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derstood their views, and persevered in his endeavours to introduce European officers and discipline. The minister at war was Mr. Coletti, formerly physician to Ali Pachd ; and though there is some difference between feeling pulses and managing the war affairs of a state, he acted in unison with Mavrocordato, and tried to establish regular regiments. Prince Ypsilanti's battalion was still in existence, and was now commanded by Colonel Tarella, a Piedmontese ; a man endowed with all the qualities that could fit him to render important service to the cause, to which, in spite of every discouragement and ill-treatment, he showed the most unwearicd attachment. Mavrocordato formed a first regiment, into which he incorporated the battalion; he appoiuted the oldest among the European officers. Numberless altercations arose, as there were several Greek officers in the battalion, who had been attached to it in the first instance, froin the insufficient number of Europeans. When the regiment was organized, they insisted on holding all the highest rank, (though they had not the slightest idea of the military art and on commanding men who had served in ten or twelve campaigns, under the greatest warrior of the age. In spite of all these obstacles, the regiment was at length organized, and sent into the citadel to drill the recruits which were daily raised. The soldiers were nearly naked ; Mavrocordato wanted to clothe them, but the means were wanting ; projects were formed in abundance, but it was not so easy to carry them into effect. Colocotroni laughed at the formation of this regiment, as he knew the government had no money to pay the men. As there were still about a lundred and forty officers unemployed, Mavrocordato formed them into two sacred companies, to which he gave the name of Philhellenians, and wished to be colonel himself. He however gave the command of them to Colonel Doria, a Genoese, and a very brave soldier.
Shortly before this occurred, General Normann arrived. He had landed at Navarino, together with sixty officers, two four-pounders, a hundred and fifty muskets, and a good many barrels of powder. General Normann was a native of Wittenberg; he was married to a young, beautiful, and rich wife; he had children, and as no political events had driven him from his country, he had quitted that and his family from a pure and enthusiastic love of freedom. He was eminently useful to Greece, yet he never received the slightest mark of gratitude from any one, and died at Missolonghi in the depth of poverty, as will be seen in a future part of my narrative. He had been landed but a few days in Navarino, when he gave indisputable proofs of his courage.
While he was waiting in that city for orders from the government, he put his troops into quarters, and made them do regular duty. The
Turkish fleet, which was returning from provisioning Modon and Coron, lay to off Navarino, and began hostilities, intending to make a landing. The inhabitants were in the greatest consternation, and thought only of saving themselves by flight: they retreated to the mountain without attempting a defence. General Normann marched his little troop to the place where the Turks were going to land ; posted his two four-pounders, and ordered the drums to beat frequently. The Turks had already put off a great many boats towards the shore, but the general drew up his men in line, and ordered them to keep up an incessant fire, both of musketry and artillery. The Turks thought this was an advance guard, and taking for granted that there was a formidable European force in Navarino, the boats immediately returned, the men re-embarked, and the fleet set sail. The inhabitants of the city returned to their houses ; but so far were they from showing any gratitude to the Europeans who had saved them, that they would not supply them with food. General Normann kept his men on regular duty at night, and made them go the rounds for fear of a surprise. One morning they found a French captain lying in a ditch, murdered and stripped of every thing. It was surposed that he had fallen belind, and had been attacked and killed by the Greeks for the sake of his clothes, (which were very good,) and his gold watch and seals. The general, on this, wrote to Mavrocordato, that he did not like to remain at Navarino, in consequence of the ill-treatment he experienced from the inhabitants, and that he wished to be removed to Corinth. Mavrocordato immediately sent to him to come to Corinth with his troop. As soon as he arrived, Mavrocordato formed the état-major, of which he appointed General Normann chief, and subsequently gave him the command of the
At this period the massacre of Chios took place, and the few families who escaped from Turkish ferocity took refuge in Corinth. Among them were several young men, who, being left without any ties or means of subsistence, enlisted in the Frankish regiment: the Greek captains used the most strenuous and persevering endeavours to prevent the augmentation of this corps, and dissuaded all who were willing to enter it, promising them rations and pay. They were so successful, that, in spite of all the activity of Mavrocordato and of Colonel Tarella, it never could be brought to exceed five hundred men, and from that point gradually declined. Those Greeks who began to know the use of the bayonet, were delighted with it, and under Colonel Tarella's active and constant superintendance, very rapidly acquired our mode of manœuvring. The command was given in Greek; for although the officers were not acquainted with the language, they had taken care to learn enough of it for that. Mavrocordato issued a decree, assigning pay, according to their respective ranks, to the officers both of the regiment and of the 'sacred companies, a third of which was to be paid in money, and two thirds in bills payable in two years, or in portions of land. The first and second months we had the third above mentioned, but after that time we heard no more about pay.
The government next employed itself in the civil organization of the country, but was constantly thwarted by the local authorities which had sprung up in all the little towns. Nobody would undertake to discharge any office, nobody would furnish contributions, or pay regular taxes. What was the government to do without money, and openly resisted in its attempts to raise any ? Mavrocordato hit upon an expedient of issuing bills payable in two years, and forcing those whom he knew to be rich to accept them. Such was the generous and patriotic devotion it was my lot to witness !
Curchid Pacha, vizier of the Morea, sent an English frigate to Corinth, to request the restitution of the forty ladies of the seraglio of Tripolitza. Among them was his own wife, a most beautiful woman, and sister of the Grand Sultan, who had been bestowed upon him as a reward for the services he had rendered to the Porte. The sum demanded for their ransom was eighty thousand collonati. The frigate soon returned, accompanied by two brigs bringing the money, and the ladies were fetched from Tripolitza; though they were all covered with black veils, it gave me pleasure to see them again. While the wife of Curchid Pachà was at Tripolitza she had fallen in love with the brother of Pietro Bey, a young Maniote of great personal beauty—she had no idea she should so soon be restored to her husband; and when she received the intelligence that she was going, instead of showing the satisfaction that was expected, she was in the greatest distress. Indeed she had cause enough—not only was she leaving the man she loved, but she was going, as she herself knew, to certain death. She was conscious that she was in a situation which would reveal the secret of her infidelity. However, this beautiful and unfortunate creature was carried on board with the rest; the money was paid into the hands of the minister at war, Mr. Coletti, and several other Greeks, and the frigate set sail.
About the same time the Turkish government sent proposals for the exchange of Kaian Bey of Tripolitza for a Greek family. Though the Greeks cared nothing about an exchange by which they were to get no money, Mavrocordato accepted the terms. He sent for Kaian Bey to Tripolitza, and invited him to dine with him. During dinner Mavrocordato asked him if he would take up arms again against the Greeks. “I am your prisoner," replied Kaian Bey, " and you may put me to death when you please ; but I give you my word that the moment I am set at liberty I will resume hostilities against you.” Mavrocordato was delighted with his answer, and gave him every mark of estecm. the evening he was sent on board, and the Greek family landed.
Colocotroni did not choose to go, having his eye on Kiamil Bey, who was still a prisoner in the citadel of Corinth, and would not confess where his treasures were concealed, though Colocotroni promised him his protection. One day, Mavrocordato, Coletti, and Colocotroni went together, and threatened him to put his wife and mother to death, if he did not say where his money was. “Neither my mother nor my wise," replied Kiamil Bey, “ know where my money is, and it is useless for you to'wreak your anger on innocent persons. Whatever terms you might propose to me, I should not confide in them, as I see that you always violate your word. I am certain, that whether I say where my money is or not, I shall equally be put to death; so that I choose to die with the satisfaction of not enriching you. One thing, however, I wish you to observe, that I have always treated my people as subjects, but not as slaves ; and that if all beys had treated the Greeks as I have, this rebellion would never have broken out. The people were contented with my government, and saw that I punished the Turks who oppressed them.”—(This has been confirmed to me by the testimony of many Greeks.) Finding they could do nothing with him, they left him that day, threatening to put him to death, which eventually they did—when not being sufficiently provisioned to stand the blockade of Curchid Pacha, they were obliged to abandon the fortress of Corinth once more to the Turks.
This was one of their most remarkable blunders. Immediately after they had taken the fortress, all the Europeans represented that it ought to be instantly provisioned ; but they always replied that they had no money. They had just received eighty thousand collonati. Why did they not spend half that sum in provisions? A great many European vessels arrived laden with grain, biscuit, and other necessaries, and returned because nobody would purchase on the part of the government. Of all those who had their pockets full of money, not one would spend a penny for the public good.
Colocotroni being obliged to renounce all hope of further plunder, set out for the blockade of Patras, where Captain Nikitas was already stationed. We shall hereafter see how Colocotroni abandoned this very place, from a fresh hope of adding to his wealth. The death of Ali Pachà determined Curchid Pachà to turn all his forces against the Greeks. Curchid had possessed himself of the treasures of Ali Pachà, part of which he sent to the Porte, and part he employed in engaging the Albanians, who held themselves neuter in the contest, in his service.
The brave Suliotes were strictly blockaded, and were prepared to meet any attack with undaunted courage; but provisions began to fail, on which they sent to acquaint the Greek government with their situation, and urged the necessity of prompt succour, to enable them to raise the blockade, and get out to procure necessaries. The bravery of the Suliotes was so well known, that the Greeks ought to have sent instant succour; instead of which, they passed months in talking, over their pipes, of what was to be done, without taking one step to relieve the famishing Suliotes. I may, perhaps, be asked, why the Suliotes were good soldiers, invariably fought well, and were feared by all ? I answer, because their chief sought not his private interest or advancement ; because all classes were temperate and hardy, and were devoted to the deliverance of their country. In every engagement their captain was foremost, and the soldiers, encouraged by his example, followed him with ardour and confidence. As they saw he had an iron pistol in his belt, they did not strive to get one of gold or silver. I repeat, the people of Greece were excellent, and might have been led to any thing by virtuous and able chiefs. But the people saw their leaders always engaged in discussions, robbing one another of that which ought to have been dedicated to the public service, and striving who could sell his country the most to his own advantage-of course, they followed their example. Greece can never be free till it is purged of these parricidal monsters. The Suliotes, as I have said, suffering all the privations of a rigorous blockade, Curchid Pachà sent to offer their leader, named Dinos Zervas, a large sum as a bribe, to induce him to deliver up the island into his hands. The following was the reply of the brave Suliote: “ Vizier, the sum you offer me to become a traitor is too large, for I could not so much as count it; nevertheless, I will not give you a single stone of my country for it;" and this when he had not a morsel of bread to eat, and was neglected and ill treated by his countrymen ! Daily did he send letters to the government, at the risk of the life of some brave Suliote, who had to pass through the enemy's fleet to carry it; while the government proceeded with the same tardiness, as must inevitably be the case where every individual acts at his own pleasure. The Suliotes sceing the hopelessness of their situation, and the ingratitude of the Greeks, at length accepted the honourable terms obtained for them by Mr. Meyer, the English consul at Prevesa. They capitulated on the 3d of September. Several English vessels came to convey them to Cephalonia. Three thousand Suliotes were thus driven from their country, leaving their arms, and all their property in money and effects. Omer Vrioni, whose hands were set at liberty by the surrender of Suli, now turned all his forces against Missolonghi. The Greeks thus went on in a continual series of fatal mistakes, from a total want of concert and of principle.
Our situation was now become very critical. We were threatened at every point from Arta and Prevesa to Zeitouni. The enemy had obtained great advantages by the discord and insubordination which prevailed among us, especially over the inhabitants of Mount Olympus.
Intelligence was received that a formidable fleet was fitting out, and was to join one from the Barbary States, and one from Egypt. Mavrocordato saw the urgent necessity for setting out for Romelia immediately, at the head of the regular troops, and whatever Greeks he could collect; but his schemes were always thwarted or delayed by those turbulent spirits who lived on the ruin of their country. Seeing that, withont some prompt measures, we should very soon be hemmed in on all sides, he resolved to issue a proclamation, and send it into every part of Greece, to arouse the apathetic and excite the cold-hearted, if that were possible. As it appears to me very interesting, and full of energy and tire, I think it may not be unacceptable to
“ Hellenians,—You took up arms to rid your country of the presence of your enemies; to raise yourselves from the state of misery in which you groaned under your devouring tyrants; and to escape the innumerable vexations and insults to which you were exposed in the exercise of the holy religion of Jesus Christ. You hoped to live under the protection of good laws; to unite yourselves to the rest of Europe, and to throw off the yoke of barbarous, sanguinary, and impious tyrants, who have treated you like beasts of burthen.
« Never did the sun arise upon a more righteous war than ours; and if you had striven for victory in all combats as you did in the first, if your holy ardour had not cooled by success, you would now be free. You have given the enemy time to make great and formidable preparations, and we think it our duty to declare to you, that you are threatened by the most imminent danger. The time is come when you must show the world whether you are worthy to be free, or whether you are born to be slaves.
“ Hellenians! life and death are common to men, with the lowest animals ; but an honourable life and a glorious death are the portion of freemen alone. Show the world that you are equal to those Hellenians of old, who knew no good preferable to liberty, and fought for it till they had subdued all the forces of Asia. Nor are examples wanting in the present day, worthy your imitation. Your bishops, your senators, and your primates, are sensible of the dangerous state of our country, and will march at our head. We fight not for a foreign land. We fight for ourselves—for our lives, our religion, our