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Shakespeare. The Tempest, IV. i. 148 sqq.; Measure for Measure, III. i. 5 sqq.; A Midsummer-Night's Dream, v. i. 4 sqq.; The Merchant of Venice, IV. i. 184 sqq.; v. i. 54 sqq.; As You Like It, II. i. 1 sqq., vii. 139 sqq.; Richard II., 1. iii. 275 sqq.; II. i. 40 sqq.; 111. ii. 155 sqq.; 1 Henry IV., 1. ii. 219 sqq.; 2 Henry IV., III. i. 4 sqq., 45 sqq.; Henry V., IV. i. 250 sqq.; 3 Henry VI., II. v. 21 sqq.; Henry VIII., III. ii. 351 sqq., 429 sqq.; Julius Caesar, 1. ii. 135 sqq.; II. ii. 30 sqq.; Macbeth, V. v. 17 sqq.; Sonnets, 30, 33, 55, 73.

Thomson. Autumn, 311—350; Winter, 223-264; The Castle of Indolence, I. st. 1—6.


Sonnets, "Milton! thou should'st be living"; "The World is too much with us"; "Earth has not anything"; "Two Voices are there"; "The Shepherd, looking - eastward."



Paraphrasing is a kind of translation; and a similar exercise consists in modernizing the prose of earlier writers. In this exercise, do not make unnecessary transformations. Change only what is necessary; as old-fashioned spelling, or punctuation, or build of sentence; archaic words and phrases, or archaic forms and constructions, or words used in an archaic sense.


LXII. The following selection of passages is from writers between 1350 and 1650. Turn these passages into modern prose. Remark on any noteworthy points in regard to the changes you make.

I. For Books are not absolutely dead things, but doe contain a potencie of life in them to be as active as that soule was whose progeny they are; nay, they do preserve as in a violl the purest efficacie and extraction of that living intellect that bred them. I know they are as lively, and as vigorously productive, as those fabulous Dragons teeth; and being sown up and down, may chance to spring up armed men. And yet on the other hand, unlesse warinesse be us'd, as good almost kill a Man as kill a good Book; who kills a Man kills a reasonable creature, Gods image; but hee who destroyes a good Booke, kills reason it selfe, kills the Image of God as it were in the eye. Many a man lives a burden to the Earth; but a good Booke is the pretious life-blood of a master spirit, imbalm'd and treasur'd up on purpose to a life beyond life. 'Tis true, no age can restore a life, whereof perhaps there is no great losse; and revolutions of ages doe not oft recover the losse of a rejected truth, for the want of which whole Nations fare the


MILTON, Areopagitica, 1644.

2. Zeale to promote the common good, whether it be by deuising any thing our selues, or reuising that which hath bene laboured by others, deserueth certainly much respect and esteme, but yet findeth but cold intertainment in the world. It is welcommed with suspicion in stead of loue, and with emulation in stead of thankes: and if there be any hole left for cauill to enter (and cauill, if it doe not finde a hole, will make one) it is sure to bee misconstrued, and in danger to be condemned. This will easily be granted by as many as know story, or haue any experience. For, was there euer any thing proiected, that sauoured any way of newnesse or renewing, but the same endured many a storme of gaine-saying, or opposition? A man would thinke that Ciuilitie, holesome Lawes, learning and eloquence, Synods, and Church-maintenance (that we speake of no more things of this kinde) should be as safe as a Sanctuary, and out of shot, as they say, that no man would lift vp the heele, no, nor dogge moue his tongue against the motioners of them.

Authorised Version, 1611: The Translators to the Reader.

3. Some in their discourse desire rather commendation of wit, in being able to holde all arguments, then of Iudgement in discerning what is true as if it were a praise to knowe what might be saide, and not what should be thought: some haue certaine common places, and theames, wherein they are good, and want variety: wch kinde of Pouerty is for the most parte tedious, and now, and then ridiculous: the honorablest parte of talke is to giue the occasion, and againe to moderate, and passe to somewhat else: It is good to vary, and mixe speache of the present occasion wth arguments; tales wth reasons; asking of questions wth telling of opinions: and Iest wth earnest : but some thinges are priuiledged from Iest, namely, Religion, matters of state, greate persons, all mens present business of Importaunce, and any case that deserueth pitty: He that questioneth much, shall learne much, and content much, especially if he apply his questions to the skill of the party of whom he asketh: for he shall giue them occasion to please themselves in speaking, and himselfe shall continually gather knowledge.

BACON, Essays, 1597.

4. Irenaeus. It is a custome among all the Irish, that presently after the death of any theyr cheif Lordes or Captaynes, they doe presently assemble themselves to a place, generally appoynted and knowen unto them, to choose another in his steede; where they doe nominate and elect, for the most part, not the eldest sonn, nor any of the children of theyre Lord deceased, but the next to him of blood, that is the eldest and woorthyest; as commonly the next brother to him yf he have any, or the next cossin germayne, or soe foorth, as any is elder in that kinred or sept, and then next to him they choose the next of bloud to be Tanistih, whoe shall next succeede him in the sayd Captaynrye, yf he live thereunto.

Eudoxus. Doe they not use any ceremonyes in this election ? for all barbarous nations are commonly great observers of ceremonyes and superstitious rites.

Irenaeus. They use to place him that shalbe theyr Captayne, uppon a stone allwayes reserved for that purpose, and placed commonly upon a hill in many of the which I have seene the foote of a man formed and engraven, which they say was the measure of theyr first Captayns foote, wheron he standing receaveth an oth to preserve all the former auncient customes of the country inviolable, and to deliver up the succession peaceably, to his Tanistih, and then hath a wand delivered unto him by some whose proper office that is; after which, discending from the stone, he turneth himself round aboute, thrise forward, and thrise backward.

Eudoxus. But how is the Tanistih chosen?

Irenaeus. They say he setteth but one foote upon the stone, and receaveth the like othe that the Captayne did.

SPENSER, View of the Present State of Ireland, 1596.

5. Is it the Liricke that most displeaseth, who with his tuned Lyre, and wel accorded voyce, giueth praise, the reward of vertue, to vertuous acts? who giues morrall precepts, and naturall Problemes, who sometimes rayseth vp his voice to the height of the heauens, in singing the laudes of the immortall God. Certainly I must confesse my own barbarousnes, I neuer heard the olde song of Percy and Duglas, that I found not my heart mooued more then with a Trumpet: and yet is it sung by some blinde Crouder, with no rougher voyce, then rude stile: which being so euill apparrelled in the dust and cobwebbes of that vnciuill age, what would it worke trymmed in the gorgeous eloquence of Pindar? In Hungary I haue seene it the manner at all Feasts, and other such meetings, to haue songes of their Auncestours valour; which that right Souldier-like Nation thinck the chiefest kindlers of braue courage.

SIR PHILIP SIDNEY, Apologie for Poetrie, c. 1580.

6. There is nothing more swifter then time, nothing more sweeter: wee haue not, as Seneca saith, little time to liue, but we leese muche; neither haue we a short life by Nature, but we make it shorter by naughtynesse; our life is long if we know how to vse it. Follow Appelles, that cunning and wise Painter, which would lette no day passe ouer his head without a lyne, without some labour. It was pretely sayde of Hesiodus, lette vs endeauour by reason to excell beastes, seeinge beastes by nature excell men; although, stricktly taken, it be not so (for that man is endewed with a soule) yet taken touching their perfection of sences in their kind, it is most certeine. Doth not the Lyon for strength, the Turtle for loue, the Ante for labour, excell man? Doth not the Eagle see cleerer, the Vultur smel better, the Mowle heare lyghtlyer? Let vs therefore endeauour to excell in vertue, seeing in qualities of the body we are inferiour to

beastes. And heere I am most earnestlye to exhort you to modesty in your behauiour, to duetye to your elders, to dylligence in your studyes.

JOHN LYLY, Euphues and his Ephoebus, 1579.

7. It is a notable tale, that old Syr Roger Chamloe, sometime cheife Iustice, wold tell of him-selfe. Whan he was Auncient in Inne of Courte, certaine yong Ientlemen were brought before him, to be corrected for certaine misorders: And one of the lustiest saide: "Syr, we be yong ientlemen, and wise men before vs have proued all facions, and yet those haue done full well”: this they said because it was well knowen, that Syr Roger had bene a good feloe in his yougth. But he aunswered them verie wiselie. "In deede," saith he, "in yougthe I was as you ar now and I had twelve feloes like vnto my-self, but not one of them came to a good ende. And therefore, folow not my example in yougth, but folow my councell in aige, if euer ye thinke to cum to this place, or to thies yeares, that I am cum vnto, lesse ye meete either with pouertie or Tiburn in the way."

ASCHAM, The Scholemaster, c. 1560.

8. And therewith I tourned me to Raphaell. And when wee hadde haylsed eche other, and had spoken these commune woordes, that bee customablye spoken at the first meting and acquaintaunce of straungers, we went thence to my house, and there in my gardaine upon a bench covered with greene torves we satte downe talkyng together. There he tolde us, how that after the departyng of Vespuce, he and his fellowes that taried behynde in Gulicke, began by litle and litle, throughe fayre and gentle speache, to wynne the love and favoure of the people of that countreye, insomuche that within shorte space, they dyd dwell amonges them, not only harmlesse, but also occupiying with them verye familiarly. He tolde us also, that they were in high reputation and favour with a certayne great man (whose name and countreye is nowe quite out of my remembraunce) which of his mere liberalitie dyd beare the costes and charges of him and his fyve companions. And besides that gave theim a trustye guyde to conducte them in their journey (which by water was in botes, and by land in wagons) and to brynge theim to other princes with verye frendlye commendations. Thus after manye dayes journeys, he sayd, they founde townes and cities and weale publiques, full of people, governed by good and holsome lawes.

MORE, Utopia (Robynson's Translation, 1556).

9. They have of me (for when I was determyned to entre into my iiii voyage, I caste into the shippe in the steade of marchandise a prety fardel of bookes, bycause I intended to come againe rather never, than shortly) they have, I saye, of me the moste parte of Platoes workes, more of Aristotles, also Theophrastus of plantes,

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