits have proved abortive. Some of those who are in circumstances of affluence possess houses and other immovable property; but the great mass of the people seem destined to sit loose from every local tie, and are waiting, with anxious expectation, for the arrival of the period, when, in pursuance of the Divine promise, they shall be restored to what they still consider their own land. Their attachment, indeed, to Palestine, is unconquerable; and it forms an article of their popular belief, that die where they may, their bodies will all be raised there at the end of the world. They believe, however, that such as die in foreign parts are doomed to perform the Gilgul Mehiloth, or trundling passage, through subterraneous caverns, till they reach the place of their "fathers' sepulchres;" on which account, numbers sell all their effects, and proceed thither in their life-time, or remove to some of the adjacent countries, that they may either spare themselves this toil, or, at least, reduce the awkward and troublesome passage within the shortest possible limits. Instances have been known of their embalming the bodies of their dead, and sending them to Palestine by sea; and in such veneration do they hold the earth that was trodden by their ancient patriarchs, that many of the rich Jews procure a quantity of it, which they employ in consecrating the ground in which the bodies of their deceased relatives are interred.-Henderson's Travels in Russia.
A GAUCHO'S TREASURE.-In the morning, before day, we started, and for many a league my companions were riding together, and discussing the merits of their partners. The country we rode over was mountainous, and it was very fatiguing both to mules and riders. had just climbed up a very steep part of the mountain, and, with one of my party, was winding my mule through some stunted trees, when I suddenly met a largeheaded young man, of about eighteen years of age, riding his horse at a walk, and with tears running one after another, down his face. I stopped, and asked him what was, the matter, but he made no reply. I then asked him how many leagues it was to Petorca, but he continued crying; and at last he said, "He had lost "Who have you lost?" said I, debating whether it was his mother or his mistress. The fellow burst into a flood of tears, and said, "Mis espuelas," (my spurs,) and on he proceeded. One cannot say much for the lad's fortitude, yet the loss of spurs to a Gaucho is a very serious misfortune. They are in fact his only property-the wings upon which he flies for food or amusement.-Head's Rough Notes.