The Works of David Ricardo, Esq., M.P.: With a Notice of the Life and Writings of the Author

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The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2000 - 584 頁
 

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第 5 頁 - THE produce of the earth — all that is derived from its surface by the united application of labour, machinery, and capita], is divided among three classes of the community, namely, the proprietor of the land, the owner of the stock or capital necessary for its cultivation, and the labourers by •whose industry it is cultivated.
第 50 頁 - The natural price of labour is that price which is necessary to enable the labourers, one with another, to subsist and to perpetuate their race, without either increase or diminution.
第 54 頁 - The friends of humanity cannot but wish that in all countries the labouring classes should have a taste for comforts and enjoyments, and that they should be stimulated by all legal means in their exertions to procure them. There cannot be a better security against a superabundant population.
第 14 頁 - The word VALUE, it is to be observed, has two different meanings, and sometimes expresses the utility of some particular object, and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods which the possession of that object conveys. The one may be called ' value in use;' the other, * value in exchange.
第 39 頁 - Corn is not high because a rent is paid, but a rent is paid because corn is high ; and it has been justly observed, that no reduction would take place in the price of corn, although landlords should forego the whole of their rent.
第 10 頁 - The real price of everything, what everything really costs to the man who wants to acquire it, is the toil and trouble of acquiring it.

關於作者 (2000)

Born in London, David Ricardo was the third child in a family of at least 17 children. His father, a Dutch Jew, was a successful stockbroker who had moved to London in 1760. Ricardo did not have the typical classical education afforded the children of other wealthy families, but his father supplied him with tutors, and he spent three years in an exclusive Jewish school in Amsterdam. At age 14 he began working in his father's brokerage business. Ricardo learned the brokerage trade well, and he would have been regarded as a rousing success by his family had he not married a Quaker and joined the Unitarian church, causing an estrangement from his father. His abilities as a stockbroker, however, were such that he quickly found other employment. Before long, he had amassed a small fortune, and, by his early forties, he was able to retire and devote time to his new interest, economics. In 1809 Ricardo published his first article, which dealt with the price of gold and the value of the British pound. This was followed by a popular pamphlet, The High Price of Bullion, a Proof of the Depreciation of Bank Notes (1810), in which he argued that the excess production of paper bank notes depreciated their value. The House of Commons became so alarmed by Ricardo's argument that it formed a committee to examine the high price of bullion and issued the famous and controversial Bullion Report. During the bullion controversy, Ricardo developed two interesting friendships. The first was with John Stuart Mill, who took it upon himself to review Ricardo's manuscript and help him develop his literary skills. The second was with Thomas Malthus, who would debate topics with Ricardo in order to help him to clarify his positions. Although Ricardo and Malthus often took opposing positions on many public issues, their differences never got in the way of their lifelong friendship. The events of the period had a strong influence on Ricardo's economic theories. England at this time was divided into two competing and hostile groups---the industrialists with their factories and the landed aristocracy who resented the new-found riches of the industrialists. The industrialists wanted low grain prices so that wages could be kept low; the landed aristocracy wanted high prices and high profits on the sale of their grain. The landowners, who held a majority in Parliament, passed the infamous Corn Laws. These laws established a sliding import tax on grain, thereby setting artificially high prices for grain in England. Ricardo saw the economic problem in terms of a distribution of income, a view expressed forcibly in his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817). According to Ricardo, workers received wages for their efforts, capitalists earned profits, and landowners received rent for the use of their land. Landowners, however, were unaffected by the pressure of competition and the growth of population, so only they would benefit from future growth. In addition to Ricardo's contributions to the theory of rent and the distribution of income, he also developed a labor of value, supported free trade, and championed laissez faire. He argued for minimal taxation, the retirement of the national debt, and the abolition of relief policies for the poor on the grounds that it distorted the labor market. Ricardo died suddenly from an ear infection in 1823, barely 14 years after his article on the bullion controversy. Even so, his theories had a lasting impact on the field of economics and on English economic policies. According to John Maynard Keynes, "Ricardo conquered England as completely as the Holy Inquisition conquered Spain.

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