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26. Generous, free, liberal, bountiful, munificent.

27. Peaceful, placid, calm, quiet, serene, tranquil.

28. Amuse, entertain, divert, enliven.

29. Laughable, ridiculous, ludicrous, droll, funny, odd. 30. Great, grand, noble, august, imposing, sublime.

31. Proud, supercilious, disdainful, imperious, consequential. 32. Praise, commendation, eulogy, encomium, panegyric.

33. Disinterested, unselfish, self-denying.

34. Temperate, moderate, frugal, sparing, abstemious.

35. Reward, recompence, remuneration, meed, guerdon.

XVIII. Find groups of synonyms for each of the following. Show how the words in each group differ.



diligent endeavour

cause - cautious — charming enormous-exertion-fool-freedom-give-grateful-happiness— harsh-hopefulness-humble-important—insolent-manifest-new -poverty-profuse-prosperity-resentment-resolute-respectful scheme-showy—similarity--sincere-special-swift—weak.

XIX. Distinguish in meaning the words in the following groups. Construct sentences to illustrate the correct usage.

1. Attenuate, extenuate. 2. Reverend, reverent. 3. Glory, glorify. 4. Complacent, complaisant. 5. Perpetrate, perpetuate. 6. Lose, loose. 7. Judicious, judicial. 8. Exhausting, exhaustive. 9. Destiny, destination. 10. Lie, lay. 11. Gambol, gamble. 12. Statue, statute, stature. 13. Stationary, stationery. 14. Born, borne. 15. Respectable, respectful. 16. Eminent, imminent. 17. Emigrate, immigrate. 18. Epigram, epitaph, epithet. 19. Principle, principal. 20. Prescribe, proscribe. 21. Clamant, claimant. 22. Inherent, inherit. 23. Desert, dessert. 24. Accept, except. 25. Euphemism, euphuism. 26. Detract, deteriorate, disparage. 27. Sinecure, cynosure. 28. Accent, accentuate. 29. Resource, recourse. 30. Contemptuous, contemptible. 31. Credible, creditable, credulous. 32. Capable, capacious. 33. Continuous, continual. 34. Venal, venial. 35. Efficient, efficacious, effective, effectual. 36. Contingent, contiguous, contagious. 37. Extract, extricate, extirpate. 38. Apathy, antipathy. 39. Elude, illude. 40. Affect, effect. 41. Emerge, immerse. 42. Complement. compliment. 43. Corporal, corporeal. 44. Avert, invert, revert. 45. Perspicuity, perspicacity. 46. Ingenious, ingenuous. 47. Necessaries, necessities. 48. Faculty, facility, felicity. 49. Suspense, suspension. 50. Obverse, converse.

XX. Examine the following for words used in a wrong sense. Give the correct meaning of each word misused, and substitute the proper word in the sentence.

I. He wishes to tax not only the luxuries of the rich but also the necessities of the poor.

2. History is sewn broadcast over the land.

3. He appeared to loose the thread of his speech.


This town has on three occasions allowed school-buildings to be transferred into beer-cellars.

5. By a rare providence, he escaped this eminent danger.

6. Some of my learned friends may be able to transcribe the Japanese book into English.

7. To pile Ossian upon Pelion was long ago said to be difficult. 8. The new M.P. seated himself on the Treasury Bench and was chaffed by his friends on his adhesion to office.

9. He never perpetrated so long a speech.

IO. Sir Lewis Morris is perpetrating a poem on Armenia.


We crossed the Forth Bridge, which was lately perpetrated. 12. The condition of your estate is very credible to you.

13. We believe the incredible story, for he is a man of undeniable voracity.


14. The sea-coast is disappearing under the steady erasion of the

15. Child, your hair is Titan red.

16. I beg to ask the Prime Minister whether the Government will devote their consideration to alleviating the dissensions among senior naval officers.

17. Even his opponents admitted that his speech was undeniable. 18. He was in trouble and wanted to lay by for a time.

19. I gave him the answer at the house of a mutual friend. Your rabbits and pigeons are all salubrious.





The Captain and his ilk will never put on the dress of poor

He is of that ilk who never speak unless spoken to first. 23. There was nothing but dog-biscuits, otherwise ship of that ilk. 24. It is quite aggravating to look at one's gray hairs.

25. He wrote a farewell note, for he lacked the courage for a verbal goodbye.

26. I knew what transpired, what tears were shed, what entreaties were uttered.

27. Eulogized by some, he has been declaimed by others. 28. He was hard up, and wished to turn an honourable penny. 29. There was a great disparagement in rank between us. 30. He proclaimed his abhorrence of corporeal punishment. 31. One broker has made such a fortune by the sale of stock that he has become a millenium.

32. Is it possible to bale out the prisoner?

33. The condition of the bog was that of a vicious fluid within a resistant wall.

34. Consider the extreme and irretrievable seriousness of his case. 35. I coincide with you both.

36. The General was received with a flare of trumpets.

37. The mountain is clearly composed of metaphoric rock.

38. The peasants were so extenuated by hunger that they could not till the ground.

39. He died of simultaneous combustion.

40. A full and exhausting report has now been issued.

41. I will not submit or cavil to him.

42. We may resemble him to a tree.

43. One member of the team resembled a Triton among the minions.

44. From the quantity of confetti which fell from his clothes, we judged that his comrades had given him the customary send-off to a coming benedict.

45. You will be immuned in a dungeon.

46. Your correspondent cannot be congratulated on the logic of his arguments or the perspicacity of his language.

47. What an innovation the team received as they stepped on to the field.

48. He presented me with this book as a memorandum of his visit.

49. Lost, 1st August, Gentleman's Memoranda ring, marked "In memory of."

50. The auditorium was arranged on first-rate principles, for not a man there could fail to see the game in whatever part of the field it was being played.

51. The red blossoms accented the prevailing pink of the housefront.

52. Lowlands are low inundating plains.

53. In joking at the poor boy's expense, the prosperous tradesman made a tactical blunder.

XXI. Point out absurdities and contradictions in the following. Suggest improvements.

I. The allegation was that the two places were so far apart that the man could not be in both of them at the same time.

2. The Antarctic expedition has brought home interesting zoological and geological specimens, including the food which was unfit for human consumption.

3. Why has the honourable gentleman fathered this bill so fraternally?


Of 70,000 coolies resident on the estates, about 10,000 or seven per cent. are indentured.

5. Under these circumstances, Surrey, as the stronger side, won the toss.

6. His wife did not write, said the old man, because he had forbidden it, she being indisposed with a sprained ankle, which, he added, quite incapacitated her from holding a pen.

7. The country was then governed by a huge oligarchy.

8. After dealing with the Home Rule question, the Marquis remarked that he would not weary them with further observations on the matter, as other speakers would no doubt do so.

9. In no case shall fewer than one attendant be provided for each entrance.

IO. The author suggests some curiosities of medical treatment; for example, when he says, "I have cured roach on their last legs with whisky."

II. The old people never went beyond the limits of the quarter, and lived in the lodging-house much as oysters cling to a rock.

12. He lived in a state of retirement and obtrusion.

13. The first four lectures will be delivered free of charge, admission only being enforced for the fifth.

14. He denied that the trek had been organised owing to Boer intolerance of British rule.

15. The chairman declared that Mr Young's motion, not being unanimous, fell to the ground.



Our chief aim in prose should be to convey our ideas to others with perfect perspicuity. This perspicuity, or lucidity, or clearness, implies such freedom from ambiguity of meaning and from obscurity of arrangement that no one fit to comprehend the subject may be in doubt what we would express. In seeking

to attain perspicuity we must keep in view both our audience and our subject. A fairy tale for children will differ from a botanical lecture to students. An account of an Antarctic voyage addressed to a popular audience will differ from an account of the same voyage addressed to men of science or to navigators.

Perspicuity is here treated under the headings of Brevity; Simplicity; Directness; Arrangement of Words; Precision of Meaning.

BREVITY. In ordinary circumstances, the perspicuity of a statement is in proportion to its brevity. A few words are usually easier to understand than many: a multitude of words often obscures the sense. Even where a superfluous word causes no obscurity, its presence may suggest a different, or an additional, meaning when such is not intended. Violations of brevity are classed as Tautology, Pleonasm, and Verbosity.

Tautology occurs when, for no special reason, a word is repeated, or when the same meaning is expressed twice, or oftener, in different words.

"With regard to the truth of the alleged windfall of money to Alexander Smith, there now appears to be considerable doubt as

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