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only on subjects connected with his favourite studies.
He died, much regretted by his friends, at his seat, A series of works, showing remarkable powers of Gatcomb Park, in Gloucestershire, on the 11th of thought, united to great earnestness in the cause of September 1823. evangelical religion, has proceeded from the pen
The Elements of Political Economy, by MR JAMES of Isaac Taylor, who is, we believe, gentleman MILL, the historian of India, 1821, were designed of fortune living in retirement. The first and most by the author as a school-book of the science. DR popular is the Natural History of Enthusiasm, 1829, WHATELY (afterwards Archbishop of Dublin) pubin which the author endeavours to show that the lished two introductory lectures, which, as professor subject of his essay is a new development of the of political economy, he had delivered to the unipowers of Christianity, and only bad when allied to versity of Oxford in 1831. This eminent person malign passions. It has been followed by Saturday is also author of a highly valued work, Elements of Evening, the Physical Theory of Another Life, &c. Logic, which has attained an extensive utility among The reasoning powers of this author are consider- young students ; Thoughts on Secondary Punishments, able, but the ordinary reader feels that he too often and other works, all displaying marks of a powermisexpends them on subjects which do not admit of ful intellect. A good elementary work, Conversadefinite conclusions.
tions on Political Economy, by Mrs MARCET, was published in 1827. The Rev. DR CHALMERS has
on various occasions supported the views of MalThere have been in this period several writers on thus, particularly in his work On Political Economy the subject of political economy, a science which in Connerion with the Moral Prospects of Society, 'treats of the formation, the distribution, and the 1832. He maintains that no human skill or labour consumption of wealth ; which teaches us the causes could make the produce of the soil increase at the which promote or prevent its increase, and their rate at which population would increase, and influence on the happiness or misery of society' therefore he urges the expediency of a restraint Adam Smith laid the foundations of this science; upon marriage, successfully inculcated upon the and as our commerce and population went on in- people as the very essence of morality and religion creasing, thereby augmenting the power of the de- by every pastor and instructor in the kingdom. mocratical part of our constitution, and the number Few clergymen would venture on such a task! of those who take an interest in the affairs of govern- Another zealous commentator is MR J. RAMSAY ment, political economy became a more important M'CULLOCH, author of Elements of Political Economy, and popular study. One of its greatest names is and of various contributions to the Edinburgh Rethat of the Rev. T. R. Malthus, an English clergy- view, which have spread more widely a knowledge man, and Fellow of Jesus college, Cambridge. Mr of the subject. Mr M'Culloch has also edited an Malthus was born of a good family in 1766, at his edition of Adam Smith, and compiled several useful father's estate in Surrey. In 1798 appeared his and able statistical works. celebrated work, an Essay on the Principle of Popu- The opponents of Malthus and the economists, lation as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society. though not numerous, have been determined and The principle here laid down is, that population active. Cobbett never ceased for years to inveigh has a tendency to increase faster than the means of against them. MR GODWIN came forward in 1821 subsistence. *Population not only rises to the level with an Inquiry Concerning the Power of Increase in of the present supply of food, but if you go on every the Numbers of Mankind, a treatise very unworthy year increasing the quantity of food, population goes the author of •Caleb Williams.' In 1830 MICHAEL on increasing at the same time, and so fast, that THOMAS SADLER published The Law of Populathe food is commonly still too small for the people.' tion : a Treatise in Disproof of the Superfecundity of After the publication of this work, Mr Malthus went | Human Beings, and Developing the Real Principle of abroad with Dr Clarke and some other friends ; and their Increase. A third volume to this work was in in the course of a tour through Sweden, Norway, preparation by the author when he died. Mr Finland, and part of Russia, he collected facts in Sadler (1780-1835) was a mercantile man, partner illustration of his theory. These he embodied in a in an establishment at Leeds. In 1829 he became second and greatly improved edition of his work, representative in parliament for the borough of which was published in 1803. The most important Newark, and distinguished himself by his speeches of his other works are, An Inquiry into the Nature against the removal of the Catholic disabilities and and Progress of Rent, 1815; and Principles of Poli- the Reform Bill. He also wrote a work on the tical Economy, 1820. Several pamphlets on the condition of Ireland. Mr Sadler was an ardent corn laws, the currency, and the poor laws, pro- benevolent man, an impracticable politician, and a ceeded from his pen. Mr Malthus was in 1805 forid speaker. His literary pursuits and oratorical appointed professor of modern history and political talents were honourable and graceful additions to economy in Hailey bury college, and he held the his character as a man of business, but in knowsituation till his death in 1836.
ledge and argument he was greatly inferior to MalMR David RICARDO (1772-1823) was author of thus and Ricardo. An Essay on the Distribution of several original and powerful treatises connected Wealth, and the Sources of Taxation, 1831, by the with political economy. His first was on the High Rev. RICHARD JONES, is chietly confined to the Price of Bullion, 1809; and he published succes- consideration of rent, as to which the author differs sively Proposals for an Economical and Secure Cur- from Ricardo. Me Nassau WILLIAM SENIOR, prorency, 1816; and Principles of Political Economy and fessor of political economy in the university of Taration, 1817. The latter work is considered Oxford in 1831, published Two Lectures on Populathe most important treatise on that science, with tion, and has also written pamphlets on the poor laws, the single exception of Smith's Wealth of Nations. the commutation of tithes, &c. He is the ablest of Mr Ricardo afterwards wrote pamphlets on the all the opponents of Malthus. Funding System, and on Protection to Agriculture. He had amassed great wealth as a stockbroker,
REVIEWS AND MAGAZINES. and retiring from business, he entered into parlia- In no department, more than in this, has the ment as representative for the small borough of character of our literature made a greater advance Portarlington. He seldom spoke in the house, and I during the last age. The reviews enumerated in
the Sixth Period continued to occupy public favour, 1833, under the title of 'Sacred Classics,' being rethough with small deservings, down to the beginning prints of celebrated authors whose labours have of this century, when a sudden and irrecoverable been devoted to the elucidation of the principles of eclipse came over them. The Edinburgh Review, revealed religion. Two clergymen (Mr Cattermole started in October 1802 under circumstances else- and Mr Stebbing) edited this library, and it was no where detailed, was a work entirely new in our bad index to their fitness for the office, that they literature, not only as brought talent of the first opened it with Jeremy Taylor's 'Liberty of Proorder to bear upon periodical criticism, but as it phesying,' one of the most able, high-spirited, and presented many original and brilliant disquisitions eloquent of theological or ethical treatises. "The on subjects of public concernment apart from all Edinburgh Cabinet Library,' commenced in 1830, consideration of the literary productions of the day, and still in progress (though not in regular interIt met with instant success of the most decided vals of a month between each volume), is chiefly kind, and it still occupies an important position in devoted to geographical and historical subjects. the English world of letters. As it was devoted to Among its contributors bave been Sir John Leslie, the support of Whig politics, the Tory or minis- Professors Jameson and Wallace, Mr Tytler, Mr terial party of the day soon felt a need for a simi- James Baillie Fraser, Professor Spalding, Mr Hugh lar organ of opinion on their side, and this led to Murray, Dr Crichton, Dr Russell, &c. The conthe establishment of the Quarterly Review in 1809. venience of the monthly mode of publication has The Quarterly has ever since kept abreast with its recommended it to both publishers and readers: northern rival in point of ability. The Westminster editions of the works of Scott, Miss Edgeworth, Review was established in 1824, by Mr Bentham and Byron, Crabbe, Moore, Southey, the fashionable his friends, as a medium for the representation of novels, &c. have been thus issued and circulated in Radical opinions. In point of talent this work has thousands. Old standard authors and grave hisbeen comparatively unequal.
torians, decked out in this gay monthly attire, have The same improvement which the Edinburgh also enjoyed a new lease of popularity: Boswell's Review originated in the critical class of periodicals Johnson, Shakspeare and the elder dramatists, was effected in the department of the magazines, Hume, Smollett, and Lingard, Tytler's Scotland, or literary miscellanies, by the establishment, in Cowper, Robert Hall, and almost innumerable other 1817, of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, which British worthies, have been so published. Those has been the exemplar of many other similar pub- libraries, however (notwithstanding the intentions lications—Fraser's, Tait's, the New Monthly, Me- and sanguine predictions of Constable), were chiefly tropolitan, &c.-presenting each month a melange supported by the more opulent and respectable of original articles in light literature, mingled with classes. To bring science and literature within the papers of political disquisition. In all of these grasp of all, a society was formed in 1825 for the works there is now literary matter of merit equal Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, at the head of which to what obtained great reputations fifty years ago; were several statesmen and leading members of the yet in general presented anonymously, and only Whig aristocracy-Lords Auckland, Althorp (now designed to serve the immediate purpose of amusing Earl Spencer), John Russell, Nugent, Suffield, Mr the idle hours of the public.
Henry Brougham (afterwards Lord Brougham), Sir
James Mackintosh, Dr Maltby (Bishop of Durham), POPULAR PUBLICATIONS. The plan of monthly publication for works of merit, and combining cheapness with elegance, was commenced Mr Constable in 1827. It had been planned by him two years before, when his active mind was full of splendid schemes; and he was confident that if he lived for half-a-dozen years, he would make it as impossible that there should not be a good library in every decent house in Britain, as that the shepherd's ingle-nook should want the salt poke.' 'Constable's Miscellany' was not begun till after the failure of the great publisher's house, but it presented some attraction, and enjoyed for several years considerable though unequal success. The works were issued in monthly numbers at a shilling each, and volumes of three shillings and sixpence. Basil Hall's Travels, and Lockhart's Life of Burns, were included in the Miscellany, and had a great sale. The example of this Edinburgh scheme stirred up a London publisher, Mr Murray, to attempt a similar series in the English metropolis. Hence began the 'Family Library, which was continued for about twelve years, and ended in 1841 with the eightieth volume. Mr Murray made his volumes five shillings each, adding occasionally engravings and woodcuts, and publishing several works of
Henry Lord Brougham, standard merit, including Washington Irving's Sketch-Book, Southey's Life of Nelson, &c. Mr Mr Hallam, Captain Basil Hall, &c. Their object was Irving also abridged for this library his Life of to circulate a series of treatises on the exact sciences, Columbus ; Mr Lockhart abridged Scott's Life of and on various branches of useful knowledge, in Napoleon ; Scott himself contributed a History of numbers at sixpence each. The first was published Demonology; Sir David Brewster a Life of Newton, in March 1827, being ' A Discourse of the Objects, and other popular authors joined as fellow-labourers. Advantages, and Pleasures of Science,' by Mr Another series of monthly volumes was begun in Brougham. Many of the works issued by this
WRITERS ON SCIENCE,
society are excellent compendiums of knowledge; united with great powers of expression, than the
LAWRENCE, Maro, ELLIOTSON, ROGET, FLETCHER,
and CARPENTER, stand deservedly high, while the
popular treatises of DR COMBE are remarkable for The age has been highly distinguished by a series their extensive usefulness, due to their singularly of scientific writers whose works, being of a popu- lucid and practical character. The Curiosities of Melar description, may be said to enter into the circle dical Experience by DR MILLINGEN, the treatises of of general literature. At the head of this class may SIR JAMES CLARK on Climate and Consumption, the be placed Sir John HERSCHEL, whose Discourse on various tracts of SIR HENRY HALFORD, DR SOUTHNatural Philosophy is perhaps the most perfect work Wood Smith's Philosophy of Health, and Dr COPEof its kind ever published. Sir DAVID BREWSTER LAND's Dictionary of Practical Medicine, are but a also presents a remarkable union of scientific ac- meagre selection from a great range of medical complishments with the grace and spirit of a first- works of talent calculated for general reading. rate litterateur. His Letters on Natural Magic, Life of Newton, History of Optics, and various contri
ENCYCLOPÆDIAS. butions to the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews, The progress of ENCYCLOPÆDIAS, or alphabetical are equally noted for literary elegance as for pro- digests of knowledge, is a remarkable feature in the found knowledge. A high place in this walk is literature of modern times. The first was the Cyclodue to MR CHARLES BABBAGE, author of the Eco-pædia of Ephraim Charnbers, published in 1728, in nomy of Machinery and Manufactures; a Ninth Bridge- two large fólio volumes, of which five editions were water Treatise, &c. The latter work is a most inge- published within eighteen years. As the work of nious attempt to bring mathematics into the range one individual, the Cyclopædia of Chambers is of sciences which afford proof of divine design in highly honourable to his taste, industry, and knowthe constitution of the world, and contains, besides, ledge. The proprietors of this work in 1776 enmany original and striking thoughts. The works on gaged Dr Abraham Rees, a dissenting clergyman geology, by Dr BUCKLAND, MR MURCHISON, MR (1743–1825), to superintend a new and enlarged CHARLES LYELL, SIR HENRY DELABECHE, and Dr edition of it, which appeared in 1785, and was well MANTELL, are all valuable contributions to the received. They then agreed with the same gentlelibrary of modern science.
man to undertake a new and magnificent work of a Perhaps no writer of the present day has shown similar nature; and in 1802 the first volume of in his works a more extensive range of knowledge, Reess Cyclopædia was issued, with illustrations in
a style of engraving never surpassed in this country. was found in the late Dr James Browne, a man of
442-445 Aspirations of Youth, ii.
ATHERSTONE, Edwin, ii.
ATTERBURY, DR FRANCIS, i.
America, Discovery of, ii.
188 Atterbury, Pope to, i.
AUBREY, JOHN, i.
657 Auburn, Description of, &c. ii. 61
American Freedom, Dependence of
Auld Robin Gray, ii.
Aurora on Melissa's Birthday, Ode
AUSTEN, Miss, ii.
Author,' an, must Feel what he
Author, a Sensitive, ii.
Autumn, to, ii.
Autumn Evening Scene, ij.
Autumn Leaf, the, ii.
Autumn Scenery--(Pope to Mr Dig-
Autumn, Sketches of, ii.
398) Avalanche, Swiss Mountain and, ii. 684
Ancient Poets, Translations of the, i. 494
Ayton, Sir Robert, i.
Anecdote of the Discovery of the
BABBAGE, CHARLES, ii.
Newtonian Philosophy, i.
668 Baby's Debut, the-By W. W.- [Re-
Anecdote of the Sultan Bello—(Den-
jected Addresses), ii.
ham and Clapperton), ii.
667 Babylon, Summons of the Destroy-
ing Angel to the City of, ii.
69 Bacon, Lieutenant Thomas, ii. 680
Bacon, LORD, i.
Bagdad, the City of Magnificence
of the Caliphs, ii.
663 Bagdad, View of Society in, ii.
BAGE, ROBERT, ji.
BAILLIE, JOANNA, ii. 451-453, 511-514
Baillie, Miss Agnes, Address to, on
her Birthday, ii.
502, 503 Balclutha, Desolation of, ii.
BALE, BISHOP, i.
7 Ball, Scene from the, i.
Ballad('Twas when the seas were
Ballad -Singer, the Country, i.
Balwhidder, Mr, Placing of, as Minis-
ter of Dalmailing, ii.
Bannockburn, the Battle of, i.
BARBAULD, MRs, ii.
BARBOUR, John, i.
BARCLAY, ROBERT, i.
ARBUTHNOT, DR JOHN, i.
642 Bard, the; a Pindaric Ode, ii.
BARNARD, LADY ANNE, ii.
18 BARNFIELD, RICHARD, i.
Arctic Discovery, ii.
674-676 BARRETT, ELIZABETH B. ii.
643 Argentile and Curan, Tale of, i. 226, 227
BARROW, Sir John, ii.
BARTON, BERNARD, ii.
703 Bastard, the, ii.
Bastille, Attack upon the, ii.
Battle-field, Solitude on the, ii.
Battle of Flodden, ii.
Ashford, Isaac, a Noble Peasant, ii. 312 Baucis and Philemon, i.
Bawdin, Sir Charles, Death of, ii.
Question Debated), i.
BAXTER, RICHARD, I.