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The Apennines, or “Monti Appennini," begin dieri, near Turin; Acqui; Abano mud baths; in the Maritime Alps, hug the coast of the Riviera, Porretta, Lucca, Volterra, Solfatara, Ischia, &c. pear Genoa, and from thence run down the middle 1 Islands. The two largest islands are Sardinia of the peninsula, to the end of Calabria; a total and Sicily. length of 800 miles. Average height, 2,000 to 6,000 Elba, between the Tuscan Coast and Corsica, feet. Highest points are Monte Carno, or Corno, with its neighbours, Capraja, Gorgona, Pianosa, or “Gran Sasso," near Aquila, 9,580 feet high; Monte Cristo, Giglio, Gianatri. Another Capraja, Monte Majella, near Celano, 9, 150 feet high; or Caprera, between Corsica and Sardinia, was the Monte Sibilia, near Tolentino, 7,000 feet; Monte residence of Garibaldi till his death, 1882. Cimone, near Pistoja, 6,975. At the back of Off the Gulf of Gaëta-Ponza, Palmaroia, ZanGenoa, where they are only 2,560 feet high, they one, Ventolene, &c. take the name of the Ligurian Apennines, and In the Bay of Naples-Ischia, Procida, Capri. form the south border of the plain of Lombardy. Lipari Islands-Lipari, Stromboli, Volcano, FiliSome of the Passes are-Pontremoli, 3,420 feet; curi, Alicuri, Saline, &c. Collina or Pracchia, 3,350 feet; Pietra Mala, on Ustica is off Palermo. the old Florence Road, 4, 100 feet; and others Egati Islands-Off Marsala, including Levanzo, near Borgo Sepolcro, Fabriano, &c., of less Maritimo, Favignano. importance. The Apennines are generally lime | Pantellaria, between Sicily and Africa. stone, covered with grass, but without trees, The Tremiti Islands, with Pianosa, Pelegosa, &c., except chestnuts here and there. Mount Etna is off the Gargano Promontory, are the only islands 10,875 feet high; Vesuvius, 3,880 feet.
of any consequence in the Adriatic. Volcanoes.Traces of volcanic matter are
Corsica is annexed to France, and Malta to found nearly all over Italy. In the North, near
England. Vicenza, Padua, and the Euganean Hills; in Tus Coast Line.-Estimated at 3,350 miles, onecany, and the soil about Rome, especially in the fourth of which belongs to the islands. In this Campagna; and round Naples, where Vesuvius respect Italy has an advantage over France or has for ages been in a state of activity. It threw Spain, and holds a position which qualifies it to out a new crater in 1865. Etna, in Sicily, threw become a first-rate maritime power, and to comout some about the same time; and Stromboli, mand the Mediterranean. The scenery of the which is always smoking, was also affected. The Riviera, or shore of the Gulf of Genoa, of the Bay peak of Ischia is an extinct volcano. In July, 1831, of Naples, and the Straits of Messina, is proverà submarine volcano, called Graham's Shoal, Isle bial for beauty. Julia, &c., appeared above the sea, off Sicily, and Principal Ports.--Turin, Genoa, Spezia (Royal disappeared the same year. Sir Walter Scott Dockyard), Leghorn, Civita Vecchia, Naples, landed on it.
Palermo, Messina, Ancona, and Venice, Rivers. The principal rivers of Italy are the Lakes.--Lago-Laghi—Under the Alps are Lago Po, Arno, and the Tiber (Tevere). The Po rises in | Maggiore, Orta, Varese, Lugano, Como, Lecco, Iseo, the Alps and Apennines, and runs to the Adriatic, and Garda, all remarkable for the rich character by a course of about 407 miles. Its affluents are of the surrounding scenery. In Central Italythe Tanaro (fed by the Stura and Bormida), Treb Thrasymene, Bolsena, and Bracciano, shallow and bia, Taro, Parma, Secchia, and Reno, on the right uninteresting, except for their historical associaor south bank; the Clusone, Doria-Riparia, Doria tions. In the Apennines—Celano or Fusino, now Baltea, Sesia, Ticino (from Lago Maggiore, &c.), drained. On the east side-Lesina and Varano. Olona, Lambro, Adda (from the Valtellina), Oglio
Plaing. - The Great Plain of Lombardy, (from L. Iseo), and Mincio (from L. Garda), on the
the "pleasant garden of fair Italy," in the north; north bank. Near the Po are the Adige, Bacchig
the Campagna, near Rome, remarkable for its lione, Brenta, Piave, Tagliamento, &c., which rise
herds of buffaloes, &c.; and Campania, towards in the Alps and runs into or near to the lagoons of
Naples, both on the west coast; with the plain of Venice.
Foggia, on the east side, on which vast flocks of All the other rivers have their source in the sheep are pastured. In summer they are driven Apennines, and are for the most part mountain up the Apennines. torrents. The Arno runs by Florence and Pisa, to Winds. -The eight principal winds are:-Leghorn. The Tiber, about 245 miles long, runs N.-Tramontana (" across the mountains "). by Perugia, Orte, and Rome. The Secchia runs N.E. --Greco. past Lucca. The Garigliano and Volturno run E.-Levante ("Sun Rising"). into the Gulf of Gaëta, and some smaller streams, S.E.—Sirocco, the hot wind. Of any thing of little note, into the Gulfs of Salerno and Taranto. dull, the Italians say “Era scritto in tempo dell On the Adriatic side are the Ofanto, Pescara, sirocco." (It was written in sirocco weather). Trento, Chienti, Metauro, Rubicon and many others, S.-Mezzogiorno (" Midday"). from 20 to 50 miles long, which make almost a | S.W.--Libeccio (“Libyan," or African). straight course from the slope of the Apennines W.-Ponente ("Sun Setting"). down to the sea.
N.W.--Maestro (the “Master;" called “MisBaths and Mineral Waters. At Caldiero Val- | tral," at Marseilles and elsewhere).
Products.--Among the chief products are:- Leghorn. Pistol and gun barrels, and cutlery, Iron, lead, Sicilian sulphur, Carrara marble, from Brescia. Cutlery, from Campobasso, Coral Corn, in Sicily, &c.; rice, in the plain of Lom | necklaces, brooches, &c., from Naples; and red bardy; olive oil, about Florence, Naples, &c.; coral work from Trapini, Sicily. Doceia Porce: oranges ånd "lemons,' in the Riviera, &c.; cotton, lain, and imitation Majolica and Della Robbia sugar, figs, and other fruits, in South Italy and ware, from the Ginori works, Florence. Porcelain, Sicily. Abundance of iron in Sardinia and Elba. from Faenza. Coloured mosaics, from Venice.
Cotton.-From Salerno to Torre del Greco, at Smalts from the mosaic manufactory, at the Terranova, Paterno, &e., about 10,000 bales are
Vatican. Indian corn, from the Pontine Marshes. raised. The total quantity for Italy and Sicily is
Inlaid tables and pavements, in imitation marbles, 80,000 bales.
breccia, &c. Statuary, from Rome. Silk.-The value of cocoons in 1886 was
Wine.--From Campobasso, Asti, Cesena, Montal£5,144,500; the yield in raw silk, 5,345,000 lb.
cino, Flumini (near Cagliari), Cosenza, Trani, The number employed in winding off was--men,
Siena, Comacchio, Chiavari, Sondrio, Imola, Mar 4,839; women, 81,165; children, 25,373.
sala (Sicily), Benevento, Ornano, Isola, Acqui,
Reggio (in the Emilia), Caluso, Messina, Lucca, The Metayer system is very common in Italy;
Naples, Genoa, Salerno, Parma, Ferrara, Orvieto, that is, the produce of the farm is divided equally
Rieti, and other places. Annual quantity of wine, between the tenant and the landlord who receives about 350,000,000 gallons. The Muscat wine of his half for rent. Land is much divided; but
Sardinia is imported to the North of Europe. About many small owners are worse off than labourers.
Florence the country is a "mass of orchards," Manufactures.-Silks, woollen, gauzes, por
producing oil and wine. Usually, in Italy, the celain, artificial flowers, printed cottons, hats,
vine is trained to elms and poplars, in festoons. wax matches.
"After having tested the growths from various A more complete notion of Italian products will qualities, I must say I have not seen one that is be obtained from a list of articles shown at the
fine. Vino d'Asti is praised, but very undeservedly, International Exhibition of 1862:-Lead and cop
I think. Lacryma Christi is usually coarse in per, from Palanza, near Novara. Iron, from Bard,
taste and flavour. Montepulciano, so highly praised in Val d'Aosta. Copper, from Bisano, near Bo
by Redi, is sweet, but not to be compared to Fronlogna; and from Ollomont, near Aosta. Sulphur,
tignan or Rivesaltes. Throughout the whole from Trapani and Bologna. Slate, from Chiavari,
country wines are made; and better qualities near Genoa. Statuary marble, from Fivizzano,
could not be produced in any part of Europe; but in Massa-Carrara Manganese, from Fontanaccio,
where wine is so abundant that all may drink it, near Lucca. Antimony and lead, from Cagliari.
little money value is attached to it, and it is conSteel, from Lovere, near Bergamo; and copper
sequently neglected. Good wine demands skill, and lead, from Valsassina. Mineral and marble,
experience, patience, and capital. Influential Itafrom Messina. Statuary marble, from Monte
lians are now directing their attention to this Altessimo, near Florence-once worked by Michael
source of wealth, and, if they desire to gain a Angelo. Boras, from the Lagoons, near Volterra.
reputation, would do well to get some intelligent Mineral deposits, from the Baths of Lucca. Rice,
vine-growers, wine-makers, and cellarmen from from Novara, Imola, &c. Figs, raisins, almonds,
France and Germany."-T. G. SHAW'S Wine, the olives, &e., from Trani. Indian corn, from
Vine, and the Cellar. Arezzo. Pistachio nuts, from Cagliari. Pickled Climate.Extremely various as indicated by olives, smoked mullet, salted eels, honey, &c., from the mean temperature, ranging from 55° at Milan Oristano. Tobacco, from Messina. Gin and spirit, and Venice, to 601° at Rome, and 63° at Palermo. extracted from the arbutus. Wax, from Savona. Dr. Lee says-"In the plains of Calabria, and in Olive oil, from Florence, Genoa, Bari, Calabria, Sicily, which lie between the 37th and 39th degrees &c. Coral, from the coast of Sardinia. Raw silk and of latitude, the thermometer rarely descends below cocoons, from Parma. Merino wool, from Grosseto. freezing point; whereas between the 43rd and Bark, sumach, castor-oil, &c., from Cagliari. Cas 46th degrees, as in the higher parts of Lombardy, tor-oil, from Trani. Hemp, from Ferrara. Cotton, it frequently descends to 10° below zero, which is an from Cosenza and Trani. Cotton stuffs, fustians, immense difference for a distance of 6° to 9o. A damask, woollen, yarn, and hats, from Milan. Floss corresponding difference is observable in the prosilk, from Lucca. Organzine and velvet, made at ductions of the earth from the pine of the north, Turin. Galoon and silk ribbons, at Portici, near to the palm tree and plants indigenous to warmer Naples. Straw plait and buffalo hides, from Leg latitudes, as also in the physical and moral horn. Bonnets, from Parma and Teramo. Gloves, qualities of the various populations." from Naples. Chairs, from Chiavari. Rice, Another characteristic of the climate is the Indian corn, sorgho, bamboo cane, sugar cane, general diffusion of Malaria. "Italy contains, in pro&c.from Florence. Collection of 121 siliceous portion to its extent, more marshes than any other stones employed in the Pietre Dure mosaics, made country in Europe. Many of them, moreover, are at the Royal Factory, Florence. Brooches, in salt water marshes, being upon, or close to the seascagliola, in imitation of Florentine mosaics, from shore; and their insalubrity always bears a direct ratio to the prevailing humidity, heat, and siroccal | cipal dialects are the Milanese, Venetian, Paduan ventilation." When, in addition to these circum- | or Lombard, Mantuan, Piedmontese. Genoese, stanees. we take into consideration the extent of Bolognese. Neapolitan, Calabrian, Sicilian, and submerged or irrigated land; tbe beds of numerous
Sardinian (or Island dialect). A few useful words rivers oecasionally overflowing, at other times and phrases are given in the Vocabulary at the more or less dry; the lakes, the lagunes, &c.; end of the Special Edition of Bradsharo's Contithere will be no grounds for surprise at the nental Guide. quantity of rain which annually falls, or at the partially existing malaria in the summer and
ANCIENT DIVISIONS OF ITALY. autumnal seasons."
The North of Italy, above the River Macra (now Dr. Lee adds, “The transition from spring to
Magra), near Spezia and the Rubicon, near Rimini summer is frequently abrupt in Italy. In May (both about latitude 449), was called Gallia Citerior the sun acquires considerable power. The great
or Gallia Cisalpina. The remainder of the Peninheats prevail from the middle of June to the middle
sula, to the South, or Italia proper, was styled Ausoof September. At this period it rains only oc
nia, Hesperia, &c., by the poets. casionally, and during the prevalence of storms. The ground is usually parched, and the roads laid
Cisalpine Gaul was divided into Cispadana and thick with dust. The towns in the interior, as
Transpadana, by the Padus (Po) or Eridanus; and Milan, Florence, &c., are generally hotter than
more particularly as follows:-1. LIGURIA -conthose on the sea-coast, where the heat is somewhat
taining Genoa and Nice. 2. TAURINA--About Turin, tempered by the sea breeze." This daily sea
Aosta, &c. 3. INSUBRES-Milan; Pavia, where breeze blows from noon to sunset, and its influence
Charles V. defeated Francis I. 4. CENOMANNIis felt for miles up the valleys.
Brescia, Cremona, and Mantua, near the birth"If you wish to keep your health in Italy,' says
place of Virgil. 6. EUGANEI-Verona, the birththe author of Roba di Roma, "follow the example
place of Catullus. 6. VENETI-Padua, where Livy of the Italians. Eat a third less than you are
was born ; Aquileia, Friuli. Venice (named after accustomed to at home. Do not drink habitually
this province), had no real existence till the desof brandy, porter, ale, or even Marsala, but confine
truction of Aquileia, A.D. 452. 7. LINGONES yourself to the lighter wines of the country, or of
Ravenna, where the emperor kept his court, and France. Do not walk much in the sun; only
also Theodoric, the Goth, after defeating Odoacer. Englishmen and dogs do that, as the proverb goes;
8. Boli-Bologna, Modena, Parma, Piacenza. and especially take heed not to expose yourself
The ancient divisions of Italy proper were:-9. when warm to any sudden change of temperature.
ETRURIA, between the Magra and Tiber, from If you have heated yourself with walking in the sun,
which Napoleon borrowed his name of the shortbe careful not to go out at once, and especially
lived kingdom of Etruria. It contained Lucca, towards nightfall, into the lower and shaded streets
Pisa, Florence, Leghorn, Volterra, Siena, Arezzo; which have begun to gather the damps, and are
Perugia, near Lake Thrasymene, where Hannibal kept cool by the high thick walls of the houses."
defeated the Romans for the third time; Clusium, Buy & skull cap to put on your head when you enter
the city of Porsena; Tarquinii, of the Tarquins, the churches and cold galleries. With this precau
Veii, and other Etruscan cities; and Civita Vecchia. tion, and by taking care to cool yourself before
10. UMBRIA-Rimini; Urbino, the birthplace of entering such buildings, or on coming into a
Raphael; Spoleto; Terni, the birthplace of the house, and generally not to expose yourself to sud
Emperor Tacitus, and Tacitus, the historian; Narni. den changes, "you may live for twenty years in
11. PICENUM-Ancona, Loreto, Ascoli; Sulmo, the the country without a fever. Shut your windows
birthplace of Ovid; Celano, in the country of the when you go to bed. The night air is invariably
Marsi; Reata, in the country of the Sabines, in damp and cold, contrasting greatly with the
which Vespasian was born ; Amiternum, the birthwarmth of the day; and it is then that miasma
place of Sallust; and Horace's Villa, near Tivoli. drifts in upon the sleeper. Do not indulge in ices 1 12. LATIUM-Rome, on the Tiber, in the Camand cold drinks."
pagna; Tivoli; Frascati, or Tusculum; Albano, Language.-The "Italian" language is the Ostia. 13. CAMPANIA-Capua, on the Volturno; Tuscan, as written and spoken by its educated Venafro, Cumæ, Baiæ, Puteoli, Naples; Pompeii, population, especially at Florence and Rome, and under Vesuvius; Salerno, and the Islands of Ischia, as shaped and polished by the great writers of Procida, and Capri. 14. SAMNIUM, in the Apennines the fourteenth century, or Trecentisti (or "three -Benevento, and the Caudine Forks. 15. APULIA century men," as the Italians say), viz., Dante, -Foggia, Manfredonia; Canosa, near Cannæ, the Petrarch, Boccaccio, Sacchetti, Villani; succeeded scene of Hannibal's fourth great victory; Venosa, by Lorenzo de' Medici, Pulci, Bojardo, in the the birthplace of Horace; and Bari, captured by fifteenth century, or Italian quattrocentisti; and by Robert Guiscard, 1067. 16. CALABRIA (in the heel Machiavelli, Guicciardini, Ariosto, Bembo, Vasari, of the Boot, on the Adriatic side; but the name B. Cellini, Guarini, Tasso, Bandello, called Cinque- | was afterwards transferred to the toe on the Sicilian centisti, or sixteenth century writers. The prin side)-Brindisi, or Brundusium, the old port of em* The Italians call this century the 18th,
barkation for Greece; Otranto, Gallipoli, and
th; Lence their 19th century is our 14th, as above,
Tarento, near the birthplace of Ennius, the poet.
17. LUCANIA (now Basilicata)-Heraclea; Sibaris, 1 20. SICILIA (or Trinacria) contained the ancient the city of the luxurious Sybarites; Pæstum, and | Greek cities of Messana, or Messina; Catana, or its ruins, 18. BRUTII (now Calabria Citra) Catania, under Mount Etna; Syracusa, or SyråCosenza; Scilla or Scylla, opposite Charybdis; cuse; Agrigentum, or Girgenti; Drepanum, or Reggio, and Cotrone. The last three provinces, Trapani, near Marsala; Panormus, or Palermo; with their flourishing Greek colonies, constituted Ægesta, or Egeste, under Mount Eryx; with the Magna Græcia.
Æolia Insulæ, or Lipari Islands.
III.—THE FINE ARTS-CHRONOLOGICAL LISTS, &c.
The Fine Arts reached their greatest perfection Verona-P. Veronese. in Italy in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth Venetian-G. Bellini, C. da Conegliano, Giorgione, centuries, when she was most wealthy and prosper- S. del Piombo, P. Vecchio, Titian. Moretto. Bordone. ous; and when, after a period of darkness and Tintoretto, Bassano, Palma Giovane, Padovanino, neglect, the remains of earlier times began to be Canaletto. collected and used as models. Vast sums were Parma-Correggio, Parmegiano. systematically spent on the churches and palaces, Bologna-Francia, Fontana, the three Carracci, which her best Architects were employed to con | Barbieri, Guercino, Lanfranco. struct, and her Painters and Sculptors combined Florence-Masaccio, Masolino, F. Lippi, Pollato adorn; the three professions being sometimes juolo, Verocchio, Bronzino. united in the same person. These edifices still Siena-Sodoma. remain; and though Italy is no longer distinguished Perugia or Umbrian-Perugino, Raphael. for producing artists, yet the man of cultivated Roman-M. Angelo, Carracci, Domenichino, F. taste, and the student, will always be attracted by | Albani, A. Sacchi, Barocci, Cigoli, Allori. the rich treasures she possesses of past ages, Naples-G. Penni (Fattore), Spagnoletto, S. Rosa, Pagan and Christian, in her public and private L. Giordano. buildings, especially at Rome and Florence.
The names of some of the most eminent artists A particular account of them is given under the are placed in the chronological list below about the respective places in the body of the Hand-Book, time they flourished. but a few of the most prominent may be mentioned Specimens of very ancient paintings are to be here.
seen on the walls of the Palace of Titus, at Rome, Painting.-Old mosaics, at Ravenna; St. Mark's, the houses at Pompeii, and on the Etruscan vases Venice; Monreale, at Palermo.
in the Vatican and elsewhere. See Miss Kate FRESCOES.—The earliest masters were Cimabue, Thompson's Picture Galleries of Europe. Margaritone d'Arezzo, Guido, Giunta da Pisa, Architecture. The most noticeable specimens Giotto, the friend of Dante, S. Memmi, Giottini, are as follows: Turin--Works of Giuvara. Genoa Orcagna, Solari, Fra Angelico, Squarcione, &c., - Works of Alessi, &c. Vercelli - Lombard who executed the frescoes still existing at Siena, Church. Milan – Italian Gothic Cathedral; Florence, Pisa, Assisi, Arezzo, Ravenna, Bologna, Church of St. Ambrose. Cremona-Bell Tower. Padua, and Rome.
Pavia-Old Gothic Churches; and the Certosa. Oil painting was discovered, or perfected, by Brescia-Semi-Gothic buildings. Verona-Duomo, Van Eyck, called John of Bruges (Giovanni da Lombard Churches, the Scaliger Monument, Brugia), and his pupil, Ruggieri. Antonello da 1 Sanmicheli's Fortresses, Roman Amphitheatre. Messina is also claimed as a discoverer or reviver. Vicenza-Works of Palladio. Padua-Hall, St. Sir C. Eastlake places the oldest oil painting at Anthony's Church, Giotti's Church. Venice Florence about 1460.
St. Mark's Byzantine Church; Palaces, by SanThese early painters were succeeded by other sovino, Scamozzi, Lombardi. Mantua - Ducal masters, in frescoes and oils, who, under the Palace; and works by G. Romano. Bolognapatronage of the Italian princes, founded various Leaning Towers; Churches. Pisa -Cathedral; schools, marked by differences of style and colour. Leaning Tower; Campo Santo. Ferrara-Cathewhich are easily apparent to the practised con dral: Palace. Ravenna - Byzantine Churches. noisseur.
Florence-Palazzo Vecchio-Pitti Palace: Duomo Schools of Painting. - The principal are S. Miniato. Perugia---Churches. Assisi-Church. named from the places where some of their best Siena-Lombard Church. Rome-St. Peter's, and works are to be found, as specified in the body of other Basilica Churches. Caserta-Royal Palace. the work,
Naples--Cathedral. Palermo-Norman and SaraGenoa-P. del Vaga.
cenic Churches. Milan or Lombard-Luini, Procaccini, Cara Remains of pure Grecian buildings are to be seen
at Pæstum, Syracuse, Girgenti, Trapani. Of Roman, Padua-Mantegna.
at Rome, from the earliest ages of the republic Ferrara-Garofalo, D. Dossi.
downwards; but especially of the time of the EmHantua-G. Romano, Primaticcio.
I pire, in the Baths, Colosseum, Pantheon, Tombs.
Birth. Death. At Pompeii, are remains of public and domestic
Claude Lorraine, or Claudio di buildings and arches. Narni, aqueduct and bridge.
Lorano (Claude Gellée) .............. 1600 1682 Benevento, an arch. Ancona, mole and arch.
Correggio (A. Allegri) ..........
1534 Capua and Pozzuoli, parts of amphitheatres.
Cortone, P. da .....
1596 1669 Verona, an amphitheatre. Aosta, arch and gate.
1616 1686 Very little of what is called in England, Gothic or
Domenichino (D. Zampieri)
1581 1641 pointed, is to be found in Italy.
1386 1466 Dossi D...
1560 ALPHABETICAL LIST of ITALIAN PAINTERS,
Empoli (J. Chimenti)
1640 SCULPTORS (marked s.), AND ARCHITECTS Ferrari, G.
1484 1550 Fiesole, M. da (s)
1400 1486 (marked a); the name by which they are best
Fontana, C. (a) ...
1634 1714 known being placed first. Names in italics are
Fontana D. (a).............
1543 1607 not the artist's family name.
Fontana, G. (a) ...
1614 Fontana, L. Z. ......
1614 Birth. Death.
Fra Angelico (G.Angelico da Fiesole) 1387 1455 Albano, F..............
. 1578 1660
1475 1517 Alberti. L. B. (a).
1387 1455 Alberti, D........
1611 Alessi, G. (a) .......
1535 Algardi, A. (a., s.) ...
1780 Amonanati, B. (a) ......
1239 1312 Antonello di Messina....
Gaddi, T.(painter and architect) ... 1300 1350 Arnolfo di Lapo (a) ......
1737 Bandinelli, B. (8) .......
1481 1556 Baroccio, Fed. Fiori
........ 1658 1709 Barozzi, G. (a)...... 1507 1573 Gemignani, G......
1681 Bassano (Da Ponte) .... ... 1510 1592 Genga, B. (a) ........
1518 1558 Beccafumi (D. Mecherino). 1484 1549 Genteleschi
1646 Bellini, Gentile ...
1455 Bellini, Giovanni 1424 1514 Ghirlandajo ...........
1449 14987 Bernini, G. L. (a., s.).... 1598 1680 Giocondo, Fra (a) ....
1435 Bernini, P. ($)...
1511 Berretini, P. (da Cortona) 1596 1669 Giordano, L.................
1632 1795 Bibiena, G. F. (a) ........
Giotto, painter and architect ......... 1276 1356 Bologna, G. da (8)
1524 1608 Giulio Romano (Giulio Péppi), painBordone, P. .......
1492 1546 Borgognone (Jac. Courtois). 1621 1676 Giunta da Pisa.
1276 1336 Borromini F. (a)... 1599 1667 Gozzoli, B.
1424 1485 Botticelli (Sandro Filipepi)
1590 1666 Bramante (a) .....
1701 Bronzino (Angelo Allori)
1575 1649 Brunelleschi, F. (a) 1377 1441 Guidotti, P.
1569 1629 Brusasorci
... 1480 1550 Buffalmacco ......
1581 1647 Buonvicini, A. (3). 1252 1622 Laurati, P. di Siena ..
.... 1300? 1350? Camuccini, V.. 1773 1844 Lippi, Fra F.......
1412 1469 Canaletto (A. Canale)..... 1697 1768 Lombardi, C. (a).......
1559 1620 Canova, A ($)..
1600 Canuti, D............
1656 Caracci, Agostino 1558 1601 Longhi, Ö. (a)
1569 1619 Caracci, Annibale 1560 1609 Lorenzetto (8) .............
1530 Caracci, Ludovico 1555 1619 | Lotto, L.....
1480 1554 Caravaggio (M. Amerighi) 1560 1609 Luini, B. da
1460 1530 Castiglione, B.. 1616 1670 Luini, A.
1530 1590 Cellini, B. (3) 1500 - 1570 Maderno, C. (a) ....
1629 Cesari, G. (Cavalier d'Arpino) 1560 1640 Maderno, S. (s)
1636 Chiari, G.,... 1654 1727 Majano, B. da (s)
1442 1498 Cignani, C. ............,
1407 1477 Cigoli (Ludovico Cardi) 1559 1613 Maldini, P. (3) ...
1614 1684 Cima da Congeliano ........ 1460 1520? Mantegna, A. ......
1430 1505 Cimabue, Giov. ...
1713 Civitali, M. (1) ....... 1435 1501 | Margaritone.........
... 1236 1311