Gun Violence: The Real Costs
100 billion dollars. That is the annual cost of gun violence in America according to the authors of this landmark study, a book destined to change the way Americans view the problem of gun-related violence.
Until now researchers have assessed the burden imposed by gunshot injuries and deaths in terms of medical costs and lost productivity. Here, economists Philip Cook and Jens Ludwig widen the lens, developing a framework to calculate the full costs borne by Americans in a society where both gun violence and its ever-present threat mandate responses that touch every aspect of our lives.
All of us, no matter where we reside or how we live, share the costs of gun violence. Whether waiting in line to pass through airport security or paying taxes for the protection of public officials; whether buying a transparent book bag for our children to meet their school's post-Columbine regulations or subsidizing an urban trauma center, the steps we take are many and the expenditures enormous.
Cook and Ludwig reveal that investments in prevention, avoidance, and harm reduction, both public and private, constitute a far greater share of the gun-violence burden than previously recognized. They also employ extensive survey data to measure the subjective costs of living in a society where there is risk of being shot or losing a loved one or neighbor to gunfire.
At the same time, they demonstrate that the problem of gun violence is not intractable. Their review of the available evidence suggests that there are both additional gun regulations and targeted law enforcement measures that will help.
This urgently needed book documents for the first time how gun violence diminishes the quality of life for everyone in America. In doing so, it will move the debate over gun violence past symbolic politics to a direct engagement with the costs and benefits of policies that hold promise for reducing gun violence and may even pay for themselves.
讀者評論 - 撰寫評論
1 Gun Violence and Life in America
2 Victimization Risks
3 How Guns Matter
4 What Counts?
Gross versus Net
6 The Mythical Importance of Productivity Losses
7 Avoidance and Prevention
8 WillingnesstoPay to Reduce Gun Violence
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American Appendix assume assumptions average benefits billion calculated census Chapter contingent-valuation Cost of Illness costs of gun costs of treating criminal Current Population Survey descriptive statistics diagnosis code dollars earnings economists effect eliminating gun emphysema equal estimates example expenditures fatal gunshot injuries Figure firearm follow-up gun assaults gun homicide gun injuries Gun Policy gun suicide victims gunshot victims gunshot wounds handguns Hispanic hospital household income increase Jens Ludwig Levitt lifetime costs lifetime medical costs lives medical expenses metal detectors Miller and Cohen NEISS NGPS NMES NMFS nonfatal gunshot nongun pay to reduce people’s polio problem productivity Project Exile provides reduce gun violence reduction in gun reported respondents result risk of gunshot robbery safety sample self-inflicted shot injuries Steve Levitt studies suggest suicide attempts Table treating gunshot unintentional shootings violent crimes Viscusi weapon substitution Worker replacement Zimring