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ILLUSTRATIONS, VOLUME I

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The Lake at Naini Tal, nestled in a secluded valley under the summit of China Pahar (vide page 498)

Frontispiece Rainfall Map of India

Left of title page

To face page Melocanna bambusioides, six years old, Kassalong River, Chittagong Hill

Tracts
The Forest Bungalow, Anaimalai Forests, Madras
View from Rungamatti, Chittagong Hill Tracts. A mutilated Gurjun

oil tree (Dipterocarpus turbinatus) on right
Chilgoza (Pinus Gerardiana) Forest at Shinghar, with natural regenera-
tion in foreground. North Zhob

50 Country cart loaded with a squared teak beam of 20 cubic feet (Madras)

64 Five logs from one teak tree, South Coimbatore, Madras. Dimensions of

log with figure : Length, 16 ft. 9 in.; mean girth, 16 ft. 6 in.;
volume, 285 cubic feet

72 On the Beypur River, Nilumbur Two-year Teak Plantation, Nilumbur, Madras

97 Elephants piling squares of teak timber in a timber yard at Rangoon 129 Damage done to base of a teak tree by fire, Burma

134 Bamboo rafts of Muli bamboo, Kassalong River, Chittagong Hill Tracts View of the Anaim alai timber slip

224 Ficus enclosing a teak tree. Girth over ficus, 17 ft. 5 in. Burma. 231 Rafts of teak timber on river bank alongside a sawmill, Rangoon 244 Deodar Forest, North-West Himalaya

264 The Nilgiris, showing sholas. Pykara Falls and heavy forest on right

306 Damage done to stem of a teak tree by fire, Burma.

373 Elephants dragging teak logs. Burmese forests

381 Sal Forest, heavily cut out by contractors and then swept by a storm. A good example of the after-effects of lumbering.

392 Old uncut sâl forests in Chota Nagpur. A characteristic view. A contractor's fair-weather bridge of slabs across a nulla

401 An ordinary timber slide, Punjab Himalaya (circa 1862)

424 Mixed forest of Pinus excelsa, Cedrus deodara, Picea morinda and Abies Pindrow (silver fir), Upper Siran Valley, Hazara .

454 A Rukh in the Punjab. The vegetation consists of Capparis aphylla (in

foreground), Salvadora, and Prosopis spicigera Arid hills and valleys of Baluchistan and Waziristan, with scattered and

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The hot, steep slopes of the Chir (Pinus longifolia) Forests, North-West

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Himalaya Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S., in the Rhododendron Region in the Himalayan Mountains, 1854

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INTRODUCTION

T

HIS History of the Forests of India and the growth of the Indian Forest Service has been written with the object of tracing the various stages through

which the forests have passed during the development of the country under British rule. The aim kept in view has been to present to the Indian Forest Officer and the members of the other services in India who have a more or less direct or indirect connection with the forests, in detailed narrative form the progress of Forestry in the different Provinces of the country, and the steps by which that progress has been achieved. Ribbentrop's Forestry in British India, an invaluable work, has been the only account available to date.

It was published in 1900. Personally I have felt the want, both during my service in India and since, of a work in somewhat greater detail and brought up to date.

The great difficulty experienced in dealing with the records available at the India Office and in India has been to make such a selection of material as would present a true picture of the various stages the forests of the country have passed through. My work has been greatly facilitated by the presence in the University of Edinburgh of the Cleghorn Library, Dr. Hugh Cleghorn, styled in a notification of the Government of India in 1865 as “The Father of Indian Forestry,” having bequeathed his valuable collection of books and reports to the University.

The present volume of this History takes the reader up to the year 1864, when, with the appointment of Sir D. Brandis as the first Inspector-General of Forests in India, the Forest Service gradually came into being. The greater part of this period deals with the continued devastation of the forests

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