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Birth. Death.

Birth. Death Masaccio (Tommaso Guidi).............. 1401 1442? Rossi, A. de (s ..... ...***..***

1671 *

1715 Masolino 1403 1440 Rossi, G. A. de (a)..

1616 1695 Masuccio, the second (a., s.) 1291 1388 Sabbatini, A.

1480 1545 Mazzuoli (8).....

1644 1725
Sacchi, A..

1600 1661 Memmi, S........

1285
1344? Salimbene, V. .......

1577 1613 Michael Angelo (painter, sculptor,

Salvator Rosa .....

1615 1673 and architect) ............ 1474 1564 Salvi, N. (a) ........

1699 1753 Michelozzi, M........ 1396 1470? Salviati (F. Rossi) ...

1510

1563 Milizia, F. 1725 1798 Sangallo (the elder, a) ....

1443 1517 Molo, G........ 1616 1661 | Sangallo, A. (a)

1546 Montorsoli (s) ... 1563 Sanmicheli, M. (a) ......

1484 1559 Moretto (A. Bonvicino). 1500 1560? Sansovino V. (a., s.) ...

1477 1570 Morrealese .....

1603 1647 Sarto, A. del (A. Vanucchi)........ 1488 1530 Muziano, G.......

1528 1590 Sassoferrato (G. B. Salvi) ...... 1605 1685 Nanni, G. (d'Udine) .... 1494 1561 Scamozzi, V. (a)..............

1552 1616 Nola, G. di (a., s.) ........ 1476 1559 Scarsellino

1551 1621 Notti, G. delle (or Honthorst) ...... 1592 1662 Schidone, B........

1570 1615 Orcagna......... 1376? Settignano, D. da .....

1457 1515? Pacchiarotti, J. (born at Siena,

Signorelli, L. (da Cortona)

1441

1524 painted there 1535).......

Sirani, E. ....

1638 1665 Padovanino (Aless. Varotari) 1590 1660 Sodoma (G. A. Razzi)

1474 1549 Palladio (a) 1518 1580 Solario, À. (Zingaro).

1382 1455 Palma Giovine ... 1544 1626 Solario A. di (Gobbo)

1458 1509? Palma Vecchio..... 1500 1568 Solimena, F.............

1657 1747 Parmigianino (F. Maz 1505 1540 Spada ............

..................... 1576

1622 Passeri, G. B. ......

1610 1679 Spagnoletto (Jose Ribera) ........ 1588 1659 Passignano (Dom. Cresti) 1550 1638 Squarcione, F..

1394 1474 Pellegrini, P. (a) ......... 1522 1592 Tacca (8)

1640 Penni, G. F. (Fattore) .......... ......... 1488

1528
Tassi, A.

1566 1644 Perrault, C. (a) ...

1613
1688 Tempesta, A.

1555 1630 Perugino (P. Vanucci) ......

1446
1524
Tiarini, A......

1577 1668 Peruzzi, B. (painter and architect) 1480 1536 Tiepolo, G. B.

1692 1770 Pintelli, B. (a)........ .................. 1420 1480 Tintoretto .......

1512 1594 Pinturicchio, B. ..... 1454 1513 Titian..................

....................... 1477 1576 Piombo, Fra Sebast. del

1485
1547
Trevisani, F.

1656 1746 Pisa, A. da ($)......

1270 1345 Uccello, Paolo... Pisa, G. da (s)...

1320
Vacca, F. ().................

1600 Pisa, N. da (3) ...........

1270 Vaga, P. del (Buonaccorsi)........ 1500 1547 Pollajuolo, s. (a., s.) ........... 1454 1509 Vanni, F..

1565 1609 Pomerancio .... 1552 1626 Vanvitelli, L. (a).

1700 1773 Ponzio, F. (a) ........

........ 1555 1610 Vasari, G. (Author of the “Lives of Pordenone (G. A. Licinio) 1484 1540 Painters') ...

1512 1574 Porta, G. della (a., s.)

1577 Venusti, M. .......... Pussino (G. Dughet). 1613 1675 Verocchio, (s) ...

1488 Poussin, N.,.......... 1494 1665 Veronese, A.......

. 1580 1648 Pozzi, A. (a) ...

1642
1709

Veronese,' Paolo (Caliari)............... 1532 1588 Preti, M. ....... 1613 1699 Vinci, L: da (painter and architect) 1452

1519 Primaticcio, F. ... 1490 1570 Volterra, F. da (a)....

1588 Procaccini, A. ......

1490 1570
Zuccheri, F. .....................

1543 1609 Quercia, J. della...... 1418 Zucchri, T. ..........

1566 Raggi, A. ($) ......

1624

1686 Rainaldi, C. (a) ...

1611 1691 Rainaldi, G. (a)

1655 Raphael,' or 'Raffaelo (Sanzio d' Urbino)...

1483 1520 Ricci, G........

1537 1612 See Kugler's“Hand-Bookof Painting,"2 volumes, Ricci, S......

1660 1734 Ricciarelli, D. (da Volterra) ......... 1500 1557

translated by Eastlake; Vasari's “Lives of the Robbia, L. della

1481 Painters," by Forster; Lanzi's "History of PaintRomanelli, G. ....

1617 1662 Rosellini, B. (a) .....

1410 1460

ing,” by Roscoe; Crowe & Cavalcaselli's "History Rossellini, P. (a).

1410 1460 of Painting in Italy;" Miss Farquhar's "Catalogue

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of Painters;" Miss Thompson's "Hand-Book to B.C.
the Public Picture Galleries of Europe;" Fer 49 Cæsar, Dictator
gusson's "Illustrated Hand-Book of Architecture," 48 Battle of Pharsalia. Death of Pompey
2 volumes; Street's “Brick and Marble in the 44 Cæsar assassinated
Middle Ages" (North Italy).

43 Second Triumvirate; Lepidus, M. Antony, and

Octavian (Augustus) CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF IMPORTANT

Death of Cicero EVENTS IN ITALY, ROMAN EMPERORS, Ovid, 43 B.C. to A.D. 18

42 Battle of Philippi: Death of Brutus POPES, SOVEREIGNS OF STATES, DOGES,

31 Battle of Actium ARTISTS, &c.

30 Death of Antony N.B. Many of the earlier dates of Roman events,

27 Augustus, first Roman Emperor Bishops or Popes, are very doubtful. The Popes A.D. marked thus * are Romans or Italians by birth.

Seneca, 2-65.

14 Emperor Tiberius B.C.

Martial, 29-104 753 Rome founded by Romulus, first King. Fes 33 The Crucifixion

tival kept 21st April. The “2635th year" of 37 Emperor Caligula
the city, A.U.C., was duly celebrated 21st Lucan, 37-65
April, 1882.

41 Emperor Claudius 716 Numa Pompilius

42 “St. Peter," reputed Bishop of Rome 673 Tullus Hostilius

54 Emperor Nero 640 Ancus Martius

Tacitus, 61-110 616 Tarquinius Priscus

65-66 St. Linus, Bishop of Rome 578 Servius Tullius

69 Emperors Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespa534 Tarquinius Superbus, last King of Rome

sian 509-10 Expulsion of the Kings, Republic founded, Silius Italicus, about this time and Consuls instituted

78 St. Anacletus, Bishop of Rome 501 Dictator appointed

79 Emperor Titus. Pompeiioverwhelmed-Death 494 Tribunes instituted

of Pliny the Elder 491 Coriolanus exiled

81 Emperor Domitian 459 Volscian War

Plutarch, 85-120 451 Decemvirs instituted, Twelve Tables

91 St. Clement,* Bishop of Rome (sometimes 443 Censors created

placed before Linus) 396 Veii taken by Camillus

96 Emperor Nerva 390 Rome taken by the Gauls

98 Emperor Trajan 340 Latin War

Pliny the Younger. Died about A.D. 110 298-90 Third War with the Samnites

100 St. Evaristus, Bishop of Rome 264-41 Roman Supremacy in Italy; first Punic War 109 St. Alexander, * Bishop of Rome Hannibal, 247-183

117 Emperor Hadrian Cato, 234-189

Juvenal died A.D. 128 231 Conquest of Sardinia and Corsica

119 Sixtus I.,* Bishop of Rome Scipio, 219-185

127 St. Telesphorus, Bishop of Rome 216 Battle of Cannæ

138 Emperor Antoninus Pius Terence, 195-159

138 St. Hyginus, Bishop of Rome 146 Destruction of Carthage

142 St. Pius I., Bishop of Rome Cicero, 106-43

156 St. Anicetus, Bishop of Rome 111-06 Jugurthine War

161 Emperor Marcus Aurelius Cæsar, 100-44

161 Emperor Lucius Verus Lucretius, 95-55

168 St. Soter, Bishop of Rome Sallust, 36-34

177 St. Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome 86 Death of C. Marius

180 Emperor Commodus 82 Sylla, Dictator

185 or 193 St. Victor, Bishop of Rome 74-63 Second War with Mithridates. Cicero at 193 Emperor Pertinax Rome

- Emperor Didius Severus Virgil, 70-19

193 Emperor Septimius Severus 65-2 Catiline's conspiracies

197 or 202 St. Zephyrinus,* Bishop of Rom Horace, 65-8

211 Emperor Caracalla 63 Cicero, Consul

217 Emperor Macrinus 60 First Triumvirate between Cæsar, Pompey, 218 Emperor Heliogabalus, or Elagabalus and Crassus

222 Emperor Aurelius, or Alexander Severus 59 Cæsar Consul, first time

217-219 St. Calixtus I.* Bishop of Rome Livy, B.C. 59-17 A.D.

222-223 St. Urban I.,* Bishop of Rome 58-50 Cæsar's Campaigns in Gaul . . . 230 St. Pontianus,* Bishop of Rome

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Sixtus 1: Bishop O

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A.D. 235 St. Antherus, Bishop of Rome 235 Emperor Maximinus 236 St. Fabian,* Bishop of Rome 238 Emperors Gordian, I. and II. 243 Emperor Philip 249 Emperor Decius 251 Emperor Gallus 252 St. Cornelius,* Bishop of Rome 252 Novatian, Antipope 252 St. Lucius,* Bishop of Rome 253 St. Stephen I.,* Bishop of Rome 253 Emperor Valerianus 257 St. Sixtus II., Bishop of Rome 259 St. Dionysius, Bishop of Rome 261 Emperor Gallienus 268 Emperor Claudius II 269 or 270 St. Felix I. * Bishop of Rome 270 Emperor Domitius Aurelianus 274 or 275 St. Eutychianus, Bishop of Rome 275 Emperor M. Claudius Tacitus 276 Emperor Probus 282 Emperor Carus 283 St. Caius, Bishop of Rome 284 Emperors Diocletian and Maximinianus 296 St. Marcellinus,* Bishop of Rome 304 St. Marcellus,* Bishop of Rome 305 Emperors Constantius Chlorus and Galerius 306 Emperor Constantine the Great, first Christian

Emperor 310 St. Eusebius, Bishop of Rome 311 St. Melchiades, Bishop of Rome 312 Constantine defeats Maxentius at Rome 313 At Milan, he proclaims the equality of Christ

ianity with other religions 314 St. Sylvester,* Bishop of Rome 336 St. Mark I.,* Bishop of Rome 337 St. Julius I.,* Bishop of Rome 337 Emperors Constantine II. and Constantius II 352 St. Liberius I.,* Bishop of Rome 355 Felix II.,* Antipope 361 Emperor Julian, the Apostate 363 Emperor Jovian 364 Emperors Valentinian I., or Valens, and

Gratian 366 St. Damasus I., Bishop of Rome 378 Emperor Theodosius the Great 383 (West) Emperor Valentinian II 383 (East) Emperor Arcadius 384 St. Siricius,* Bishop of Rome 395 (West) Emperor Honorius 398 St. Anastasius I., Bishop of Rome 400-3 Alaric the Goth enters Italy 101 St. Innocent I., Bishop of Rome 408 (East) Emperor Theodosius II 410 Alaric sacks Rome 417 St. Zosimus, Bishop of Rome 418 St. Boniface I., * Bishop of Rome 420 Eulalius, Antipope 422 St. Celestine I, Bishop of Ronie 425 (West) Valentinian II 432 St Sixtus III., Bishop of Rome 438 Theodosian code proclaimed 440 St. Loo I. the Great, Bishop of Rome

A.D.
450 (East) Emperors Pulcheria and Marcian

Attila and the Huns enter Italy 455 Vandals sack Rome 455 (West) Emperor Maximus 455 (West) Emperor Avitus 457 (West) Emperor Majorianus 457 (East) Emperor Leo I 461 St. Hilary, Bishop of Rome 461 (West) Emperor Libius Severus 467 St. Simplicius, Bishop of Rome 467 (West) Emperors Anthemius and Procopius 472 (West) Emperor Olybius 478 (West) Emperor Glycerius 474 (West) Emperor Nepos 474 (East) Emperor Leo II 474 (East) Emperor Zeno 475 (West) Emperor Romulus Augustulus (30,

styled in ridicule), the last Emperor of the

West; dethroned by Odoacer, 476 476 Odoacer, King of the Eruli ("*Italy"), at

Ravenna 481 Clovis the Great, King of France 483 St. Felix III.,* Bishop of Rome 491 (East) Emperor Anastasius I 492 St. Gelasius, Bishop of Rome 493 Theodoric the Ostrogoth, King of “Italy," at

Ravenna 496 St. Anastatius II., * Bishop of Rome 498 St. Symmachus, Bishop of Rome 514 Laurentius, Antipope 514 St. Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome 518 (East) Emperor Justin I 523 John IV., Bishop of Rome 526 St. Felix I., Bishop of Rome 526 Athalaric, King of “Italy." 527 (East) Emperor Justinian, Author of the

"Digest." 530 Boniface II.,* Bishop of Rome 530 Dioscuros, Antipope 531 or 533 John II., Bishop of Rome 534 Theodatus, King of "Italy" 535 St. Agapetus* 536 St. Silverius, Bishop of Rome 536 Vitiges, King of “Italy" 537-9 Belisarius recovers Italy from the Goths 537 or 540 Vigilius,* Bishop of Rome 540 Theodebald, King of Italy" 541 Alaric, King of “Italy" 541 Totila, King of “Italy;" he takes Rome 546 547 Belisarius retakes Rome 552 Teia, last Ostrogoth King of " Italy" 553 Narses, Duke of Italy under the Emperor

Justinian 555 Pelagius I.,* Bishop of Rome 558 Clotaire, King of France 560 St. John III., Bishop of Rome 565 (East) Emperor Justin II 568 Alboin, King of the Lombards 569 Longinus, Exarch of Ravenna 573 St. Benedict I., Bishop of Rome 573 Cleoph or Cleophis, King of the Lombards 578 St. Pelagius II.,* Bishop of Rome 578 (East) Emperor Tiberius II.

A.D. 682 (East) Emperor Mauritlus 584 Autharis, Duke of the Lombards 584 Smaragdus, Exarch of Ravenna 690 St. Gregory I.* (the Great), Bishop of Rome 590 Romanus, Exarch of Ravenna 591 Agiluph, Duke of the Lombards 597 Callinicus, Exarch of Ravenna 602 (East) Emperor Phocas 602 Smaragdus, Exarch of Ravenna (a second time) 604 Sabinianus, Bishop of Rome 606 Boniface III.,* Pope. About this time to

Papal power begins to rise. 608 Boniface IV., Pope 610 (East) Emperor Heraclius 611 Johannes Lemigius, Exarch of Ravenna 615 Deodatus,* or Adeodatus I., Pope 615 Adawald, King of Lombards 616 Eleutherius, Exarch of Ravenna 618 Boniface V., Pope 619 Isaac, Exarch of Ravenna 625 Honorius I., Pope 625 Ariwald, King of Lombards 628 Dagobert the Great, King of France 636 Rotharis, Duke of Brescia,or King of the Lom

bards 638 Plato, Exarch of Ravenna 639 Severinus, * Pope 640 John IV., Pope 641 Theodore I., Pope 648 Theodorus I., Exarch of Ravenna 619 St. Martin I., Pope 649 Olympius, Exarch of Ravenna 652 Rodvald, King of the Lombards 652 Theodorus, Exarch of Ravenna (a second 653 Aribert I., King of the Lombards 654 Eugenius I.,* Pope 657 Vitalian, Pope 661 Pertharitus, King of the Lombards 662 Grimsald, King of the Lombards 666 Gregory, Exarch of Ravenna 670 Adeodatus II,* Pope 671 Pertharitus, King of the Lombards (a second

time) 675 Dommus (or Donus) I., * Pope 678 Agathon, Pope 678 Theodore II., Exarch of Ravenna 682 St. Leo II., Pope 684 Benedict II., Pope 685 John V., Pope 686 Cunibert, King of Lombards 685 Peter, Antipope 685 Theodore, Antipope 686 Paschal, Antipope 686 Conon, Pope 687 Sergius I., Pope 687 Johannes Platon, Exarch of Ravenna 697 Republic of Venice founded; Paolo Lucio

Anafesto, first Doge 700 Luitpert, King of the Lombards 701 Ragimbert, King of the Lombards 701 Aribert II., King of the Lombards 701 John VI., Pope 702 Theophilactus, Exarch of Rayenna

A.D. 705 John VII., Pope 708 Sisinius, Pope 708 Constantinus, Pope 710 Johannes Rizocopius, Exarch of Ravenna 711 Eutychius, Exarch of Ravenna 712 Ausprand, King of the Lombards 712 Luitprand, King of the Lombards 713 Scholasticus, Exarch of Ravenna 715 Gregory II., * Pope 727 Paul, Exarch of Ravenna 728 Eutychius, Exarch of Ravenna (a second time) 731 Gregory III., Pope 741 Zacharias, Pope 744 Hildebrand, King of the Lombards 744 Ratchia, King of the Lombards and Duke of

Friuli 746 Chilperic II. (or Chilperic Martel), King of

France 749 Astolfus, King of the Lombards 752 Stephen II.,* Pope 752 Stephen III.,* Pope 752 Pepin, King of France 756 Desiderius, King of the Lombards and Duke

of Istria 756 Pepin gives the Exarchate to the Pope 757 Paul I.,* Pope 763 Stephen IV., Pope 768 Theophylact, Antipope 768 Constantine II., Antipope 768 Charlemagne, King of the Franks 769 Philip, Antipope 772 Adrian I.* (of the Colonna family), Pope 774 Lombardy, &c., taken by Charlemagne 795 St. Leo III., * Pope 800 Egbert I., King of England 800 Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus) the Frank,

Emperor of the West. From this time the Roman Pontificate was finally separated from the Eastern Empire, and came under the

influence of the Frank or German Empire 814 Louis I., Emperor of the West 816 Stephen V.,* Pope 817 Paschal I., * Pope 824 Eugenius II.,* Pope 826 Zinzinus, Antipope 827 Valentinus,* Pope 827 Gregory IV.,* Pope 828 Boniface I., Marquis of Tuscany 840 Lothaire, Emperor of the West 844 Sergius II.,* Pope 846 Leo IV.,* Pope 847 Adelbert I., Duke of Tuscany

(Legend of Pope Joan, or "John VIII." 858-5) 855 St. Benedict III., * Pope 855 Louis II., Emperor of the West 855 Anastasius, Antipope 858 Nicholas I.,* Pope 867 Adrian II.,* Pope 872 John VIII.,* Pope 872 Alfred, King of England 876 Carloman, King of France 880 Charles III., King of Ita

aperor of Germany

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A.D.
1001 Adalbert III., Duke of Tuscany
1002 Henry II., Emperor of Germany
1003 John XVIII., Pope

Gregory VI., Antipope
1003 John XIX.,* Pope
1009 Ottone Orseolo, Doge of Venice
1009 Sergius IV.,* Pope
1012 Benedictus VIII.* (Conti), Pope
1014 Rinaldo, Duke of Tuscany
1017 Canute, King of England

Gregory VI., * Antipope
1018 Normans enter Italy
1024 John XX.,* (or John XIX.), Pope
1024 Conrad II., Emperor of Germany
1026 Pietra Barbolano, Doge of Venice
1027 Boniface, Duke of Tuscany
1032 Domenico Flabanaco, Doge of Venice
1033 Benedict IX.,* Pope
1033 Sylvester III., Antipope
1039 Henry III., Emperor of Germany
1043 Will. Braccia-ferro, Count of Apulia
1043 Domenico Contarini I., Doge of Venice
1044 Gregory VI.,* Pope
1046 Clement II., Pope
1046 Drogo, Count of Apulia
1046 Emperor Henry III. deposes three Popes
1048 Damasus II., Pope
1049 S. Leo IX., Pope
1051 Humphrey, Count of Apulia
1054 Robert Guiscard, Count and Duke of Apulia
1055 Victor II., Pope
1055 Beatrice and Godfrey, Dukes of Tuscany
1056 Henry IV., Emperor of Germany
1057 Stephen X., Pope
1058 Benedict x.* (Conti), Antipope
1059 Nicholas II., Pope
1060 Philip I., King of France
1060 Boniface I., M. of Montferrat
1061 Alexander II.* (Badagio family), Pope
1061 Honorius II., Antipope
1066 William the Conqueror, King of England.
1067 Frederick I., Lord of Ferrara
1071 Domenico Silvio, Doge of Venice
1072 Roger I., Count of Sicily
1073 Gregory VII.* (Hildebrand or Aldobrandeschi),

Pope
1073 Clement II., Antipope
1076 Matilda, Countess of Tuscany
1077 Emperor Henry IV., at Canossa.
1084 Vitale Falierio, Doge of Venice
1085 Roger, Duke of Apulia
1086 Victor III.* (Epifani), Pope
1088 Urban II., Pope
1090 Paschal II., Pope
1095 First Crusade
1096 Vitale Micheli I., Doge of Venice

Albert, Antipope
1100 William II., Marquis of Montferrat
1101 Roger II., Sicily. Duke of Apulia 1127

King of Sicily, 1130

Theodoric, Antipope
1102 Ordelafo Faliero, Doge of Venice
| 1102 Sylvester III., Antipope

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