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ivory double compass dial. Much they a piece of copper, a white shell, a long marvelled at the playing of the fly and feather, with a small rattle growing at the needle, which they could see so plainly, tails of their snakes tied to it, or some and yet not touch it because of the glass suchlike toy. All this while Smith and which covered them. But when he the king stood in the middle guarded, as demonstrated by that globelike jewel, the before is said : and after th dances they roundness of the earth, and skies, the all departed. Smith they conducted to sphere of the sun, moon, and stars, and a long house, where thirty or forty tall how the sun did chase the night round fellows did guard him; and ere long more about the world continually; the great- bread and venison was brought him than ness of the land and sea, the diversity of would have served twenty men.

I think nations, variety of complexions, and how his stomach at that time was not very we were to them Antipodes, and many good; what he left they put in baskets and other such like matters, they all stood tied over his head. About midnight they amazed with admiration.

set the meat again before him, all this Notwithstanding, within an hour after time not one of them would eat a bite with they tied him to a tree, and as many as him, till the next morning they brought could stand about him prepared to shoot him as much more; and then did they eat him: but the king holding up the compass all the old, and reserved the new as they in his hand, they all laid down their bows had done the other, which made him think and arrows, and in a triumphant manner they would fat him to eat him. Yet in led him to Orapaks, where he was after this desperate estate to defend him from their manner kindly feasted and well used. the cold, one Maocassater brought him his

Their order in conducting him was thus; gown, in requital of some beads and toys drawing themselves all in file, the king Smith had given him at his first arrival in in the midst had all their pieces and swords Virginia. borne before him. Captain Smith was Two days after a man would have slain led after him by three great savages, hold- him (but that the guard prevented it) for ing him fast by each arm: and on each the death of his son, to whom they conside six went in file with their arrows ducted him to recover the poor man then nocked. But arriving at the town (which breathing his last. Smith told them that was but only thirty or forty hunting houses at Jamestown he had a water would do it, made of mats, which they remove as they if they would let him fetch it, but they please, as we our tents) all the women would not permit that: and made all the and children staring to behold him, the preparations they could to assault Jamessoldiers first all in file performed the form town, craving his advice; and for recomof a Bissone so well as could be; and on pence, he should have life, liberty, land, each flank, officers as sergeants to see and women. In part of a table book he them keep their orders. A good time they wrote his mind to them at the fort, what continued this exercise, and then cast was intended, how they should follow that themselves in a ring, dancing in such direction to affright the messengers, and several postures, and singing and yelling without fail send him such things as he out such hellish notes and screeches; being wrote for. And an inventory with them. strangely painted, every one his quiver of The difficulty and danger, he told the arrows, and at his back a club; on his savages, of the mines, great guns, and arm a fox or an otter's skin, or some such other engines exceedingly affrighted them, matter for his vambrace; their heads and yet according to his request they went to shoulders painted red, with oil and pocones Jamestown, in as bitter weather as could mingled together, which scarletlike colour be of frost and snow, and within three made an exceeding handsome show; his days returned with an answer. bow in his hand, and the skin of a bird with But when they came to Jamestown, her wings abroad dried, tied on his head, seeing men sally out as he had told them


they would, they fled; yet in the night their rattles began a song, which ended, they came again to the same place where the chief priest laid down five wheat corns: he had told them they should receive an then straining his arms and hands with answer, and such things as he had promised such violence that he sweat, and his veins them: which they found accordingly, swelled, he began a short oration : at the and with which they returned with no conclusion they all gave a short groan; small expedition, to the wonder of them and then laid down three grains more. all that heard it, that he could either After that, began their song again, and divine, or the paper could speak.

then another oration, ever laying down Then they led him to the Youthtanunds, so many corns as before, till they had twice the Mattapanients, the Payankatanks, the encircled the fire; that done, they took a Nantaughtacunds, and Onawmanients bunch of little sticks prepared for that upon the rivers of Rapahanock and Pata- purpose, continuing still their devotion, womek; over all those rivers and back and at the end of every song and oration, again by divers other several nations, to they laid down a stick betwixt the divithe king's habitation at Pamaunkee: sions of corn. Till night, neither he nor where they entertained him with most they did either eat or drink; and then strange and fearful conjurations;

they feasted merrily, with the best proviAs if near led to hell,

sions they could make. Three days they

used this ceremony; the meaning whereof Amongst the devils to dwell.

they told him, was to know if he intended Not long after, early in a morning a them well or The circle of meal great fire was made in a long house, and a signified their country, the circles of corn mat spread on the one side, as on the the bounds of the sea, and the sticks his other; on the one they caused him to sit, country. They imagined the world to be and all the guard went out of the house, flat and round, like a trencher; and they and presently came skipping in a great in the middle. grim fellow, all painted over with coal, After this they brought him a bag of mingled with oil; and many snakes and gunpowder, which they carefully preweasels skins stuffed with moss, and all served till the next spring, to plant as they their tails tied together, so as they met on

did their corn;

because they would be the crown of his head, in a tassel; and acquainted with the nature of that seed. round about the tassel was as a coronet of Opitchapam the king's brother invited feathers, the skins hanging round about him to his house, where, with as many his head, back, and shoulders, and in a platters of bread, fowl, and wild beasts, manner covered his face; with a hellish as did environ him, he bid him welcome; voice, and a rattle in his hand. With but not any of them would eat a bite with most strange gestures and passions he him, but put up all the remainder in began his invocation, and environed the baskets. fire with a circle of meal; which done, At his return to Opechancanoughs, all three more suchlike devils came rushing the king's women, and their children, in with the like antique tricks, painted flocked about him for their parts; as a half black, half red: but all their eyes due by custom, to be merry with such were painted white, and some red strokes fragments. like mutchatoes along their cheeks: round about him those fiends danced a pretty

But his waking mind in hideous dreams while, and then came in three more as ugly Of bodies strange, and huge in growth,

did oft see wondrous shapes, as the rest; with red eyes, and white strokes over their black faces, at last they

and of stupendous makes. all sat down right against him; three of At last they brought him to Meronothem on the one hand of the chief priest, comoco, where was Powhatan their emand three on the other. Then all with

peror. Here more than two hundred of

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those grim courtiers stood wondering at woods, and there upon a mat by the fire him, as he had been a monster; till to be left alone. Not long after from bePowhatan and his train had put themselves hind a mat that divided the house, was in their greatest braveries. Before a fire made the most dolefullest noise he ever upon a seat like a bedstead, he sat covered heard; then Powhatan more like a devil with a great robe, made of rarowcun than a man, with some two hundred more skins, and all the tails hanging by. On as black as himself, came unto him and either side did sit a young wench of sixteen told him now they were friends, and or eighteen years, and along on each side presently he should go to Jamestown, to the house, two rows of men, and behind send him two great guns, and a grindstone, them as many women, with all their heads for which he would give him the country of and shoulders painted red : many of their Capahowosick, and forever esteem him as heads bedecked with the white down of his son Nantaquoud. birds; but every one with something : So to Jamestown with 12 guides Powand a great chain of white beads about hatan sent him. That night they quartheir necks.

tered in the woods, he still expecting (as At his entrance before the king, all the he had done all this long time of his impeople gave a great shout. The queen of prisonment) every hour to be put to one Appamatuck was appointed to bring him death or other : for all their feasting. water to wash his hands, and another But Almighty God (by his divine provibrought him a bunch of feathers, instead dence) had mollified the hearts of those of a towel to dry them: having feasted stern barbarians with compassion. The him after their best barbarous manner next morning betimes they came to the they could, a long consultation was held, fort, where Smith having used the savages but the conclusion was, two great stones with what kindness he could, he showed were brought before Powhatan: then as Rawhunt, Powhatan's trusty servant, many as could laid hands on him, dragged two demi-culverings and a millstone to him to them, and thereon laid his head, carry Powhatan: they found them someand being ready with their clubs, to beat what too heavy; but when they did see out his brains, Pocahontas the king's him discharge them, being loaded with dearest daughter, when no entreaty could stones, among the boughs of a great tree prevail, got his head in her arms, and laid loaded with icicles the ice and branches her own upon his to save him from death : came so tumbling down, that the poor whereat the emperor was contented he savages ran away half dead with fear. should live to make him hatchets, and her But at last we regained some conference bells, beads, and copper; for they thought with them, and gave them such toys; him as well of all occupations as them- and sent to Powhatan, his women, and selves. For the king himself will make his children such presents, as gave them in own robes, shoes, bows, arrows, pots; general full content. plant, hunt, or do anything so well as the rest.

SIR FRANCIS BACON They say he bore a pleasant show, OF MARRIAGE AND SINGLE LIFE But sure his heart was sad. For who can pleasant be, and rest,

He that hath wife and children hath That lives in fear and dread:

given hostages to fortune, for they are And having life suspected, doth

impediments to great enterprises, either It still suspected lead.

of virtue or mischief. Certainly the best

works, and of greatest merit for the public, Two days after, Powhatan having dis- have proceeded from the unmarried or guised himself in the most fearfullest childless men, which both in affection and manner he could, caused Captain Smith means have married and endowed the to be brought forth to a great house in the public. Yet it were great reason that those that have children should have ing upon the merit of their chastity. It greatest care of future times, unto which is one of the best bonds, both of chastity they know they must transmit their and obedience, in the wife, if she think her dearest pledges.

husband wise, which she will never do if Some there are who, though they lead a she find him jealous. Wives are young single life, yet their thoughts do end with men's mistresses, companions for middle themselves, and account future times age, and old men's nurses, so as a man may impertinences. Nay, there are some other have a quarrel to marry when he will. that account wife and children but as bills But yet he was reputed one of the wise men of charges. Nay more, there are some that made answer to the question when a foolish rich covetous men, that take a man should marry: “A young man not pride in having no children, because they yet, an elder man not at all.” It is often may be thought so much the richer; for, seen that bad husbands have very good perhaps, they have heard some talk, “Such wives, whether it be that it raiseth the an one is a great rich man," and another price of their husbands' kindness when it except to it, “Yea, but he hath a great comes, or that the wives take a pride in charge of children," as if it were an abate- their patience. But this never fails, if the ment to his riches. But the most ordinary bad husbands were of their own choosing, cause of a single life is liberty, especially in against their friends' consent, for then certain self-pleasing and humorous minds, they will be sure to make good their own which are so sensible of every restraint as folly. they will go near to think their girdles and

OF TRAVEL garters to be bonds and shackles. Unmarried men are best friends, best masters, TRAVEL, in the younger sort, is a part of best servants; but not always best sub- education; in the elder, a part of experijects, for they are light to run away, and

He that travelleth into a country almost all fugitives are of that condition. before he hath some entrance into the A single life doth well with churchmen, language, goeth to school, and not to for charity will hardly water the ground travel. That young men travel under where it must first fill a pool. It is indif- some tutor or grave servant, I allow well, ferent for judges and magistrates, for if so that he be such a one that hath the they be facile and corrupt, you shall have language and hath been in the country a servant five times worse than a wife. before, whereby he may be able to tell them For soldiers, I find the generals commonly, what things are worthy to be seen in the in their hortatives, put men in mind of country where they go, what acquainttheir wives and children; and I think the ances they are to seek, what exercises or despising of marriage amongst the Turks discipline the place yieldeth, for else young maketh the vulgar soldier more base. men shall go hooded, and look abroad little. Certainly wife and children are a kind of It is a strange thing that in sea voyages, discipline of humanity; and single men, where there is nothing to be seen but sky though they be many times more charita- and sea, men should make diaries, but in ble, because their means are less exhaust, land travel, wherein so much is to be yet, on the other side, they are observed, for the most part they omit it, cruel and hard-hearted (good to make as if chance were fitter to be registered than severe inquisitors), because their tender- observation. Let diaries, therefore, be ness is not so oft called upon. Grave brought in use. The things to be seen and natures, led by custom, and therefore observed are, the courts of princes, especonstant, are commonly loving husbands, cially when they give audience to ambasas was said of Ulysses, “Vetulam suam sadors; the courts of justice, while they praetulit immortalitati" (He preferred his sit and hear causes; and so of consistories aged wife to immortality). Chaste women ecclesiastic; the churches and monasteries, are often proud and forward, as presum- with the monuments which are therein extant; the walls and fortifications of suck the experience of many. Let him cities and towns; and so the havens and also see and visit eminent persons in all harbours, antiquities and ruins, libraries, kinds which are of great name abroad, that colleges, disputations, and lectures, where he may be able to tell how the life agreeth any are; shipping and navies; houses and with the fame. For quarrels, they are gardens of state and pleasure, near great with care and discretion to be avoided; cities; armories, arsenals, magazines, ex- they are commonly for mistresses, healths, changes, burses, warehouses, exercises of place, and words. And let a man beware horsemanship, fencing, training of soldiers, how he keepeth company with choleric and the like; comedies, such whereunto and quarrelsome persons, for they will the better sort of persons do resort; engage him into their own quarrels. treasuries of jewels and robes; cabinets When a traveller returneth home, let and rarities; and, to conclude, whatsoever him not leave the countries where he hath is memorable in the places where they go; travelled altogether behind him, but after all which the tutors or servants ought maintain a correspondence by letters with to make diligent inquiry. As for tri- those of his acquaintance which are of umphs, masks, feasts, weddings, funerals, most worth. And let his travel appear capital executions, and such shows, men rather in his discourse than in his apparel need not to be put in mind of them: yet or gesture, and in his discourse let him be are they not to be neglected.



rather advised in his answers than forIf you will have a young man to put his ward to tell stories. And let it appear travel into a little room, and in short time that he doth not change his country manto gather much, this you must do: first, ners for those of foreign parts, but only as was said, he must have some entrance prick in some flowers of that he hath into the language before he goeth; then he learned abroad into the customs of his own must have such a servant, or tutor, as country. knoweth the country, as was likewise said;

OF EXPENSE let him carry with him also some card, or book, describing the country where he RICHES are for spending, and spending travelleth, which will be a good key to his for honour and good actions. Therefore inquiry; let him keep also a diary; let extraordinary expense must be limited by him not stay long in one city or town, more the worth of the occasion, for voluntary or less as the place deserveth, but not long; undoing may be as well for a man's counnay, when he stayeth in one city or town, try as for the kingdom of heaven. But let him change his lodging from one end ordinary expense ought to be limited by a and part of the town to another, which is man's estate, and governed with such a great adamant of acquaintance; let him regard, as it be within his compass and not sequester himself from the company of his subject to deceit and abuse of servants, and countrymen, and diet in such places where ordered to the best show, that the bills there is good company of the nation where may be less than the estimation abroad. he travelleth: let him, upon his removes Certainly, if a man will keep but of even from one place to another, procure recom- hand, his ordinary expenses ought to be mendation to some person of quality re- but to the half of his receipts, and if he siding in the place wither he removeth, think to wax rich, but to the third part. that he may use his favour in those things It is no baseness for the greatest to dehe desireth to see or know; thus he may scend and look into their own estate. abridge his travel with much profit. Some forbear it, not upon negligence alone,

As for the acquaintance which is to be but doubting to bring themselves into sought in travel, that which is most of all melancholy, in respect they shall find it profitable is acquaintance with the secre- broken. But wounds cannot be cured taries and employed men of ambassadors, without searching. He that cannot look for so in travelling in one country he shall into his own estate at all, had need both

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