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usually happens, by the appointment, I would almost say, have erected a monuand as it were retributive justice, of the ment, that will not readily be destroyed, Deity, that that people which cannot to the reality of those singular and mighty govern themselves, and moderate their achievements which were above all praise. passions, but crouch under the slavery As the epic poet, who adheres at all to the of their lusts, should be delivered up to rules of that species of composition, does the sway of those whom they abhor, and not profess to describe the whole life of made to submit to an involuntary servi- the hero whom he celebrates, but only tude. It is also sanctioned by the dictates some particular action of his life, as the of justice and by the constitution of na- resentment of Achilles at Troy, the return ture, that he who from the imbecility or of Ulysses, or the coming of Æneas into derangement of his intellect, is incapable Italy; so it will be sufficient, either for my of governing himself, should, like a minor, justification or apology, that I have heroibe committed to the government of an- cally celebrated at least one exploit of my other; and least of all should he be

ap- countrymen; I pass by the rest, for who pointed to superintend the affairs of could recite the achievements of a whole others or the interest of the state. You, people? If after such a display of courage therefore, who wish to remain free, either and of vigour, you basely relinquish the instantly be wise, or, as soon as possible, path of virtue, if you do anything uncease to be fools; if you think slavery an worthy of yourselves, posterity will sit in intolerable evil, learn obedience to reason judgment on your conduct. They will and the government of yourselves; and see that the foundations were well laid; finally bid adieu to your dissensions, your that the beginning (nay, it was more than jealousies, your superstitions, your out- a beginning) was glorious; but with deep rages, your rapine, and your lusts. Unless

emotions of concern will they regret, that you will spare no pains to effect this, you those were wanting who might have commust be judged unfit, both by God and pleted the structure. They will lament mankind, to be entrusted with the posses- that perseverance was not conjoined with sion of liberty and the administration of such exertions and such virtues. They the government; but will rather, like a will see that there was a rich harvest of nation in a state of pupilage, want some glory, and an opportunity afforded for active and courageous guardian to under- the greatest achievements, but that men take the management of your affairs. only were wanting for the execution; while With respect to myself, whatever turn

they were not wanting who could rightly things may take, I thought that my counsel, exhort, inspire, and bind an exertions on the present occasion would unfading wreath of praise round the brows be serviceable to my country; and as they of the illustrious actors in so glorious a have been cheerfully bestowed, I hope scene. that they have not been bestowed in vain. And I have not circumscribed my defence EDWARD, LORD HERBERT OF of liberty within any petty circle around

CHERBURY me, but have made it so general and comprehensive, that the justice and the

AN AFFAIR BETWEEN reasonableness of such uncommon

GENTLEMEN currences, explained and defended, both

From the AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF EDWARD, among my countrymen and among for

LORD HERBERT OF CHERBURY eigners, and which all good men cannot but approve, may serve to exalt the glory THERE was a lady also, wife to Sir John of my country, and to excite the imitation Ayres, knight, who finding some means to of posterity. If the conclusion do not get a copy of my picture from Karkin, answer to the beginning, that is their gave it to Mr. Issac Oliver, the painter concern; I have delivered my testimony, in Blackfriars, and desired him to draw it


in little after his manner; which being burning fever seized upon me, which done, she caused it to be set in gold and brought me almost to my death, though enamelled, and so wore it about her at last I did by slow degrees recover my neck, so low that she hid it under her health. breasts, which, I conceive, coming after- Being thus upon my amendment, the wards to the knowledge of Sir John Ayres, Lord Lisle, afterwards Earl of Leicester, gave him more cause of jealousy than sent me word that Sir John Ayres intended needed, had he known how innocent I was to kill me in my bed, and wished me keep from pretending to any thing which might a guard upon my chamber and person. wrong him or his lady; since I could not The same advertisement was confirmed so much as imagine that either she had by Lucy, Countess of Bedford, and the my picture, or that she bare more than Lady Hobby shortly after. Hereupon I ordinary affection to me. It is true that though fit to entreat Sir William Herbert, she had a place in court, and attended now Lord Powis, to go to Sir John Ayres, Queen Anne, and was beside of an excel- and tell him that I marvelled much at the lent wit and discourse, she had made her- information given me by these great perself a considerable person; howbeit little sons, and that I could not imagine any more than common civility ever passed sufficient ground hereof; howbeit, if he betwixt us, though I confess I think no had anything to say to me in a fair and man was welcomer to her when I came, noble way, I would give him the meeting as for which I shall allege this passage: soon as I had got strength enough to

Coming one day into her chamber, I stand upon my legs. Sir William heresaw her through the curtains lying upon upon brought me so ambiguous and her bed with a wax candle in one hand, doubtful an answer from him, that whatand the picture I formerly mentioned in soever he meant, he would not declare yet the other. I coming thereupon somewhat his intention, which was really as I found boldly to her, she blew out the candle, afterwards, to kill me any way that he and hid the picture from me; myself could, since, as he said, though falsely, I thereupon being curious to know what that had duped his wife. Finding no means was she held in her hand, got the candle to thus to surprise me, he sent me a letter to be lighted again, by means whereof I this effect; that he desired to meet me found it was my picture she looked upon somewhere, and that it might so fall out with more earnestness and passion than I as I might return quietly again. To this could easily have believed, especially since I replied, that if he desired to fight with myself was not engaged in any affection me upon equal terms, I should upon astowards her. I could have willingly surance of the field and fair play, give him omitted this passage, but that it was the meeting when he did any way specify the beginning of a bloody history which fol- cause, and that I did not think fit to come lowed : howsoever, yet I must before the to him upon any other terms, having been Eternal God clear her honour.

sufficiently informed of his plots to assasAnd now in court a great person (Queen sinate me. Anne) sent for me divers times to attend After this, finding he could take no her, which summons though I obeyed, advantage against me, then, in a treacheryet God knoweth I declined coming to ous way, he resolved to assassinate me in her as much as conveniently I could, with- this manner; hearing I was to come to out incurring her displeasure; and this Whitehall on horseback, with two lackeys I did not only for very honest reasons, but, only, he attended my coming back in a to speak ingenuously, because that af- place called Scotland Yard, at the hither fection passed betwixt me and another end of Whitehall, as you come to it from lady (who I believe was the fairest of her the Strand, hiding himself here with four time) as nothing could divert it. I had men armed, on purpose to kill me. not been long in London, when a violent I took horse at Whitehall Gate, and

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passing by that place, he being armed with side of him, and his brother behind him, a sword and dagger, without giving me so with at least twenty or thirty persons of much as the least warning, ran at me his friends, or attendants of the Earl of furiously, but instead of me, wounded my Suffolk. Observing thus a body of men horse in the brisket, as far as his sword standing in opposition against me, though could enter for the bone. My horse to speak truly I saw no swords drawn, but hereupon starting aside, he ran him by Sir John Ayres and his men, I ran again in the shoulder, which, though it violently against Sir John Ayres; but he made the horse more timorous, yet gave knowing my sword had no point, held his me time to draw my sword. His men sword and dagger over his head, as bethereupon encompassed me, and wounded lieving I could strike rather than thrust; my horse in three places more; this made which I no sooner perceived but I put a my horse kick and fling in that manner, home thrust to the middle of his breast, as his men durst not come near me; which that I threw him down with so much advantage I took to strike at Sir John force, that his head fell first to the ground, Ayres with all my force, but he warded the and his heel upwards. His men hereupon blow both with his sword and dagger; assaulted me; when one, Mr. Mansel, a instead of doing him harm, I broke my Glamorganshire gentleman, finding so sword within a foot of the hilt. Hereupon many set against me alone, closed with some passenger that knew me, and ob- one of them; a Scotch gentleman also serving my horse bleeding in so many closing with another, took him off also. places, and so many men assaulting me, All I could well do to those two which and my sword broken, cried to me several remained was, to ward their thrusts, which times, “Ride away, ride away”; but I, I did with that resolution, that I got scorning a base flight upon what terms so- ground upon them. ever, instead thereof, alighted as well as Sir John Ayres was now got up a third I could from my horse.

time, when I was making towards him I had no sooner put one foot upon the with the intention to close, thinking that ground, but Sir John Ayres pursuing me,

there was otherwise no safety for me, put made at my horse again, which the horse by a thrust of his with my left hand, and perceiving, pressed on me on the side I so coming within him, received a stab with alighted, in that manner that he threw me his dagger on my right side, which ran down, so that I remained flat upon the down my ribs as far as my hip, which I ground, only one foot hanging in the feeling, did with my right elbow force his stirrup, with that piece of a sword in my hand, together with the hilt of the dagger, right hand. Sir John Ayres hereupon so near the upper part of my right side, ran about the horse, and was thrusting that I made him leave hold. The dagger his sword into me, when I, finding myself now sticking in me, Sir Henry Cary, in this danger, did with both my arms afterwards Lord of Falkland, and Lord reaching at his legs, pull them towards Deputy of Ireland, finding the dagger thus me, till he fell down backwards on his in my body, snatched it out. This while head. One of my footmen hereupon, who I being closed with Sir John Ayres, hurt was a little Shropshire boy, freed my foot him on the head, and threw him down a out of the stirrup; the other, which was a third time, when, kneeling on the ground, great fellow, having run away as soon as and bestriding him, I struck at him as he saw the first assault. This gave me hard as I could with my piece of a sword, time to get upon my legs, and to put my- and wounded him in four several places, self in the best posture I could with that and did almost cut off his left hand. His

. poor remnant of a weapon.

two men this while struck at me; but it Sir John Ayres by this time likewise pleased God even miraculously to defend was got up, standing betwixt me and some me; for when I lifted up my sword to part of Whitehall, with two men on each strike at Sir John Ayres, I bore off their blows half a dozen times. His friends, and Doctors, being seated in magisterial

a now finding him in this danger, took him seats, the Vice-Chancellor's chair and desk, by the head and shoulders, and drew him Proctors, etc. covered with brocatelle (a from betwixt my legs, and carried him kind of brocade) and cloth of gold; the along with them through Whitehall, at the University Registrar read the founder's stairs whereof he took boat. Sir Herbert grant and gift of it to the University for Croft (as he told me afterwards) met him their scholastic exercises upon these solemn upon the water, vomiting all the way, occasions. Then followed Dr. South, the which I believe was caused by the violence University's orator, in an eloquent speech, of the first thrust I gave him. His which was very long, and not without servants, brother, and friends being now some malicious and indecent reflections on retired also, I remained master of the the Royal Society, as underminers of the place and his weapons; having first University; which was very foolish and wrested his dagger from him, and after- untrue, as well as unseasonable. But, to wards struck his sword out of his hand. let that pass from an ill-natured man, the

rest was in the praise of the Archbishop

and the ingenious architect. This ended, JOHN EVELYN

after loud music from the corridor above, OXFORD DEDICATES THE

where an organ was placed, there followed THEATRE

divers panegyric speeches, both in prose From the DIARY OF JOHN EVELYN

and verse, interchangeably pronounced

by the young students placed in the In the morning (July 9, 1669), was cele- rostrums, in Pindarics, Eclogues, Heroics, brated the Encaenia of the New Theatre, etc., mingled with excellent music, vocal so magnificently built by the munificence and instrumental, to entertain the ladies of Dr. Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of and the rest of the company. A speech Canterbury, in which was spent £25,000, as was then made in praise of academical Sir Christopher Wren, the architect (as I learning. This lasted from eleven in the remember), told me; and yet it was never morning till seven at night, which was seen by the benefactor, my Lord Arch- concluded with ringing of bells, and bishop having told me that he never did universal joy and feastings. or ever would see it. It is, in truth, a The next day began the more solemn fabric comparable to any of its kind of lectures in all the faculties, which were former ages, and doubtless exceeding any performed in the several schools, where all of the present, as this University does for the Inceptor-Doctors did their exercises, colleges, libraries, schools, students, and the Professors having first ended their order, all the Universities in the world. reading. The assembly now returned to To the theatre is added the famous the Theatre, where the Terrae filius (the Sheldonian printing-house. This being at University Buffoon) entertained the audithe Act and the first time of opening the tory with a tedious, abusive, sarcastical Theatre (Acts being formerly kept in rhapsody, most unbecoming the gravity St. Mary's church, which might be thought of the University, and that so grossly, indecent, that being a place set apart for that unless it be suppressed, it will be of the immediate worship of God, and was the ill consequence, as I afterwards plainly inducement for building this noble pile), expressed my sense of it both to the Viceit was now resolved to keep the present Chancellor and several Heads of Houses, Act in it, and celebrate its dedication with who were perfectly ashamed of it, and rethe greatest splendour and formality that solved to take care of it in future. The might be; and, therefore, drew a world of old facetious way of rallying upon the strangers, and other company, to the questions was left off, falling wholly upon University, from all parts of the nation. persons, so that it was rather licentious

The Vice-Chancellor, Heads of Houses, lying and railing than genuine and noble wit. In my life, I was never witness of came by an eternal generation. Here so shameful entertainment.

also was more fully recorded the acts that After this ribaldry, the Proctors made he had done, and the names of many their speeches. Then began the music

Then began the music hundreds that he had taken into his servart, vocal and instrumental, above in the ice; and how he had placed them in such balustrade corridor opposite to the Vice- habitations that could neither by length Chancellor's seat. Then, Dr. Wallis, the of days nor decays of nature be dissolved. mathematical Professor, made his oration, Then they read to him some of the and created one Doctor of music according worthy acts that some of his servants had to the usual ceremonies of gown (which done: as, how they had subdued kingwas of white damask), cap, ring, kiss, etc. doms, wrought righteousness, obtained Next followed the disputations of the promises, stopped the mouths of lions, Inceptor-Doctors in Medicine, the speech quenched the violence of fire, escaped the of their Professor, Dr. Hyde, and so in edge of the sword; out of weakness were course their respective creations. Then made strong, waxed valiant in fight, and disputed the Inceptors of Law, the speech turned to flight the armies of the aliens. of their Professor, and creation. Lastly, Then they read again in another part of Inceptors of Theology: Dr. Compton the records of the house, where it was (brother to the Earl of Northampton) showed how willing their Lord was to being junior, began with great modesty receive into his favour any, even any, and applause; so the rest. After which, though they in time past had offered great Dr. Tillotson, Dr. Sprat, etc., and then affronts to his person and proceedings. Dr. Allestree's speech, the King's Profes- Here also were several other histories of sor, and their respective creations. Last many other famous things, of all which of all, the Vice-Chancellor, shutting up the Christian had a view. As of things both whole in a panegyrical oration, celebrating ancient and modern: together with prophtheir benefactor and the rest, apposite to ecies and predictions of things that have the occasion.

their certain accomplishment, both to the Thus was the Theatre dedicated by the dread and amazement of enemies, and the scholastic exercises in all the Faculties comfort and solace of pilgrims. with great solemnity; and the night, as The next day they took him and had the former, entertaining the new Doctor's him into the armory, where they showed friends in feasting and music. I was him all manner of furniture, which their invited by Dr. Barlow, the worthy and Lord had provided for pilgrims, as sword, learned Professor of Queen's College. shield, helmet, breastplate, all-prayer, and

shoes that would not wear out. And JOHN BUNYAN

there was here enough of this to harness

out as many men for the service of their CHRISTIAN'S FIGHT WITH

Lord as there be stars in the heaven for APOLLYON


They also showed him some of the enFrom THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS

gines with which some of his servants had So in the morning they all got up, and done wonderful

done wonderful things. They showed after some more discourse, they told him him Moses' rod, the hammer and nail with that he should not depart till they had which Jael slew Sisera, the pitchers, trumshowed him the rarities of that place. pets, and lamps too, with which Gideon And first they had him into the study, put to flight the armies of Midian. Then where they showed him records of the they showed him the ox's goad wherewith greatest antiquity; in which, as I remem- Shamgar slew six hundred men. They ber my dream, they showed him first the showed him also the jaw-bone with which pedigree of the Lord of the hill, that he Samson did such mighty feats: they was the son of the Ancient of Days, and showed him moreover the sling and stone

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