Hotels.-The usual times for table d'hôte din-1 Weights and Measures ("Pesi e Misure"). ners are 1 and 5 p.m. A plain breakfast may be The metrical system, based on the French, was had of chocolate, bread and butter, and fruit, as adopt

adopted in Italy in August, 1861. It was made grapes, figs, &c. A fair dinner at 3 lire, including permissive in England (by Act 27, 28, Vic., cap, vino ordinario. The national siesta after dinner is 117) in 1864. worth Imitation by visitors in hot weather. Cigars In the Italian names, "ch" takes the place of being a government monopoly are bad and dear. “k," as chilometro for kilomètre, by which all At an hotel servants are charged in the bill

distances are now measured; and the "h" is (buona mano) at 1 franc per day. Boots or

dropped, as in ettolittro, for hectolitre. “Km." is, "facchino," franc. The waiter is called "came

however, used in the Official Railway Guide. riere;"-at a caffé bottega" (shop). Table d'hôte ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, is "tavola rotonda." A cook shop is “trattoria."

NEW AND OLD. An inn, "albergo" (plural "alberghi "), "osteria,"

Acre = 4,000 square metri, nearly. * locanda." See the Vocabulary at the end of the Barile of wine (Tuscan) = 12 gallons. Special Edition of Bradshaw's Continental Guide.

Barile of oil (Tuscan) = 8.8 gallons. As to making a bargain beforehand with the Bushel = 36.348 littri. host, the following is the advice of Mr. T. A. Trol Chilogramma = 2 lbs. 3 oz. 4.4 drachms. lope:-"My own long experience of Italian tra 10 chilog. = 22 lbs. 07 oz. velling would lead me to say, Never do anything

= 112 lbs. of the kind. It indisposes the people to you. It

Chilometri=1,000 metri= m

5., 1 foot is contrary to the habits of the country. It will

10.79 inches. much diminish your comfort; and in nowise profit 10 chilom. = 64 miles. your purse. Neither imagine that any economy (To turn chil. into miles, multiply by 5 and will be achieved (except in the case of the great

divide by 8). cities, where accommodation of different degrees of Ettara (hectare)=24 acres, nearly; or 2:471 acres; luxury is provided at recognised and avowedly

or 2 acres 2280-3 square yards. different scales of charges) by limiting your de. 10 ettare = 241 acres. mands to anything less than the best the house Ettolittro (hectolitre) = 2 bushels, 3 pecks, 0:077 can give you in point of rooms and fare. Tell

pints. the host good-naturedly and cheerfully to do the Foot = 305 metro. best he can for you in both respects; not mean Fathom=1.829 metri. ing, of course, to include in this 'best' foreign Gallon=4.543 littro. wines, or such extra articles as are supplied only Gramma=5644 drachms avoirdupois. on special demand. Say nothing about prices. Littro (litre)=1.7608 pints= 61.028 cubic inches. But when the bill is brought in, if it is an extor- | Metro=1.094 yards, or=3 feet 3.3708 inches, or = tionate one, just cut it down to a fair charge,

3.281 feet, or = 39.37 inches. taking care that the sum you fix is rather more (To turn metri into yards (nearly), take off 1-1 Ith). than less than the absolutely strict rate. If it be 100 metri = 328 feet. done good-humouredly and quietly, and with evi 1,000 metri (chilom.) 3,281 feet, or about smile. dent knowledge of what the charges ought to be, Mile (English) =1,609 315 metres, or=1.609 chilothe traveller will find that it will always be

metri. acceded to with a good grace, and that the opera 5 miles (English) = 8 chilom. tion will not be attended by the disagreeables Mile (Italian, or geographical) = 2,025 English inseparable from the work of making a bargain for

yards = 1,852 metres=11-7th English mile. your entertainment on entering the house. The | Mile (Neapolitan)=2,435 yards. striking off of this tara on the bill ought not to be 19 (Piedmontese)=2,697 yards. done as if the objector considered the innkeeper as , (Roman)= 1,628 yards. a rogue, but simply as a matter of course."-- (Tuscan) = 1,808 yards. TROLLOPE's Lenten Journey.

Moggio = 4-5ths acre. Postage.--Letters to a traveller in Italy should

Ounce (avoirdupois)=28-35 gramme. be addressed “Posta Restante," or “Ferma in

, (troy)=31:10 gramme. Posta," that is, to be called for; or else to the care

Palmo= 104 inches. of a banker, or the landlord of an hotel. There is

Post (old) varies from 43 to 11 English miles a daily mail from London to Italy. (See Intro

Quart (imperial)=4.54 littri. duction to Bradshaw's Continental Guide.)

Quarter (dry measure)=290°78 littri.

Quintal (Tuscan)= 100 Tuscan lbs. = 74.8 English • In Italy the postage on letters is bc. (fd.) the

lbs. quarter oz. In the towns, and 20c. (2d.) to any part

Pound (avoirdupois) = 453.59 gramme. of the country, payable by stamps, sold at the cigar

, (troy)=373.24 gramme. shops. Postage to England, 25c. the 16 grammes

Tomola = quarter. (} oz.).

Yard=9144 metri, or about 9-10ths. Telegraph.-To the United Kingdom, 47c, per! (To turn yards into metri (nearly), add 1-11th). word.

A square yard 0.836 square metre.

Routes to Italy.-See Itinerary of Routesfrom 10. To Vienna, Laibach, Trieste, Venice, or AnEngland, and lists of railways, steamers, diligences, cona, &c. About 36 hours of actual travelling to &c., in Bradsharo's Continental Guide. Through Vienna. France, via Dover to Calais (three times a day), or Folkestone to Boulogne.

Through tickets can be obtained from the different { By rail, Genoa may be reached through France

railway companies.-See Bradshaw's Continental or Switzerland in 24 to 3 days (or only 371 hours

Guide. of actual travelling by short route), for about Italian Overland Route to Egypt.—The £8, first class. Leghorn, in 3 to 3 days, for £8 extension of the Adriatic Coast line (Rete Adriatica) to £9. Florence, in 3 to 31 days (or only 48 hours to Brindisi (the ancient Brundisium) made this of actual travelling), for £8 to £9. Rome, in 2. to place the most eligible starting-point for the East, 5 days, for £10 to £11, or 50 hours travelling. instead of Marseilles. It is 700 to 800 miles Naples, 24 to 5$ days, about £12; 54 hours travel nearer to Port Said, and within about 3 days' sea ling by short route.

passage of the Suez Canal. A sum of 6 million lire The direct Land Routes are through France or was expended in the improvement of the port. Switzerland, and through the Tyrol.

The journey may be performed at through fares by Sea Routes from London by the London, Italy, the Mont Cenis, St. Gothard, or Brenner Route, and Adriatic Company's boats to Genoa, Leghorn, as above; the three meeting at Bologna; whence Naples, &c.- From Southampton to Malta (10 the main line runs on to Ancona, Pescara, Foggia, days); thence to Messina, Palermo, &c. Or, from Bari, and Brindisi. Across France, the whole Liverpool to Palermo, &c.

distance from Boulogne to Brindisi is about Railway Routes are-via France and Mont Cenis

1,340 miles, as follows:or Marseilles; via Switzerland and the St. Gothard

Miles or Germany and the Brenner.

Boulogne to Paris .......................... 157 1. Through France. To Paris, Dijon, Châlon

Paris, via Mont Cenis, to Tarin, sur-Saône, to Mâcon; hence, for Mont Cenis, to


497 Ambérieu, Culoz, Chambéry, St. Michel, Modane,

Turin to Bologna and Ancona ... 326
Cenis Tunnel, Turin: thence to Milan, Bologna,

Ancona to Brindisi, about ......... 346
Genoa, &c. See Skeleton Route, page xxxvi.
Or, Paris to Lyons and Marseilles, for Nice, &c.,

The Indian Mail leaving London on Friday and the Riviera to Genoa.

evening, has attached to it a Sleeping Car, from 2. Through Germany. To Brussels, Liége, Ver

Calais, for Overland travellers holding through viers, Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Mayence, Aschaf

tickets : due Monday, at 1-5 a.m. The Mail fenburg, Munich, Rosenheim, Kufstein, Innsbruck,

steamer tea ves Brindisi at 4 a.m., and is due at Brenner Pass, Brixen, Botzen (or Bolzano), Ala,

Port Said on Thursday. Parties who do not like Verona; and thence to Venice, Milan, Padua,

night travelling may break the journey here and Bologna, &c. At Venice the Peninsular and

there by starting a few days earlier. Baggage Oriental Steamers may be taken, in connection

is examined at Modane. Through fares, first class, with Ancona and Brindisi. Or, through Germany

a little over £12. Refreshment buffets at most of and Switzerland, viâ the new St. Gothard Tunnel.

the places mentioned above. For particulars of

either the French or Germar Routes see Hand. 3. Through Switzerland, To Calais, Basle (direct

Book of Information compiled by the Agents for train avoiding Paris), Lucerne, and the St. Gothard

the South Italian Rail. Baggage on the Brenner to Milan. Or Steamer to Antwerp, Rail to Brus

Route is examined at Cologne, Kufstein, and Ala. sels, Luxembourg, Strassburg, and Basle, thence as above.See Bradshaw's Continental Guide.

Railways in Italy.-A railway is called "straOther Routes are as follow:

da ferrata," and "ferrovia;" or "strade ferrate," • 4. To Paris, Lyons, Marseilles; and by steamers and “ferrovie," in the plural. See Bradshaw's to Genoa, Leghorn, Civita Vecchia; or Marseilles Continental Guide for a complete list, with times, by rail, to Nice, Genoa, &c.

distances, fares, &c. Some are single lines5. To Paris, Geneva, Martigny, Great Saint Ber

as the lines to Susa, Cuneo, Voltri, &c. The oldest nard, Aosta, Turin. About 40 hours of actual

is Naples to Castellammare, opened 30th Novemtravelling, to Martigny, under Mont Blanc.

ber, 1839. 6. To Paris, Geneva, the Simplon, Lake Mag

At the end of 1885 there were 6,167 miles open ; giore, Milan.

and 18,135 miles of telegraph. The rails are in 7. Up the Rhine, Båle, Lucerne, the St. Gothard

the hands of the Government, and are divided unto Pass or Tunnel, Lake Maggiore, Milan, or Lake

the Rete Mediterranea, Rete Adriatica, and Rete Como and Milan.

Sicula. Submarine cables are laid from Otranto to 8. The Rhine, Bâle, Lucerne, Coire, the Splügen,

Velona; from Marsala to La Calle, in Africa; Como, Milan, 9. Through the Tyrol, by Innsbruck, the Enga

Spezia to Corsica; Cagliari to Bône and Malta. dine. Stelvio, and other Passes, to Trent, Lake

In the Italian Railway tables the prices are Garda, Verona, Milan, or Venicę.

given in "lire" and "centesimi" ("1." and "c."). The distances in chilometri," or kilometres i Guides-called "Ciceroni" (after Cicero), "ser("ch."). "Ant." (a.m.), signifies morning; "pom." vitori de piazza," "commissarj," "facchini," &c. (p.m.), afternoon; "arr." arrives; "diret."express; For 5 or 6 lire à day they will show all the sights. "misti." mixed; "tragetto in ore," time in hours; Mr. Laing says: "A valet de place, cicerone, or “diligenze, "coaches. Passengers should look after bear-leader, is a very useful personage, provided he their change at the stations.

is intelligent, and provided you never take him Luggage. "Effetti di viaggiatore," may be with you. If you do, you are the party fairly enbooked and forwarded by rail. There is no free titled to be paid for the day's work, for you have allowance of baggage in Italy. For example, the fatigue of listening to a rigmarole of names from Modane to Brindisi the charge is 3s. 5d. per and phrases that would tire the patient ear of any 20 lbs. There is, however, no charge for a small of his marble statues. But consult him in the hand-bag, weighing not more than 4410., maximum morning before you sally forth, as a kind of twosize, 20 X 10 X 12 inches. Revolvers are liable legged dictionary; get all the information you can to be confiscated. It is not safe to put valuables out of him about what you intend to see, and the among ordinary luggage.

way to it; pluck him and leave him at home; and Carriage Travelling.-A "Vetturino" is the the goose is worth his price."--Notes of a Traveller driver of a “vettura," or two-horse carriage. It (Traveller's Library). takes four in and one out, and will do 25 to 30 miles Churches, which are generally the principal oba day, at a cost of about 30 to 40 francs, besides jects of notice, are usually shut from 12 to 3. 3 or 4 francs, "buona mano,' to driver.

Chiesa," is a church. “Custode," a person in A "Calesso," is à véhicle for two persons; charge. "Pinacoteca," a picturegallery. "Palazzo," charge, about 8 d. a mile. "Calessino," "caret a palace, or family town house. "Piazza," an tino," and "corricolo" are names for a light vehicle. open place. "Si äfitta," means "to let."

Post Travelling costs about 9d. to 100. a mile, Turpentine or Condy's Fluid is good for the including postilion and ostler. A post is from 7 to sting of a wasp, or mosquito bite. Vinegar 9 English miles.

dropped on a hot poker is good for bad smells.

II.-SKETCH OF ITALY. ITALY, or "L'ITALIA," between lat. 461° N. in the

POLITICAL FEATURES. Alps, to 360° in Sicily, and between long. 64o E, at Before the revolutions of 1859-60, the divisions of Mont Cenis, to 1810 at Otranto, is a boot-shaped the Peninsula were as follow, comprising twelve or Peninsula, stretching about 500 miles into the thirteen States, and seven principal Governments. Mediterranean Sea, from the basin of the Po; 1 SARDINIAN STATES; LOMBARDO-VENETO Kingwhich forms its northern division, and lies between dom (from the Ticino eastward); Duchy of PARMA; the Alps and Apennines, in a trough, 250 miles Duchy of MODENA and MASSA CARRARA; Tusby 50. It is bordered on the west by France, CANY and LUCCA; STATES OF THE CHURCH, includor "La Francia," and the Maritime Alps. On the ing the Romagna, Marches, &c.; Kingdom of north by Switzerland, or "La Svizzera," and by NAPLES and SICILY; Principality of MONACO, the Swiss and Tyrolese Alps. On the south and and Republic of SAN MARINO, both independenteast by the Mediterranean Sea ("Mare Mediter the former now surrounded by French territory. raneo") and the Adriatic Gulf (“Mare Adriatico.") The Austro-Venetian territory, before its cession, Part of the Mediterranean, between the mainland 1866, was, by the treaty of Villafranca, confined to and Sardinia, is the “Mare Tirreno," or Tyrrhe the tract from the Mincio eastward to the Adriatic, nian Sea; and that part at the mouth of the including Mantua, Verona, Vicenza, and Padua. Adriatic is "Mare Jonio," or Ionian Sea.

The four fortresses of Mantua, Peschiera, Verona, “Up to mid thigh I stand, nor ever stir,

and Legnano, lying close together, constituted the Deep in the water, yet am just as sound;

famous Quadrilateral, I'm good for sporting, good to wear the spur,

The former Papal States, "Stati Pontifici," were As many asses to their cost have found.

restricted to the Delegations of Rome, Comarca, All stretch'd compact and firm by vigorous needle, Viterbo, Civita Vecchia, Velletri, and Frosinone; With hem at top, and seam straight down the middle." Giusti's I Stivale (the Boot), translated

a space about 100 miles by 40. These, with his in Macmillan's Magazine.

old possessions, which the Pope still pretends to The territories of geographical Italy, as dis claim, viz.;-Umbria, Romagna, and the Marches, tinguished from political Italy, are encroached made up a total population of three millions. upon by its neighbours. The province of Nice was The Kingdom of Italy, now consolidated into transferred to France, 1860, followed by Savoy, in one united state, under the constitutional rule of 1866. Parts of the Swiss Cantons of Tessin, or Humbert I., son of Victor Emmanuel, is formed u Ticino," and the Grisons, or "Grigioné," stretch | by the union of the Sardinian States, with Lom. down the Italian slope of the Alps to Lake bardy, Parma, Modena, and part of the Papal Maggiore, &c. Tyrol, or “Tirolo," belonging to states, added in 1859; Tuscany, Umbria, the Austria, comes down to Lake Garda. · Corsica, Marches, Naplese and Sicily, added in 1860; which is geographically a part of Italy, belongs to Venetia, added 1866; and the rest of the Papal nce; and Malta, to England.

| States, added 1870 making about 115,000 square

miles, with 264 millions of inhabitants, increased

DEPARTMENTS-Continued. to 284 millions in 1882. It numbers 69 provinces,

Population, as below, each under a Prefect, and divided

1881. into Circondarii or Circuits, Mandimenti or Dele

ROMA (LATIUM) ..................... 903,472 gations, and Communi or Communes. The Italian colours are red, white, and green, with the white

ABRUZZI.................................. 1,817,215 cross of Savoy.

Containing the Provinces of-Chieti; Colonies.- Italy has for some time been de Teramo; Aquila: Campobasso. sirous of obtaining colonial possessions, and is

CAMPANIA ................................ 2,896,577 believed to entertain designs on Tripoli and Barca, in the event of the dismemberment of the Turkish

Containing the Provinces of-Benevento; empire. The practical annexation of Tunis by

Napoli; Salerno; Avellino; Caserta. France in 1881-2 caused great excitement. In

PUGLIA ................................. 1,589,064 1885 the Italians, favoured by the English govern

Containing the Provinces of-Foggia; ment, formally garrisoned Massowah on the Red

Bari; Lecce. Sea, they havirg for some years held possession of Asab Bay, in the Danakil country, further to

BASILICATA ........ .................. 524,504 the south. These places cannot as yet be said to

Containing the Province of Potenza. have added to the national prosperity or resources.

CALABRIA .............................. 1,257,883 Population.-Including the Íslands of Sar

Containing the Provinces of-Cosenza; dinia, Sicily, Elba, &c. (From the Almanach de

Reggio (Calabria); Catanzaro. Gotha).

SICILIA ................................. 2,927,901



Containing the Provinces of-Caltani

setta; Catania; Girgenti; Messina ; PIEMONTE ........................... 3,070,250

Palermo, Siracusa; Trapani. Containing the Provinces of- Alessandria ; Coni; Novara; Torino.

Total population, 1881 ........... 28,459,628 LIGURIA ..............

...... 892,378 Contating the Provinces of-Genoa;

Population in 1861 ............ 25,023,810 Porto Maurizio. SARDEGNA ......

Population in 1871 ............ 26,801,854 Containing the Provinces of-Cagliari;

The estimated population for 1884 was 29,361,030. Sassari,

The ratio of excess of births over deaths and the LOMBARDIA ..........

............. 3,680,615 number of marriages are increasing, and the inContaining the Provinces of-Bergamo;

crease of the population in the great industrial Brescia; Como; Cremona; Mantua;

centres is very marked. Milano; Pavia; Sondrio.

Besides the resident population there are about VENEZIA ......................................

| 1.000.000 Italians abroad, mostly in America and Containing the Provinces of-Belluno:

Europe. From 120,000 to 170,000 (1884, 147,000)

annually leave the country, more than half for Padua; Rovigo; Treviso; Udine; Venezia; Verona ; Vicenza.

other European countries, the rest chiefly to South

EMILIA OR ROMAGNA ............... 2,183,391

The number of persons of both sexes engaged in Containing the Provinces of-Bologna:

agriculture, including children over nine years Ferrara; Forli; Modena; Parma; Pia

(678,042), was in 1881 9,169,215; in day labour cenza; Ravenna; Reggio (in Emilia).

and industrial occupations, including mining, and LE MARCHE

939,279 inclusive of children (318,168), was 4,683,724; priContaining the Provinces of-Ancona ;

soners and beggars amounted to 134,800. Those

without business, trade, or declared occupation Ascoli Piceno; Macerata; Pesaro ed

amounted to 9,442,976. Of these, 2,172,440 were Urbino.

between nine and fourteen years. There are no UMBRIA ............... ........... 572,060 definite statistics as to religious belief. From Containing the Province of Perugia.

questions addressed in 1881 to ministers of Re

formed churches and rabbis, it would appear that TOSCANIA .............................. 2,208,869

there are only about 62,000 protestants (22,000 in Contáining the Provinces ofArezzo;

the Vaudois valleys) and 38,000 Jews. A conFirenze; Grosseto; Leghorn; Lucca;

siderable proportion in the large cities profess no Massa e Carrara; Pisa; Siena,

religious belief,

...... 682,002


Corsica, with its semi-Italian population of a There are forty Normal schools, and a few Asili quarter of a million, has been annexed to France | Infantilli, or infant schools. since 1770.

Rome, to which the government was removed Italy contains many large cities, the most popu from Florence in June, 1871, is now the capital lous of which are as below:

of the consolidated kingdom of Italy. Here the Pop. 1881. 1

Pop. 1881.

Houses of Parliament, consisting of a Senate and Naples............. 494,315 Ferrara ......... 28,815

Chamber of Deputies, now assemble. The Chamber Milan .............. .... 321,840 Lucca......... ..... 20,420

of Deputies numbers about 508 members; the Rome ............ 300,470 Verona ........

Senate, 270. Palermo............ 244,990 Padua

47,335 There are forty-five archbishops, and 153 Turin ............ 252,835 | Alessandria ...... 30,760

bishops; or 198 dioceses in all. The peculiar priviFlorence ......... 169,000 Modena ......... 31,066

leges of the clergy were abolished by Statute in Genoa ............ 179,515 Bari ...... 58,265

1861. Venice............ 132,830

Pisa ........


One effect of the consolidation of the different Bologna ......... 123,275 Ancona ...... 28,560

governments, and the removal of the custom-houses, Messina ......... 126,500 Parma ........ 44,495

has been a rise in the price of provisions, in conCatania .......... 100,420 Brescia ............ 43,355

sequence of the increased demand. Taxes are Leghorn ......... 97,620 Modica ............. 38,390

high all over the country. House rent, in Rome,

Florence, Milan, Turin, &c., has increased, in some The above are the populations of the communes,

instances, as much as one-third. The Income tax which do not differ much from those of the towns. is 134 per cent.; property tax, 34 per cent. At The latter will be found under the respective the same time new villas are springing up near headings.

the towns; oil lamps are giving way to gas; old Income.-Income of the Kingdom of Italy, | houses are being repaired and cleaned; and grass 1887, about 644 millions sterling; not quite equal to is disappearing from the neglected streets. the Expenditure. The former deficit was partly A society for draining the southern provinces caused by bad tariffs and smuggling at the so has been formed under the Duke della Galliera. called free ports. The Public Debt amounts to Brigandage still prevails in some quarters, but 450 millions. The collection of the revenue absorbs I is yielding to the vigorous efforts of the 25 per cent. of the returns. The annual imports authorities to put it down. A great drawback is and exports between Italy and England amount the want of roads. In 1861, out of 1,850 communes to about 7 and 24 millions sterling. The maritime in the kingdom of Naples, two-thirds were without trade gives employment to 945,700 tons of ship- roads. At Naples, the lazzaroni are made to work ping, or nearly 7,290 vessels, manned by 189,900 on the rail ; and the facchini, or porters, here and seamen.

elsewhere, are put under better regulation. ProArmy.The regular army (1887) numbers about vision is made for the gradual suppression of all 896,470 men; including five regiments of ber the monasteries and convents, where the inmates saglieri, or light infantry, recruited in the Alpine are not employed in preaching, education, or the valleys; and ninety batteries of artillery. "Leva," care of the sick. means the conscription. The war establishment is

NATURAL FEATURES OF ITALY. fixed at 2,590,170 men. A sum of 3 millions sterling Mountains.-The Alps take various names, as is devoted to the construction of new fortifications. the Maritime, Cottian, Pennine, Graian, Rhetian,

Navy.-About 76 steamers and iron-clads, of Carnic, Noric, and Julian Alps, ranging from 4,000 42,000 horse power and 480 guns, and manned to 15,000 feet high, in a circuit of 600 miles. by 15,100 seamen and marines.

Heights in round numbers of the chief Alpine Education. There are twenty Universities, passes and peaks:

Feet. some of which are reduced to colleges. The most Col di Tenda, near Nice .............. ... 6,160 important are those of Pisa, Turin, Pavia, and Monte Viso ......

.12,640 Naples.

Mont Cenis .........

6,770 Other places of education are the Colleges, called Little St. Bernard

. 7,120 Lyceums, the Gymnasiums or High Schools, and Mont Blanc ......

....15,780 the "Scuole Techniche" (Technical Institutions). Great St. Bernard ........

.. 8,130 In 1863, out of 7,730 communes, 7,390 had ele Matterhorn .........

.14,700 mentary schools, with 800,000 papils, the teachers

Pass (St. Theodule) .10,900 being ecclesiastics and nuns. Out of the whole Monte Rosa ..

.15,215 number, 300,000 were in Piedmont alone, with its Simplon ..

6,595 population of 31 millions; and only 126,000 in the St. Gothard

6,940 Neapolitan and Sicilian provinces, with their popu Bernhardin

6,770 lation of nearly 9 millions. Before the revolution, Splügen .......

6,945 Naples had hardly any schools, except some indif

Stelvio ................

9,175 ferent ones at the monasteries; but the people are Ortler Spitz ..............

12,815 quick and eager to learn. At Palermo there are Brenner (Austria) ........

4,650 about ninety-five schools, where there were only All the larger Lakes lie at the foot of the Cen. five before.

'tral Alps; soe next page for details.


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