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Robillante, in the picturesque valley of the From Turin (page 1), the first station is Vermenagna.
Moncalieri (Stat.), population, 10,000, and Limone, at the foot of the Col di Tenda, is about
its royal castle, of large red brick, a favourite seat 3.340 feet above the sea, and has a population of
of the King's, on the Po. At 3,160, many of whom are muleteers. About 3
Trofarello (Stat.), population, 1,242, WC hours east is the ancient Certosa (Carthusian house)
leave the Cuneo line, The Superga and the Alps di Pesio, now a hydropathic establishment, in a
to the north are in view, with glimpses of the warm and pleasant spot; and an excursion may be
Maritime Alps. The country on both sides is part made to the head of the Vermanagna, in a wild glen,
of the old Marquisate of Montferrat, which merged and the Abisso, 9,193 feet high. At Limone, the
into the Duchy of Savoy, in 1620. ascent of the Col begins, over the Maritime Alps, by
(A short line, 5 miles, to a narrow winding carriage road, full of sharp zig
Chieri (population, 15,500), with its large Gothic zags, made by Vittore Amadeo IV. The summit is
Church of Santa Maria della Scala. An old place, about 6,160 feet high, and commands a fine view of
with silk and cotton factories.] the Western Alps, with a glimpse of the Mediter
Asti (Stat.), the ancient Hasta Pompeia, on the ranean. Here is the limit of the Apennines on one
Tanaro, at its confluence with the Borbore. Populaside, covered with green to their summits, and of
tion, 17,340. Branch lines to Alba (Route 3), and the Alps on the other side, as marked by a combina
to Casale (Route 5), and Milan. tion of snow or ice, with rock. Another long series
Inns: Albergo Reale. of zig-zags leads down from the Col through the
This is the capital of a province, and the centre valley of the Roja, to
of one of the best wines of Italy, the Vino d'Asti, Tenda (population, 1,734). An old castle of
both red and sparkling white; it is also noted for
truffles and silk goods, and has some mineral Beatrice di Tenda. Pass the old abbey and Hydropathic house of s. Dalmazzo; then Fontan, on the
Among the buildings are the large Gothic Cathenew French boundary, where passports are asked. The scenery is romantic, especially about the detile
dral, on the site of a Temple of Diana, built of Saorgio, on the Roja, which forms the French
1348, with paintings by Carloni, Pozzi, &c.; the boundary down to Ventimiglia, since the annexa
Churches of S. Pietro in Concava and S. Secondo tion of the country of Nice.
(Gothic); S. Giovanne, with a 6th century crypt;
S. Pietro, eight-sided; and the Trinco, Massetti, Giandola, ncar the Col de Brouis, which rises and Alficri Palaces, in the last of which Alfieri, the and falls about 1,500 feet.
poet, was born, 1749; they show his room, with his Sospello (population, 3,600), on the Bevera, a portrait and autograph. His statue is here. The branch of the Roja.
site of the old walls and one hundred towers uf Hotel: Cárenco.
Asti is now covered with gardens. Itis so ancient Here the road rises again to surmount a third | as to have been taken by Hannibal. ridge, the Col de Braus, 3,300 feet high. The next Felizzano (Stat.), on the Tanaro. Further place is
down this stream which it crosses by a viaduct on Scarena, on the Paglione. Population, 2,000.
fifteen arches, is Nice (Stat.) (See Bradshaw's Hand-Book to
ALESSANDRIA (Stat.), · France.)
About half-way to Genoa, and the centre of various
lines which strike off to Novara, Pavia, Milan, ROUTE 4.
Piacenza, and Acqui.
Hotels: Europa; L'Universo.
Miles. This is the capital of a province, a city, and a
fortress of the first class, on the confines of the Trofarello
Marquisates of Montferrat and Pavezano, at the Villanova ...19 Serravalle
761 junction of the Tanaro and Bormida, built by the Baldichieri ......... Arquata .......
Lombard League of free towns, 1168, as a barrier San Damiano .........31 Ronco
againstthe Ghibeline party ofthe Emperor Frederick Asti......... .............. 35 Busalla........
Barbarossa. It was named after Pope Alexander (Branches to Alba and Pontedecimo ....... 971
III., the head of the Guelph party. When the
Emperor tried to take it in 1174, his soldiers nickAnnone ....
S. Pier d'Arena ......104 named it Alessandria della Paglia, or straw AlexFelizzano
andria, because its houses were covered with straw; Alessandria ............564
but it was able to drive them off after a four months' By rail, commenced in 1848, and opened through- siege. It is still one of the strongest military out in 1854, at a cost of 54 millions sterling. Time, | forts in Italy, though nothing but the Great Citadel, about 44 hours. There are some tunnels on this built 1728, by Vittore Amadeo II. remains; the line, one of which, through the Apennines, is 2 miles | fortifications added by Napoleon, having been razed long; and several viaducts, some rather lofty. I by the Treaty of Vienna. The flat country around
is often inundated by the rain, and can be put under | still found useful in curing gout, rheumatism, water by the sluices of the Citadel. A new covered paralysis, &c. Population, 10,000. There are some bridge crosses the Tanaro. The Citadel, like the arches of an aqueduct; with a cathedral of the houses, is built of brick, and its ramparts serve as twelfth century, and a theatre. a promenade, for the April and October fair, when
In the middle ages Acqui was the capital of a good deal of business is done. During the present
Upper Montferrat; a district rich in corn, wine, reign, and since the war with Austria, great pains
silk, cattle, &c., and giving name to the country have been taken to strengthen this fortress, The
dance, called Montredina. other buildings are a Cathedral (Parodi's statue of St. Joseph); S. Lorenzo's Church, with its paint
1 Passing Bistagno, where the two heads of the ings by the Pozzi; Town House, Theatre, Hospital,
Bormida join, follow the road for 28 miles, to and the Ghilino Palace, belonging to the King, Dego, where Bonaparte beat the Allies, in 1796, and erected by Alfieri.
after defeating them at Montenotte, near the Col of "I chanced to pass (says Count Arrivabene) that name, higher up; over which the old road to through Alessandria, so full of glorious recollec Savona used to pass, until superseded by a more tions for a Bonaparte, on the day on which Louis easy one, constructed in 1800, between Altare and Napoleon made his entry in 1859. Triumphal Cadibona. By this the descent of the Apennines is arches had been thrown across the streets. At the made to the Riviera and Savona, about 25 miles gate of Porta Marengo, which leads to the famous from Dego. But the most direct way to Savona, field of battle, made illustrious by the First Consul, now, is by the rail as above, which falls into the anarch had been erected, on which was emblazoned main line from Turin, at S. Giuseppe de Cairo in tri-coloured letters, -To the descendant of the (Stat.), as in Route 3. For Savona see page 21. Conqueror of Marengo, Victor Emmanuel had gone to meet the Emperor. The gay and busy appear
Leaving Alessandria, the next station on the ance of Alessandria at that time contrasted
main line, is singularly with the stern severity of its old
Frugarolo (Stat.), population, 2,494, near palaces and half decayed mediæval churches." which is the richly endowed Benedictine Abbey of Ratazzi, the statesman, was born at this town.
Bosco, with its sculptures by M. Angelo; but the
country is flat and dull. MARENGO,
Novi (Stat.) Under the north side of the The site of the battle which Bonaparte lost and
Apennines, is a retreat for the Genoese merchants won, 14th June, 1800, is 23 miles east, on the wide
in autumn, and commands from its old tower and plain of S. Giuliano, dotted with willows. At three
country houses a fine prospect of the distant Alps. o'clock, he was beaten by the Austrians, and their
Population, 11,450. old General, Melas, had come to Alessandria after sending off news of his victory; when, at this crisis,
Hotels : L'Europa; Aquila Nera. Dessaix arrived with 6,000 fresh troops, attacked
Its white silk is of excellent quality. Here the the enemy, and, though mortally wounded, turned
French were defeated by the Austrians and the day. Kellerman. by a brilliant charge of his
Russians, in 1796, and General Joubert killed. cavalry, cut the Austrian infantry in two, drove | From Novi, before the railway was made, the their cavalry in flight to the Bormida, and took | old road went over the Ligurian Apennines, by the Zach, who was left in authority, prisoner. The Col della Bochetta, past Gavi and Voltaggio, and a total Austrian loss was 12,000; and that of the succession of gorges and ravines. The highest French, 7,000; but the Convention of Alessandria, part of the Col is about 2,500 feet above the level a few days later, put them in possession of all ot the Mediterranean. It was crossed by the North Italy. A building has been erected on the French in 1796. The Valley of Polceverra, site, which contains a Museum of every object of between this and the sea, a wild and desolate spot interest found on the field of battle.
till reclaimed by the Genoese, is now covered with For the rails to Novara, Pavia, and Milan, and groves of chestnut, ilex, arbutus, vineyards, to Piacenza see page 11, and Routes 14 and 15. gardens, country houses, though it is apt to suffer
From Alessandria, a branch rail ascends the from floods. The railway froni Novi passes Bormida, following the track of the Via Aurelia
Serravalle (Stat.), on to Posthuma, to Acqui and Savona. The stations
Arquata (Stat.), population, 2,795, where are : Miles.
the tunnels or galleries, and viaducts, for Borgoratto............ Spigno .................... 38
penetrating the Apennines, begin, at the summit Sezze
level of the line. Between this and Ronco are, Rocchetta ............ 471 Strevi
first of all, an embankment in a ravine, 33 yards S.Giuseppe de Cairo 521 Acqui .. 213
high; then Pietra Bisdara Tunnel, 750 yards; a Santuario Pouti
viaduct, 330 yards long, 33 high, crossing a .......... 30 Savona...
mountain torrent, 44 yards wide; Isola del ACQUI (Stat.),
Cantone Viaduct, 275 yards long, and 28 bigh; and On the Bormida, is the Roman Acquce Statiello, so then two tunnels, of 922 yards and 484 yards, and called from the tribe of Statielli, whose town it that of Villavechia, in the heart of some roniantic was, and from the hot mineral springs which are scenery. The next stations are
Ronco (Stat.), population, 3,104, and
S. Giulietta (Stat.), Busalla (Stat.) Population, 2,734. A small Broni (Stat.), population, 4,814, and village, where the Giove Tunnel, the greatest on
Stradella (Stat.), population, 7,200, all the line, begins, 3,410 yards long. The rise from
stand in a well cultivated though flat country, Alessandria to Arquata is 293 yards, and the fall
planted with mulberry trees. The borders of the hence to Genoa is 379 yards. Two bridges, four
old Duchy of Parma are close by. tunnels, or galleries, through Monte Armirotti, bring the line down to
[Short line to Pavia, 20 miles.] Ponte Decimo (Stat.), population, 3,870,
Arena Po (Stat.), population, 3,426. in the Polceverra Valley, on the Mediterranean San Nicolò (Stat.) and side of the mountains. Here, as elsewhere, strong
Piacenza (Stat.), at the junction with the embankments are used to protect the rail from the
main line towards the south. (See Route 15). effects of the torrents. The traveller now finds himself in a new and Italian climate, under which
ROUTE 5. oranges, peaches, apricots, and myrtles flourish in early spring, with a sunny, cloudless sky. It
Turin to Chivasso, Vercelli, Valenza, passes 8. Quirico, &c., and Sampierdarena, or
Novara, Magenta, and Milan.
Miles, palaces, and a tobacco factory. Then by the
Vercelli................. 45 Š. Lazzaro Tunnel, or gallery, under Monte S.
Borgo Vercelli ... 480 Benigno, to the suburb of Della Grazie, and the
Ponzana ............ 52 Genoa terminus, close to Piazza Acquaverde. Torazza........
18 Novara (Buffet) ... (See Route 9.)
Salluggia ..... 214 Trecate ..........
723 Alessandria to Piacenza.
811 Tortona .............. 131 s. Giulietta ......... 33 San Germano ...... 37 Milan .......
90 Pontecurone ...... 19% | Broni .....
This route follows the north side of the Po, as Voghera ............ 243 | Stradella....
40 far as Chivasso, and is at the foot of the Alps, all [Branch to Pavia Arena Po
the way. Two short branches not far from Turin and Milan].
555 -One at Venaria Reale (Stat.) goes off to Ciriè Casteggio ............ 294 | Piacenza ... .......... 601 (Stat.), 13 miles, and Lanzo (Stat.), 20 miles; Leaving Alessandria, the line crosses the Servia
Another goes off to Rivarolo (Stat.), 14 miles; to
connected by omnibus service with their neighTortona (Stat.) Population, 13,218. A
bourhoods. bishop's see, on a hill in a fertile plain, with a
Leaving the terminus, the Superga is seen on the cathedral, a new theatre, college, and several
right, and after crossing the Stura, we reach churches. The cathedral contains an ancient bas | Settimo (Stat.) or Settimo Torinese (popurelief of the downfall of Phaëton, with inscriptionslation, 3,664), the Roman Ad Septimam, at the in Greek. It was the ancient Dertona, and joined seventh mile from Augusta Taurinorum. Cross the Lombard League. Here a branch to Novi, on the Orco before reaching the main line towards Genoa, falls in. The field
Chivasso (Stat.) Population, 8,781.-An old of Marengo is to the west (see page 9). Pass the
place, formerly the seat of the Marquises of MontCurone to
ferrat, whose ruined castle is here, with a church of Pontecurone (Stat.) Population, 2,579. the fifteenth century. The fortifications were Voghera (Stat.) Population, 13,201. –
razed by the French in 1804. Good lampreys Another bishop's see, and the ancient Vicus Iriae,
here. Here the rail to Ivrea and Aosta, and the near the borders of the old Duchy of Piacenza.
routes to Mount Iseran and the back of Mont It was bought of the Pozzo family by Carlo Blanc, are taken. (See Route 6.) Emanuele I., and is now in the province of Pavia. [Branch line, 304 miles, down the Po, to Casale. The cathedral is a good building of the seventeenth The first place of any importance is century, and has paintings by S. Crespi.
Crescentino, 13 miles, after crossing the Dora Casteggio (Stat.), population, 3,214, near
Baltea. There are Roman remains near it. Poputhe Coppia, a branch of the Po. The ancient
lation, 2,800. On the opposite side of the Po is clastidium, a Roman town burnt by Hannibal,
Verna (population, 2,850), on a hill; once fortiwhose name is perpetuated in one of the town
fied, but dismantled by the French. fountains. At Montebello, near this, Lannes
Trino, 11 miles, in a tract of low, swampy, mesfought the battle of 9th June, 1800, against the
dow land; has a population of 9,500, and is famous Austrians, from which he acquired the title of
for its cattle and hams. Duke of Montebello.
Cross the Po to Casale,
1 restored in 1823. Here is a very ancient vellum The capital of the province and old Marquisate of
MS. of the Gospels in Latin, by Eusebius, Bishop Montferrat, and a strong military post, containing
of Vercelli in the fourth century; it is bound in
silver. The churches of St. Cristoforo, Santa the ancient Casale, or fortified house of the family,
Caterina, and S. Bernardino, have frescoes by from which it gets its name, and the Orologio
Ferrari. Tower. It stands on the cross rail between Ales
The old Church of Santa Maria Maggiore has a sandria and Vercelli. Population, 17,096. Many
curious mosaic pavement; S. Andrea is an old Jews are established here, and there is a good
Lombardo-Gothic building, founded in 1219-22, by trade in silk-twist, wine, and rice. Among the
Cardinal Bicchieri, Papal legate to King John of public buildings are the Duomo or Cathedral, in
England, with a detached bell tower, or campanile. the Lombard style of the tenth century, with G.
The doors and windows are round-headed, but the Ferrari's Baptism of Christ and the statue of
pointed arch appears in the nave. It is said to be Bernini; Santa Caterina's Church and its paintings;
nearly the oldest specimen of this style in Italy, S. Domenica, founded by the Palaeologus family,
and to have been designed by an Englishman whose tomb is here; a theatre, prefettura, college,
Brigwithe, the arrangement being similar to and some old palaces, including Della Valle, which
Buildwas and Kirkstall Abbeys. There are a has some of G, Romano's frescoes. Railways to
town house, theatre, Jarge old hospital; the Tizzini, Vercelli, Valenza, Asti, Mortara, Milan, Pavia, and
Motta, A sigliano, and Gattinara palaces, with Alessandria.
pictures and frescoes; a statue of Cavour; and the A line from Casale, across the Po, through flat,
Victor Emmanuel pillar. unhealthy, rice fields, to Mortara (popula
In 1859, as early as the 5th of March, General tion, 6,844), on the cross rails from Novara to
Gyulai, the Austrian commander, had concentrated Alessandria, and from Pavia to Vercelli. From
numerous troops here, on the right bank of the Mortara to Vigevano (population, 13,684),
Sesia, thus threatening the line of the Dora-Baltea which has a Gothic cathedral and old castle.
and the town of Toreo; they also occupied Trino Cross the Ticino to Abbiategrosso, in Lom
and Gattinara, with the intention of getting posbardy; thence to Milan
session of Turin by a coup de main. In this they About 10 miles south-west of Casale, on the line
were frustrated by the concentration of the allied to Asti, is
French and Sardinian armies, and after wasting at.), population, 4,007, the
time in useless and feeble demonstrations they birth-place of Caccia, the painter, some of whose
were compelled to retreat, and the campaign was works are at the Franciscan Convent. About
lost to them. They were also defeated at Palestra, 15 miles from Moncalvo is Asti, see page 9.]
a small village three miles east of Vercelli, which After Chivasso, on the Milan Railway, we cross
slopes down towards the Sesia, and had been the Dora Baltea. On the right of the Po is Montea
strongly fortified by the Austrian general, Zobel, del Po, the site of the Roman Industria, on a hill,
on 30th May. It was held by a Bohemian division and soon after Monte Rosa and the Matterhorn
and two battalions of Tyrolese sharpshooters, with come into view in the Alps on the left.
twenty field pieces and four howitzers. The At Leri, near this, was the country seat of
ground being still muddy, from the rain of the Cavour, to which he retired upon his resignation
previous night, it was difficult to take the position in 1859; though he continued to advise the men
by assault. However, after a hard fight of two in power, and to answer the telegraphic despatches
hours and a half, it was carried at the point of the sent to him daily from all parts of Italy. He rosc
bayonet; and the Austrians were routed, and comat 3 a.m., and after despatching letters, wert
pelled to retreat on Bobbio and Mortara, with the to his farm, and there received visitors, or con
loss of two guns and many killed and wounded. salted with the numerous able and patriotic men
Thus their first battle was their first victory," as who from him learnt to guide the destinies of
Victor Emmanuel announced to his army in his Italy.
order of the day. Zobel attempted to retake Santhià (Stat.) Population, 5,065. Here a
Palestro the day after, but was again thoroughly railway of 18 miles runs up the side of the hills to
beaten, the king himself leading the attacking Biella in 1 hour, passing Sallussola and three
column in the thick of the action. Several of the other stations. (See Route 7.)
officers of his staff were wounded. His heroism VERCELLI (Stat.)
made such an impression on the third regiment of The ancient Vercellæ, ou the River Sesia. Popu Zouaves that they elected him their corporal, an lation, 20,165.
honour similar to that paid to Bonaparte after the Hotels : Leone d'Oro; Posta; Tre Re.
battle of Montenotte. This is a very ancient town of Cisalpine Gaul, [Here a railway branches off to Valenza, 26 near which Marius defeated the Cimbri, 101 B.C. miles. The stations are: It is now somewhat decayed, and stands among
Miles unhealthy rice fields, at the junction of the Cerro | Asigliano ...
5 Borgo S. Martino... 18 with the Sesia, with a fine prospect of the Alps. Pertengo.
Giarole ............... 217 The Duomo, built by P. Ribaldi in the sixteenth
261 century, with a vestibule added by Alfieri, was | Casale ....
At Valenza it joins the line from Milan to Ales- | far from the Ponte Nuovo Bridge for the post road, sandria.)
1,000 feet long, on eleven stone arches, begun by Alter passing Borgo Vercelli (Stat.), popu the French, 1810, and finished, 1827. The Austrians lation 2,500, and Ponzana (Stat.), in a wide tried to blow it up in 1859, on their retreat, before rice level, in full view of Monte Rosa, we reach the battle of Magenta. After this comes the Mag
giore Grande, a canal of the thirteenth century, cut NOVARA (Stat.),
from Lago Maggiore to Milan; then follows On a hill by the River Agogna. Population, 15,235. Hotels : Italia del la Villa ; Antico.
MAGENTA (Stat.) This ancient town, the Roman Novaria, once Population, 6,050. The ancient Maxentia, the site fortified by 2 miles of ramparts, still retains some of the famous battle of 4th June, 1859; with a remnants of its walls and towers. The Duomo monument to mark the spot, erected in 1872. The was an early Lombard building, on the site of position of the Austrians is described by Count a basilica or temple, but it has been much altered Arrivabene:in the course of restoration. The portico which If, on crossing the Ticino, we place ourselves replaces the atrium contains several inscriptions;
at the extremity of the Bridge of Buffalora, the in the vestibule is the monument of C. Solari or
heights on which the hamlet of Buffalora stands Gobbo. The baptistery is eight-sided and crowned are on our left, the Ponte Nuovo of Magenta in the with a dome. Within are Thorwaldsen's Angels (at
centre, and the old bridge to our right. We see the altar), and paintings by G. Ferrari, Bordone,
that the ridge which formed the Austrian position &c. St. Gaudenzio's Church, rebuilt in the tenth is a sort of bow, whose arrow would be the road. century by P. Pellegrini, has frescoes, &c., by On each side of this road the ground is covered Ferrari, Caccia, &c. At S. Pietro al Rosario and
with cornfields, vineyards, and groves of trees, and S. Marco are works by Procaccini and others. intersected by several streams which pour their The Palazzo di Giustizia was built 1346. The
waters into the meadows where rice is cultivated. Bellini, Leonardi, Giovanetti, and Falcone Palaces Robechetto, Castelleto, Induno, Santo Stefano, are worth notice. Other buildings are the large Buffalora (population 1,260), Magenta, Robeccomarket; the theatre, near Marchesi's statue of
all villages or small boroughs, of greater or less Carlo Emanuele III; a large Hospital; and Statues importance-are seen amidst that splendid scenery; of Carlo Alberto and Cavour.
some relieved against the background of the Alps, Bossi, the historian, and Prina, Napoleon's min which lift their majestic heads on the far horizon. ister at Milan (who was murdered, 1814), were In the valley, the road is elevated 20 or 30 feet natives of Novara. It is memorable for the battle above the fields, and rises still higher on its apof 23rd March, 1849, in which Radetzky, with proach to the eastern slopes. Finally it reaches 80,000 men and 200 guns, defeated Charles Altert, the table-land of the Lombard side, on the border of whose forces numbered only about half as many, which is carried the Naviglio Grande, whose waters with the loss of 10,000 killed and wounded. This run almost parallel with the Ticino. On approachdefeat led to the king's abdication the same even ing this plateau, the railway is seen emerging from ing, in the presence of his sons and generals, in the bank, about half a mile to the right." favour of Victor Emmanuel, then Duke of Savoy.
This well chosen position of the Austrians could He left the country immediately with only one servant, and returned to Oporto, where he died
only be approached by the central road above
mentioned, the railway on the right, or by a road 13th July, 1849. Several of his predecessors had
somewhat to the left, towards Buffalora; and could abdicated in like manner, among whom were Victor Amadeus, in 1730; Charles Emmanuel IV., in
not be commanded at any point. The Austriang
had 89,000 against 133,000 French; but the French 1802; and Victor Emmanuel I., in 1829.
had to cross a river to get at them. Gyulai's headIt is also celebrated for the victory gained by the quarters were at Abbiate Grosso with his left Sardinians and French Zouaves over the Austrians, / wing; his right was at Magenta, and main body 31 st May, 1859, which obliged them to retreat into between Abbiate Grosso and Robecco. His object Lombardy.
was to cut off the French from the bridges of San From Novara a line (opened 1883) passes through Martino and Buffalora, and to isolate those who Fara, Romagnano, Grignasco, &c., to Varallo had crossed the Ticino. On the 4th the French had (page 17).
| no definite knowledge of the position of the [The line from Mortara, &c., falls in at Novara, Austrians. MacMahon with his corps and the and is continued to Arona, 23 miles further, see Sardinian army marched from Turbigo on to BufRoute 8. From Novara, Lake Orta may be reached falora; Canrobert advanced by the right branch by a branch rail through Gozzano. This line is towards the Bridge of Buffalora, and Niel was being continued through Gravellona-Toce to ready to join from Trecate. Domo d'Ossola.)
Buffalora Bridge was the central point, where The next station to Novara is
the French laid a pontoon bridge close to a stone Trecate (population 6,203), a small town; after one which had been partly destroyed by the which the Ticino, the old boundary of Sardinia and Austrians. It was held for many hours, before Austrian Lombardy, is crossed by a viaduct, not 'Niel and Canrobert came, by the Imperial Guard.