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but in divers places (which I am sorye for) unperfecte. For whiles we were a shipborde, a marmoset chaunced upon the booke, as it was negligentlye layde by, which wantonlye playinge therewyth plucked oute certeyne leaves, and toore them in pieces.


10. My father was a Yoman, and had no landes of his owne, onlye he had a farm of .iii. or .iiii. pound by yere at the vttermost, and here vpon he tilled so much as kepte halfe a dosen men. He had a walke for a hundred shepe, and my mother mylked .xxx. kyne, He was able and did find the king a harnesse, wyth hym selfe, and hys horsse, whyle he came to ye place that he should receyue the kynges wages. I can remembre, yat I buckled hys harnes, when he went vnto Blacke heeath felde. He kepte me to schole, or elles I had not bene able to haue preached before the kinges maiestie nowe. He maryed my systers with .v. pound or .xx. nobles a pece, so that he brought them vp in godlines, and feare of God.

He kepte hospitalitie for his pore neighbours. And sum almess he gaue to the poore, and all thys did he of the sayd farme. Wher he that now hath it, paieth .xvi. pound by yere or more, and is not able to do any thing for his Prynce, for himselfe, nor for his children, or geue a cup of drincke to the pore.

LATIMER, Sermons, 1549.

II. Menne of Englande in tymes paste, when they woulde exercyse theymselues (for we must nedes haue some recreation, oure bodyes canne not endure wythoute some exercyse) they were wonte to goo a brode in the fyeldes a shootynge....

The arte of shutynge hath ben in tymes past much estemed in this realme, it is a gift of God that he hath geuen vs to excell all other nacions wyth all. It hath bene goddes instrumente, whereby he hath gyuen vs manye victories agaynste oure enemyes....In my tyme, my poore father was as diligent to teach me to shote, as to learne anye other thynge, and so I thynke other menne dyd theyr children. He taughte me how to drawe, how to lay my bodye in my bowe, and not to drawe wyth strength of armes as other nacions do, but with strength of the bodye. I had my bowes boughte me accordyng to my age and strength as I encreased in them, so my bowes were made bigger, and bigger, for men shal neuer shot well, excepte they be broughte vp in it. It is a goodly art, a holsome kynde of exercise, and much commended in phisike.


12. Whan the french kyng sawe the englysshmen, his blode chaunged, and sayde to his marshals, “make the genowayes go on before, and begynne the batayle in the name of God and saynt Denyse" there were of the genowayes crosbowes about a fiftene thousand, but they were so wery of goyng a fote that day a six leages

armed with their crosbowes, that they sayde to their constables, "we be nat wel ordred to fyght this day, for we be nat in the case to do any great dede of armes, we haue more nede of rest." These wordes came to the erle of Alanson, who sayd, "a man is well at ease to be charged with such a sorte of rascalles, to be faynt and fayle nowe at moost nede !" Also the same season there fell a great rayne and a clyps, with a terrible thonder; and before the rayne, there came fleyng ouer bothe batayls a great nombre of crowes, for fear of the tempest commynge. Than anone the eyre beganne to waxe clere, and the sonne to shyne fayre and bright: the which was right in the frenchmens eyen, and on the englysshmens backes. Whan the genowayes were assembled toguyder and beganne to aproche, they made a great leape and crye to abasshe thenglysshmen, but they stode styll, and styredde nat for all that; thanne the genowayes agayne the seconde tyme made another leape and a fell crye, and stepped forwarde a lytell, and thenglysshmen remeued nat one fote: thirdly agayne they leapt and cryed, and went forthe tyll they came within shotte; thanne they shotte feersly with their crosbowes. Than thenglysshe archers stept forthe one pase and lette fly their arowes so holly and so thycke that it semed snowe; whan the genowayes felte the arowes persynge through heedes, armes, and brestes, many of them cast downe their crosbowes and dyde cutte their strynges, and retourned dysconfited. Whan the french kynge sawe them flye away, he sayd, "slee these rascals, for they shall lette and trouble vs without reason"; than ye shulde haue sene the men of armes dasshe in among them, and kylled a great nombre of them.

Lord BERNERS, Translation of Froissart, 1523.

13. The same day the grekes fayneden to goo vnto Thenadon : And sayd that they wolde resseyve Helayne and sette her in saefte, be cause that the peple shold not renne vpon her for the grete evyllys and hurtes that were fallen for her. And thus they departyd from the porte of troyes wyth her saylles drawen vp, and cam to fore the sonne goyng doun to thenedon. Than had the troians grete Ioye whan they sawe the grekes departe, And they sowped that euenyng wyth grete gladnes, And the grekes as sone as they were come to thenedon, they armed them in the euenyng, and wente hem stylly and pryuely toward troye, whan the troians had well sowped they wente to bedde for to slepe, than synon opend the hors and wente oute and lyghte his fyre and shewyd hit to them that were with oute, And anone with oute delaye, they that were in a wayte entryd in to the cyte by the gate that was broken for to brynge in the hors of brasse. And the thousand knyghtes yssued out, and where they fonde the troians they slewe hem in their howsis, where they slepte as they that thought on no thinge.

CAXTON, Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, c. 1470.

14. Therfore sayd Arthur vnto syr Bedwere, "take thou Excalybur my good swerde, and goo with it to yonder water syde; and whan thou comest there, I charge the throwe my swerde in that water, and come ageyn and telle me what thou there seest." "My lord," said Bedwere, "your commaundement shal be doon; and lyghtly brynge you worde ageyn." So syr Bedwere departed, and by the waye he behelde that noble swerde, that the pomel and the hafte was al of precyous stones, and thenne he sayd to hym self, "yf I throwe this ryche swerde in the water, therof shal neuer come good, but harme and losse." And thenne syr bedwere hydde excalybur vnder a tree. And so as sone as he myght, he came ageyn vnto the kyng, and sayd he had ben at the water and had throwen the swerde in to the water. "What sawe thou there?" sayd the kyng; "syr," he sayd, "I sawe no thynge but wawes and wyndes." "That is vntrewly sayd of the," sayd the kynge. "Therfore goo thou lyghtelye ageyn and do my commaundement, as thou art to me leef and dere; spare not, but throwe it in." Than syr bedwere retorned ageyn, and took the swerde in hys hande, and than hym thought synne and shame to throwe awaye that nobyl swerde, and so efte he hydde the swerde, and retorned ageyn and tolde to the kyng that he had ben at the water and done his commaundement. "What sawe thou there?" sayd the kyng. "Syr," he sayd, "I sawe no thynge but the waters wappe and the wawes wanne.' "A! traytour vntrewe," sayd kyng Arthur, now hast thou betrayed me twyse. Who wold haue wente that thou that hast been to me so leef and dere, and thou arte named a noble knyghte, and wold betraye me for the richesse of the swerde? But now goo ageyn lyghtly, for thy longe taryeng putteth me in grete jeopardye of my lyf. For I haue taken colde, and but yf thou do now as I byd the, yf euer I may see the I shal slee the wyth myn owne handes, for thou woldest for my ryche swerde see me dede." Thenne Syr Bedwere departed, and wente to the swerde, and lyghtly took hit up, and wente to the water syde and there he bounde the gyrdel aboute the hyltes and thenne he threwe the swerde as farre in to the water as he myght, and there came an arme and an hande aboue the water and mette it, and caught it and so shoke it thryse and braundysshed, and than vanysshed awaye the hande wyth the swerde in the water.

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MALORY, Morte d'Arthur, 1469.

15. And he entride eftsoone in-to the synagoge, and ther was a man hauynge a drye hond. And thei aspieden hym, zif he helide in sabothis, for to accuse hym. And he seith to the man hauynge a drye honde, "Ryse in-to the mydil." And he seith to hem, "Is it leeueful to do wel in the sabothis, or yuele? for to make a soule saaf, whether to lese ?" And thei weren stille. And he biholdynge hem aboute with wrathe, hauynge sorwe vpon the blyndnesse of her herte, seith to the man, "Holde forth thin honde." And he helde forth,

and the honde is restorid to hym. Sothely Pharisees goynge out anoon, maden a counseil with Herodyans azeins hym, hou thei shulden lese hym. Forsothe Jhesus with his disciplis wente to the see; and myche cumpanye from Galilee and Judee suede hym, and fro Jerusalem, and fro Ýdume, and bizendis Jordan, and thei that aboute Tyre and Sydon, a grete multitude, heerynge the thingis that he dide, camen to hym. WYCLIF, The Gospel of Mark, c. 1375.

16. And thanne passen Men thorghe the Isles of Colos and of Lango; of the whiche Iles Ypocras was Lord offe. And some Men seyn, that in the Ile of Lango is 3it the doughtre of Ypocras in forme and lykenesse of a gret Dragoun, that is an hundred Fadme of lengthe, as Men seyn: For I have not seen hire. And thei of the Iles callen hire, Lady of the Lond. And sche lyethe in an olde Castelle, in a Cave, and schewethe twyes or thryes in the 3eer. And sche dothe non harm to no Man, but 3if Men don hire harm. And sche was thus chaunged and transformed, from a fair Damysele, in to lyknesse of a Dragoun, be a Goddesse, that was clept Deane. And Men seyn, that sche schalle so endure in that forme of a Dragoun, unto the tyme that a Knyghte come, that is so hardy, that dar come to hire and kisse hire on the Mouthe: And then schalle sche turne azen to hire owne Kynde, and ben a Woman azen: But aftre that sche schalle not liven longe.

The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, c. 1350.

17. And from thens, men gon thorghe litille Ermonye. And in that Contree is an old Castelle, that stont upon a Roche, the which is cleped the Castelle of the Sparrehawk, that is bezonde the Cytee of Layays, beside the Town of Pharsipee, that belongethe to the Lordschipe of Cruk; that is a riche Lord and a gode Cristene man; where men fynden a Sparehauk upon a Perche righte fair, and righte wel made; and a fayre Lady of Fayrye, that kepethe it. And who that wil wake that Sparhauk, 7 dayes and 7 nyghtes, and as sume men seyn, 3 dayes and 3 nyghtes, withouten Companye and withouten Sleep, that faire Lady schal 3even him, whan he hathe don, the first Wyssche, that he wil wyssche, of erthely thinges: and that hathe been proved often tymes.




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