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[Halt of the Pilgrims at the Cross where Christian became eased of his Burden.]
Chr. But if he parts with his righteousness to us, what will he have for himself?
Great-heart. He has more righteousness than you have need of, or than he needeth himself.
Chr. Pray, make that appear. Great-heart. With all my heart. But first I must premise, that He of whom we are now about to speak is One that has not his fellow. He has two natures in one person, plain to be distinguished, impossible to be divided. Unto each of these Natures a righteousness belongeth, and each righteousness is essential to that nature: so that one may as easily cause the nature to be extinct, as to separate its justice or righteousness from it. Of these righteous. nesses, therefore, we are not made partakers, so as that they, or any of them, should be put upon us, that we might be made just, and live thereby. Besides these, there is a righteousness which this Person has, as these two natures are joined in one; and this is not the righteousness of the Godhead, as distinguished from the manhood, nor the righteousness of the manhood, as distinguished from the Godhead; but a righteousness which standeth in the union of both natures, and may properly be called the righteousness that is essential to his being prepared of God, to the capacity of the mediatory office which he was to be intrusted with. If he
parts with his first righteousness, he parts with his Godhead; if he parts with his second righteousness, he parts with the purity of his manhood; if he parts with this third, he parts with that perfection which capacitates him for the office of mediation. He has therefore another righteousness, which standeth in performance or obedience to a revealed will; and that is it that he puts upon sinners, and that by which their sins are covered. Wherefore he saith, "As by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.” *
Chr. But are the other righteousnesses of no use to us?
Great-heart. Yes; for though they are essential to his natures and offices, and cannot be communicated unto another, yet it is by virtue of them that the righteousness that justifies is for that purpose efficacious. The righteousness of his Godhead gives virtue to his obedience; the righteousness of his manhood giveth capability to his obedience to justify; and the righteousness that standeth in the union of these two natures to his office, giveth authority to that righteousness to do the work for which it was ordained.
So, then, here is a righteousness that Christ, as God, has no need of; for he is God without it. Here is a righteousness that Christ, as man, has no need of to make him so; for he is perfect man without it. Again, here is a righteousness that Christ, as Godman had no need of; for he is perfectly so without it. Here, then, is a righteousness that Christ, as God, and as God-man, has no need of, with reference to himself, and therefore he can spare it; a justifying righteousness, that he, for himself wanteth not, and therefore giveth it away: hence 'tis called the gift of righteousness. This righteousness, since Christ Jesus the Lord has made himself under the law, must be given away; for the law doth not only bind him that is under it to do justly, but to use charity : † wherefore he must, or ought, by the law, if he hath two coats, to give one to him that hath none. Now, our Lord indeed hath two coats, one for himself, and one to spare; wherefore he freely bestows one upon those that have none. And thus, Christiana, and Mercy, and the rest of you that are here, doth your pardon come by deed, or by the work of another man. Your Lord Christ is he that worked, and hath given away what he wrought for, to the next poor beggar he meets.
But again, in order to pardon by deed, there must something be paid to God as a price, as well as something prepared to cover us withal. Sin has delivered us up to the just curse of a righteous
* Rom. v. 19.
† Rom. v. 17
law. Now, from this curse, we must be justified by way of Redemption, a price being paid for the harms we have done ;* and this is by the blood of your Lord, who came and stood in your place and stead, and died your death for your transgressions.† Thus has he ransomed you from your transgressions by blood, and covered your polluted and deformed souls with righteousness, for the sake of which God passeth by you, and will not hurt you, when he comes to judge the world.
Chr. This is brave. Now I see that there was with this way of something to be learned by our being pardoned by redemption. word and deed. Good Mercy let us labour to keep this in mind; and, my children, do you remember it also. But, sir, was not this it that made my good Christian's Burden fall from off his shoulder, and that made him give three leaps for joy? Great-heart. Yes, it was the belief of this that cut those strings that could not be cut by other means; and it was to give him a proof of the virtue of this, that he was suffered to carry his Burden to the Cross.
How the strings that bound Chris
tian's burden to him were cut.
Chr. I thought so; for though my heart was lightful and joyous before, yet it is ten times more joyous and lightsome now. And I am persuaded, by what I have felt, though I have felt but little as yet, that if the most burdened man in the world was here, and did see and believe as I now do, it would make his heart the more merry and blithe.
How affection to
Great-heart. There is not only comfort, and the Christ is begot in ease of a burden, brought to us by the sight and consideration of these, but an endeared affection begot in us by it; for who can (if he doth but once think that pardon comes not only by promise, but thus) but be affected with the way and means of his Redemption, and so with the man that hath wrought it for him?
Chr. True: methinks it makes my heart bleed to think that he should bleed for me. Oh! thou loving One! Oh! thou blessed One! Thou deservest to have me! thou hast bought me! Thou Cause of admira- deservest to have me all! Thou hast paid for me ten thousand times more than I am worth! No marvel that this made the tears stand in my husband's eyes, and that it made him trudge so nimbly on! I am persuaded he wished me with him: but, vile wretch that I was, I let him come all alone.
O, Mercy! that thy father and mother were here! yea, and Mrs. Timorous also: I wish now, with all my heart, that here was
Gal. iii. 13.
† Rom. viii. 34.
Madam Wanton too. Surely, surely, their hearts would be affected; nor could the fear of the one, nor the powerful lust of the other, prevail with them to go home again, and refuse to become good Pilgrims.
Great-heart. You speak now in the warmth of your affections. Will it, think you, be always thus with you? Besides, this is not communicated to every one; not to every one that did see your JESUS bleed. There were that stood by, and that saw the blood run from his heart to the ground, and yet were so far off this, that, instead of lamenting, they laughed at him, and, instead of becoming his disciples, did harden their hearts against To be affected with him. So that all that you have, my daughters, you Christ and with have by peculiar impression, made by a divine con- what he has done, is a thing special. templating upon what I have spoken to you. Remember that 'twas told you, that the Hen, by her common call, gives no meat to her chickens. This you have, therefore, by a special grace.
Now I saw, in my dream, that they went on until they were come to the place that Simple, and Sloth, and Pre- Simple, Sloth, and sumption, lay and slept in, when Christian went Presumption hang by on pilgrimage; and behold they were hanged ed; and why. up in irons a little way off on the other side.
Then said Mercy to him that was their guide and conductor, What are these three men? and for what are they hanged there? Great-heart. These three men were men of very bad qualities: they had no mind to be Pilgrims themselves, and whomsoever they could, they hindered. They were for sloth and folly themselves, and whomsoever they could persuade, they made so too; and withal taught them to presume that they should do well at last. They were asleep when Christian went by, and now you go by, they are hanged.
Mercy. But could they persuade any to be of their opinion? Great-heart. Yes; they turned several out of the way. There was Slow-pace, that they persuaded to do as they. They also prevailed with one Short-wind, with one No-heart, with one Linger-after-lust; and with one Sleepy-head; and with a young woman, her name was Dull, to turn out of the way, and become as they. Besides, they brought up an ill report of your Lord, persuading others that he was a hard task-master. they also brought up an evil report of the Good Land, saying, it was not half so good as some pretended it was. They also began to vilify his servants, and to count the very best of them meddlesome, troublesome, busy-bodies. Further, they would call the
bread of God husks; the comforts of his children, fancies; the travel and labour of Pilgrims, things to no purpose.
Nay, said Christiana, if they were such, they shall never be bewailed by me. They have but what they deserve: and I think it is well that they stand so near the highway, that others may see and take warning. But had it not been well, if their crimes had been engraven in some plate of iron or brass, and left here, where they did their mischiefs, for a caution to other bad men?
Great-heart. So it is, as you may well perceive, if you will go a little to the wall.
Mercy. No, no, let them hang, and their names rot, and their crimes live for ever against them. I think it a high favour that they were hanged afore we came hither; who knows else what they might have done to such poor women as we are! Then she turned it into a song, saying:
Now then, you three, hang there, and be a sign
And let him that comes after fear this end,
And thou, my soul, of all such men beware,
'Tis difficult get
ting of good doc. trine in erroneous
Thus they went on, till they came to the foot of the hill Difficulty, where again the good Mr. Great-heart took an occasion to tell them of what happened there when Christian himself went by. So he had them first to the spring: Lo! saith he, this is the spring that Christian drank of before he went up this hill, and then it was clear and good; but now it is dirty with the feet of some that are not desirous that Pilgrims here should quench their thirst. Thereat Mercy said, And why so envious, trow? But, said their guide, it will do if taken up, and put into a vessel that is sweet and good; for then the dirt will sink to the bottom, and the water come out by itself more clear. Thus, therefore, Christiana and her companions were compelled to do. They took it up, and put it into an earthern pot, and so let it stand till the dirt was gone to the bottom, and then they drank thereof.
Next he showed them the two by-ways that were at the foot of the hill, where Formality and Hypocrisy lost themselves; and, said he, these are dangerous paths. Two were here cast away The paths, though when Christian came by. And although, as you barred up, will not see, these ways are since stopped up with chains, keep all from going in them. posts, and a ditch, yet there are those that will choose to adventure here, rather than take the pains to go up this hill.