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Orbitello, on the nean borders to organise 1 small bey; population, 317, Past Monterosso his little army, Marsala 11th Ma possession of Sicil two Sicilies, and nine millions of s

RC Genoa, by the 1

Lucca, Pisé By rail all th Levante and Sp steamer runs't Bradshaw's Cont are as follow:

Nervi...............
Recco...............
Sta. Margherita
Chiavari .........
Sestri Levante

The Riviera di side of the Bay delightful chara, Ponente. The ro bays of the sea, ce while the Apen covered with chi

From Genoa, t rises towards s. lived, to

Nervi (Stat. try-seats. A st part of the Easte and Pension Vic Hotel and Pensie

Recco (Stati Aurelia, a prett campanile chur and harbour of rising 2,000 feet nel through the and Sta. Mari yards long.

Rapallo (Sti l'Europe and Pe resort for visito and picturesque coral. Near it English Church

Chiavari ( plain, with soi churches conti Aloes flourish autumn.

Lavagna ( with a red mar quarries of sle

Sestri Ley a beautiful bat rail inclines coast warus, pasi MUHcsua (vau. Thence to Levanto (Stat.); an old port on a | Magra by a viaduct, which with the new priage,

for the road, is made especially strong to resist the much of it to the United States, where it is in mountain torrents from the Apennines. Old great request. In Roman times this was called jastles on the distant heights.

Luna marble, that being the nearest place ;

and many blocks and half-worked marbles preSarzana (Stat.), population, 8,964, a bishop's

pared for removal to Rome are still lying about, jee, is the birth-place of Pope Nicholas V.. the

under the name of fantiscritti, from some figares ounder of the Vatican Library; and was the sriginal seat of the Bonaparte family, which

of Jupiter, Bacchus, and Hercules, carved near

them, where some ancient Roman visitors have igured here as a branch of the Counts Cadolonghi, before it settled in Corsica. Sarzana, when it

left their names. A variety called bardiglio, is ame under the power of Genoa, in 1407 (by ex

streaked with blue and purple. The Caves and hange for Leghorn), was granted to the banking

their spars of the purest water, deserve a visit.] sorporation of S. Giorgio, in that city. Besides a Massa (Stat.), or Massa Ducale (population, heatre, hospital, &c., it contains a handsome 9,000), in the Valley of the Frigido. The head of a narble Duomo, with some fretwork brought from Duchy, which with Carrara was incorporated with he ruins of Luna-an old Etruscan city up the

Modena in the last century. It carries on a trade Magra, which has yielded many pavements, marbles,

in marble; and contains a fine old castle, with a bronzes, inscriptions, &c., and was a bishop's see Palace formerly inhabited by the Princess Elisa : ill 1204, when it was transferred to Sarzana.

the Church of S. Pietro, the Mercurio Pillar, and "But hark! the cry is Astur,

the site only of a cathedral, which the Princess And lo! the ranks divide,

razed to improve the prospect from her seat. Massa And the great Lord of Luna

has a mild climate and is noted for its melons. Comes with his stately stride."- MACAULAY.

Pass the Castle of Montignoso on the Apennines. The district. still called Lunigiana, was divided Pietra-Santa (Stat.) Population, 11,100. between Modena, Sardinia, and Tuscany.

The Roman Lucus Feroniæ, with two churches and Cross the River Parmignola, on the old frontier a campanile, and many marble quarries, particuof Massa, or Modena, to

larly that of Saravezza, known for its fine grain.

The Church of S. Martino has bronzes by DonaAvenza (Stat.), population, 3,254, which has

tello. This town is within the bounds of the exa fine old castle and a port at the mouth of the

tinct Duchy of Lucca; and Lucca is about 15 miles Carrone, whence Carrara marble is shipped. Great

distant by a road through Montramito, but its blocks of this marble, which is the kind most pre

Baths are about 20 miles east. (See Route 24.) ferred by sculptors, are brought down by immense oxen, noted for their grey and white coloured Viareggio (Stat.), near the sea. A bathing shining skins, and large, soft, patient eyes. Branch place (population, 5,000), in a fine forest under the rail to Carrara.

Apennines. Hotels : Corona; New York; Grande Carrara (Stat.) A town to the left (popula

Bretagne; and English Church Service. At the tion, 11,870), under the purple and red hills, abounds

Bagni di Nerone are remains of Roman baths. with blocks of white marble, strewn on all sides, Torre del Lago (Stat.), near the Serchio, and with shops full of ornaments for sale.

which ascends past Lucca, to its baths. In Piazza Alberica is a fountain with a statue

Pisa (Stat.) See Route 23. of Duchess Beatrice of the Cibo family, who by her marriage in 1741 with the Duke of Modena,

ROUTE 11. carried this little Duchy of 30 square miles of

Milan to Gallarate and Lake Maggiore. mountain, with that of Massa, into the Este family. It contains a fine Cathedral, marble of course, of

MILAN (Stat.), the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; Madonna Milano of the Italians, Mailand of the Germans. delle Grazie Church with some good marbles in it; It gave name to the Milainers or Milliners, and Mail S. Giacomo Hospital; and an Academy of Sculp armour, for both of which it was famous. ture, founded by Princess Elisa, Napoleon's sister, and provided with casts and medals, placed in her Grand Hotel de Milan, the largest first-class Palace, which she gave up for the purpose.

hotel of Milan. Great comfort. Highly recomThe white Carrara marble, so called from the old mended. Latin quarrariæ (whence our old English word Hotel Cavour, Place Cavour, opposite the public quarry) is found in inexhaustible quantities in the gardens, good accommodation. lower ridges of Monte Sagro and Monte Crestola, Hotel de la Ville, J. Braer, proprietor, well near the Rivers Torano, Bedizzano, &c., which situated, on the Corso Victor Emmanuel. unite near Carrara, in the Carone. Within a few Hotel de Grande Bretagne. The Guide attached miles there are above 500 quarries; those of Cima, to this hotel is recommended. Crestola, Palvaccio, Zampone, &c., giving the finest Grand Hotel Continental. for sculpture. Above 6,000 men are employed in Grand Hotel Manin, opposite the park. the quarries and water mills by which the blocks Hotel de France, 19, Cours Victor Emmanuel. are sawn. They are then carried in bullock carts Hotel Biscone, hotel and pension. to the water side at Avenza. Above 120,000 tons, Hotel de l'Europe; Hotel du Lion: Hotel in cargoes of 50 tons each, are shipped yearly, ' Central, Buffet at the handsome Railway Station.

HotelTor bot

in her

purpose

Cafés.--Biffi, Cova, and Gnocchi, in the hand- | 1805, under the Viceroy Eugene Beauharnois, but some new Galleria Victor Emmanuel, near the was restored in 1814 to Austria, after an attempt at best shops.

independence, which resulted in the massacre of It is noted for Milanese cutlets, Milan rice Prina, Napoleon's minister, 20th April, 1813. . (risotto), and other rice dishes; also mushrooms, The Austrians made it the capital of their Lom&c. The pastry, chocolate, and milk preparations bardo-Venetian kingdom. Two risings occurred are also noted. Figs, grapes, melons, and other in 1821 and 1848; in the latter case they were fruits.

driven out after four days' tighting. They came Broughams: per course, 1 lira; per hour, 1 lira back in 1849, on the 10th of August, the Emperor's 50 cents. There is a better kind, numbered red, birthday. Victor Emmanuel made his entry slightly dearer. Omnibuses: 10 cents. per course; here August 10th, 1859, after the treaty of from the railway stations, 25 cents.

Villafranca. Its governor at the annexa. Resident English Vice-Consul.

tion was the able and distinguished Massimo English Church Service.--10, Via Malazzo.

d'Azeglio, uncle to the late Italien Ambassador at English and American Church Service.--8, Via London. Very few ancient remains have survived Andegari.

these changes; but it is still one of the richest English Banker's.--Ulrich and Co.; Finck and cities in Europe. The snowy Alps are in view. Scherbius, 8, Via Andegari.

The noble Duomo and its spires, the grand mark Post Office, 20, Via Rastrelli: 36 hours from from all sides, stands in the midst of the narrow London. Telegraph, Piazza de' Mercanti.

winding streets of the old city; which is surrounded Railway Stations, near Porta Nuova for Monza by the Naviglio Grande Canal and is an oval space, Junction; near Porta Tose, or for Treviglio, 1 mile by I mile. This canal communicates by the Padua, Verona, Mantua, and Venice.

Naviglio di Martesuna with the streams on each Omnibuses from the Duomo meet every train. side. Beyond it the suburbs, in some parts, stretch Private carriages, for Milan and the environs, 16 to the bastione or ramparts, built 1555, which lire a day.

makes an irregular hexagon between 6 and 7 Valets de Place, 5 to 6 lire.

miles and about 2 miles across. They are well Tram Lines.- Milan to Cagnola, Saronno, and planted with trees, as are the Piazza d'Armi, and Tradate; and to Fino and Como. To Rho, Legnano, the Foro on the N.E., where the line of circumvaland Gallarate. To Sedriano and Castano. To lation is most broken. The streets, called in the Gorgonzola (noted for its cheese) and Vaprio. To old town contrade (contrada, a street) and calle Monza and Barzano. To Treviglio and Bergamo. | (calla, a lane), improve in the suburbs, where the To Melegnano and Lodi. To Binasco and Pavia. best houses are found, and as they widen take the

The goldsmiths' shops are in the Calle Orefici, names of corsie and corsi (corsia and cor'so, a and the booksellers' in Contrada di Santa Mar course) not wide but lofty; and at length, in the gherita, and near the Duomo. Houses are shaded broadest part, near the gates, that of borgi (borgo, from sun and heat by green blinds; and it is a suburb). desirable when taking a house for a term, to The best streets are Corso Victor Emmanuel, look out one on which the sun shines; otherwise it | Corso di Porta Venezia, and Via Charles Albert. may be unhealthy.

The Victor Emmanuel Arcade is a cross 640 *Chief Objects of Notice.-- The Duomo; St. Am feet by 345, with shops and statuary. Several brogio ; St. Carlo; Da Vinci's Last Supper, at streets are paved with pebbles or flagstones, and the Dominican Priory; Royal Palace; Ambrosian lighted with gas. Milan is the cleanest city in Library: Brera Gallery, and the Sposalizio; La Italy. The chimneys of many of the houses are Scala; Arch of Peace; Great Hospital; Old Laza disguised under the form of small turrets, casretto; Viale dei Colli, a fine promenade. The new tles, and Chinese temples. Victor Emmanuel Gallery, by Mengoni.

The best promenades are on the ramparts, the Population (1881), 321,839, including the suburbs. Borgo di Porta Orientale, and the other Borgi, the Milan is the seat of an archbishop, law-courts, Foro, &c. Several caffés and shops are in the Gal&c., and is a gay and luxurious city, with fine leria di Cristoferis, a passage or arcade like those hotels, caffés, theatres, and various institutions for at Paris. Most of the open spaces, or Piazze, literature, art, and science. It stands at the centre are irregular; the largest is Piazza del Duomo, of several roads, tramways, and railways, in the from which a new street, called Vittorio Emanuele, wide, fertile, and well irrigated plain of Lombardy, is open to the Leonardo da Vinci Piazza; a Loggia between the Olona and Lambro, 15 miles from the Reale, by Menzoni, faces it. That of Piazza ForPo, to which they run. The Consuls M. Marcellus tuna, near it, has a fountain of red granite with and C. Scipio took it in 221 B.c. from the Insubres two marble syrens; the Piazza de Mercante fronts in Cisalpine Gaul, and called it Mediolanum, from the Old Exchange; Piazza St. Fedele, opposite which comes its present name. Here Constantine, that church, is regular. Piazza Borromeo has a in 313, issued his decree declaring all religions bronze of S. Carlo Borromeo. equal before the law.

The CHURCHES are usually shut from twelve to It was given to Austria 1713; taken by the three. Of all the buildings, the most striking is French 1796; became the head of the Cisalpine | the marble, cross-shaped Republic, then of Napoleon's kingdom of Italy, ! *Duomo or Cathedral, reckoned by some to be the

AinSt. Carlo statue Aayed.

day.

most remarkable church in Italy, after St. Peter's, ! ples' feet: four thorns of his crown; parts of the at Rome, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It is reed, the cross, the sponge, and the spear; and for the most part in the fiorid Gothic style, with a one of the nails; a piece of Moses' rod; two of profusion of spires and niched statues. There are Elisha's teeth; and so on. 100 of the former, and 7,000 of the latter, of which 2,400 have been put up in the last twelve years,

One of the most popular religious books is the one of the latest being the statue of Victor Em

Filotea, published by one of the confessors to the manuel. Visitors are recommended to see it first

cathedral. It is full of legendary fables and sells by moonlight, if possible. Though begun by G.

by thousands. Every disorder of every part of G. Visconti, Duke of Milan, as far back as 1386, it

the human body has a saint, to whom the patient is still unfinished, after various additions and

may pray for a cure.- Dr. Wordsworth. alterations from the original design, which seems

Here also are St. Carlo's statue, and that of St. to be due to H. Ahrler, a German. In fact, it is

Ambrose, besides eight pictures, &c., of the events in a continual state of repair; in terms of a deed

of St. Carlo's life. Behind the choir is a curious under which a certain sum is spent annually upon

anatomical statue of St. Bartholomew, by Agrati, the edifice. Length, 371 feet; width, 226 feet;

in the act of being flayed. height of the aisles, 92 feet; of the nave, 122 feet (about 150 to the vaulting); of the cupola, 197 In the Medici Chapel is a tomb, designed by M. feet (or 360 feet to the top of the spire). The front

Angelo; built by Pope Paul IV., to his brother. is an elaborate piece of work, much broken up by

Some of the pictures are worth notice from being small doors, and many windows, in a Gothicised on glass. High up is the portrait of the principal Roman style, little harmonising with the scale of architect, with the inscription, “I. 0. Antonius splendour of the interior. This part was restored Homodeus Venere Fabrice, ML. I., Architectus," in in Napoleon's time, and decorated with statues and a circle. About 520 marble steps bring us at bas-reliefs. On each side of the middle door are length (past Brambilla's statues of Adam and Eve) two columns, each of an enormous granite block,

to the gallery round the spire, whence there is a from Baveno, 35 feet high, carrying statues of

noble view over the whole plain of the Po, as far S. Carlo Borromeo (by Monti) and Marchesi. A as Mont Blanc, Mont Rosa, the Stelvio Pass, &c. stained .window above contains the Assumption, by Charge, to 1 lira. The cathedral is open all Bertini, a modern window painter, who died 1849. The interior, though ill lighted, is vast and imposing, being a clear space from end to end, only "It wants chiaro-scuro, and some of its details, interrupted by the great clustered pillars which especially in the façade, and the Roman erection support the vault. There are fifty-two of them, on the roof of the nave, greatly impair the effect. 69 feet high, 20 feet round the base, and covered

covered | But who can describe the interior? After the with niched figures, foliage, tracery, &c. They

light and somewhat tawdry decorations of many divide the body into two aisles, on each side of the

other Continental churches, this magnificent nave, and one on each side of the transepts.

cathedral, especially when entered from the subterThe pavement is of chequered marble. There

ranean passage which leads from the archbishop's are tombs of archbishops, the Visconti, &c., and

palace, produces a powerful impression on the two popes, Martin V. and Pius IV. Round the

mind, by its vast size, its lofty proportions, its pulpits are bronzes of the four evangelists, and

solemn gloom and sublime grandeur, and the rich four fathers, by Brambilla. In Pelegrini's choir

hues of its stained glass windows. It seems as if

the ancient spirit of religion, such as dwelt in are seventeen bas-reliefs of great excellence. The bronze tabernacle of the high altar is another

Milan in the days of St. Ambrose, loved to linger work by Brambilla. Here they keep a nail of the

here. The inscription, which is conspicuous on true cross, which is carried in procession on the

the rood loft, 'Attendite ad Petram unde excisi 3rd of May, the anniversary of the great plague of

estes' (Look unto the Rock whence ye were hewn), Milan, in which its excellent archbishop, San

is very significant. There are side altars, but not

prominent as in many churches."-Dr. Wordsworth. Carlo Borromeo, figured so worthily. He died in 1584, and his body is preserved here. His rich gold

The large windows at the east end are modern, and silver shrine is in a shrine below, where he stained with subjects from the Bible, especially is seen dressed up in pontifical robes, sparkling

the Revelation, some by Bertini; and replace those with diamonds, and his head resting on a gilded which were shattered by the cannonading of 1805, cushion. He was the nephew of Pius IV., and

when Napoleon was crowned King of Italy was canonised by his successor; which cost his family so large a sum, that they declined to ask The choir has no screen. At the intersection of for a similar honour for his cousin, Cardinal Fred. the nave and transepts are the large ambos or Borromeo, the one celebrated by Manzoni, in the pulpits, from which the gospel and epistle are read. Promessi Sposi.

The Ambrosian liturgy, which the Pope has never An inscription at the east end of the cathedral been able to abolish, is a standing proof of the gives a list of the relics belonging to it, among independence of the Milanese Church. Priests who which are Christ's cradle and swaddling clothes; use the Roman ritual are not allowed to officiate part of the towel with which he wiped his disci. 1 except on very urgent occasions. Catechetical

teaching is carried on every Sunday, and children the remarkable things to be found in this church are taught to read and write in the aisles, a practice are the ancient pulpi the splendid Shrine (shown enforced by the excellent s. Carlo Borromeo. for 5 Ir.) of gold and silver, a remarkable specimen In 1859, the day of the Battle of Magenta, Arch

of metal work done 835), adorned with inscriptions

and coloured reliefs of Augustine's life, &c., and bishop Ballerini was nominated to the see by the Emperor of Austria; the appointment did not take

covered with a beautiful canopy; the very old effect, and Caccia was chosen by the chapter as

chapel behind his choir, and its twelve curious Vicar General; he afterwards retired to Monza.

Byzantine mosaics on a gold ground. At the end of 1862 there were thirty-four vacant The Ambrosian service book is of vellum, very sees out of the 257 in the new Italian kingdom. ancient, in six folio volumes, richly illuminated,

with the musical notes. The large marble ambo On the 1st June, the national anniversary, or

or pulpit is adorned with a bas-relief of an agape Festa dello Statuto, is celebrated with great splen

or love feast. Opposite this is a portrait of St. dour.

Ambrose on a pilaster. Over the altar is a mosaic A Società Ecclesiastica was founded here in 1859, of the Saviour, with a Greek inscription, signifying and consists of 200 members, the object of “Jesus Christ, the King of Glory." By his side which is to cultivate religious studies, especially are the martyrs, Gervasius and Protasius, whose those which have a practical influence on the social bodies were discovered in 386. Some mosaic illuswelfare of the people; but, laudable as it seems, it trations of the life of St. Ambrose are seen in the was denounced by the Ultramontane journals choir; and the archbishop's chair and canons' stalls as schismatical and revolutionary.

are in the apse behind the altar, near a mosaic of Santa Maria delle Grazie, in Borgo delle Grazie,

the Baptism of St. Augustine, in 387. attached to the old Dominican Friary (now a bar One of the chapels is dedicated to St. Ambrose's rack), was built 1463-93, by Leonardo da Vinci's sister, Marcellina, who is buried with her brother patron, Duke Ludovico Il Moro, and has a Gothic (who died Easter day, 397) under the high altar. nave, with apicturesque cupola added by Bramante, He was Metropolitan over eighteen Lombardy 65 feet diameter, supported by semicircular tri bishops. Another chapel is called St. Satyrus, bunes, “and which externally and internally is after Ambrose's brother, who was buried here one of the most pleasing specimens of its class to close to St. Victor, in a sarcophagus, which was be found anywhere."--Fergusson.

found in 1861. It has frescoes by G. Ferrari, &c., and (in the The paintings, &c., contained in the side chapels refectory) the traces of the famous Cenacolo, or are G. Ferrari's Virgin; Lanciani's St. Ambrose on * Last Supper of Da Vinci, painted in fresco on the his death-bed: Pacetti's statue of Santa Marcelwall, 1497-1500 (some say sixteen years altogether), lina: Borgognone's fresco of Christ and the two but now go decayed, partly from subsequent ill | Angels, &c. treatment, as to be hardly noticeable. The faces |

The Latin hymns of St. Ambrose have been of the Saviour and St. Thomas are visible, the

lately edited by Biraghi, one of the prefetti of the latter with a face worse than Judas's. Twelve

Ambrosian library, under the title of "Inni Sinceri copies, however, are extant, the best of which is by

di Sant'Ambrogio."-Dr. Wordsworth.. Oggioni (1510), at the Royal Academy, London:

S. Alessandro, in Corso degli Amadei (1602), has while the engravings have made the design of it

two large statues in the front, and a richly ornauniversally known. The great painter established

mented interior, with paintings on the cupola, by a School of Arts here, and lived on an estate near the Porta Vercellina, close by, given him by the

Campi, Procaccini, and other artists. Duke.

Santa Maria presso S. Celso (near S. Celso), in *St. Ambrogio (Ambrose), in Piazza di St. Am

that Borgo, opposite the Military College, founded

by the Viscontis, 1491, shows a very beautiful brogio, surrounded by a barrack or hospital, built

front, in which are two sibyls, by Fontana; and as a convent by Bramante in the fifteenth century.

an excellent Adam and Eve at the entrance, by It was built by Archbishop Anspertus in the ninth

Laurenzi. Inside, among other work, are Appicentury, of brick, in a very early Romanesque or

qui's frescoes, and Fontana's statue of the Virgin: Byzantine style (on the site of one founded 387 by

with a rich altar, &c. St. Ambrose, in honour of two martyrs), and consists of two naves of equal size; one forming a

S. Vittore al Corpo, in that stradone, behind a court or Atrium to the other or principal nave, in

barrack, was rebuilt 1560, by Alessi, on the site of which is a brass serpent on a granite pillar (said to

one from which St. Ambrose shut out the Emperor be the very one put up by Moses in the Wilderness),

Theodosius; with pictures by Procaccini, Bellon, and a very ancient tomb with curious bas-reliefs. &c. This Atrium, in which the people asked alms and Santa Maria della Passione, in that street, near performed penance, is bordered by an arcade, and Porta Tosa, is rather a fine church, 320 feet long, has many tablets and inscriptions, some of them with a triple portal, three naves, and a dome 106 feet being Greek mixed with Latin. Here St. Ambrose high. Note, the tomb of the founders (Archbishop baptised St. Angelbert, and burst out with the Birago and his brother), by A. Fusina, 1498; grand Te Deum Laudamus, ascribed to him. Among | paintings of the Crucifixion, by Campi; the Lord's

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