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hardly think that, even if all conditions of time and space had been favourable, a more lengthy resumi of the tons of volumes which have been written on the subject would have been acceptable to the time-pressed British public of the present day.

Rome, June 5th, 1876.

CONTENTS.

BOOK I.

HIERARCHY IN STATE OF FLUIDITY.

CHAPTER I.

MSI

First Tentatives 3

CHAPTER n.

Lateran Council of 1059.—Order of Cardinals.—Meaning of the Term.—

First Traces of a Collegiate Body of Cardinals.—Number of the

Cardinals.—Variations in this respect under different Popes.—"Titles"

of the Cardinals.—Three Orders of Cardinals.—Numbers of Cardinals

created by different Popes.—Motives for keeping up the Number in the

Sacred College.—Cardinals in petto.—Anecdote of Alexander VIII. . 13

CHAPTER HI.

Ceremonial connected with the Creation of Cardinals.—Practice in the

Earliest Ages.—Consultation of the College on the Subject.—Modern

Practice.—Communication of his Creation to the new Cardinal.—His

customary Duties thereupon.—Costume.—New Cardinal's Visit to the

Vatican.—Patronage.—Ceremonial at the Apostolic Palace.—Speeches

on the Occasion.—The "Beretta."—The new Cardinal's Reception.—

Shutting and Opening of the new Cardinal's Mouth.—Cardinalitial

King.—Fees.—Ages at which Cardinals have been made.—Anecdotes of

Odet de Coligny, the Heretic_Cardinal.—Laws restricting Popes a Dead

Letter 29

CHAPTER IV.

Steps by which the Papal Election was attributed exclusively to the Sacred

College.—Gradual Progress of Encroachment.—Abnormal Elections.—

Early Requisites for the Validity of an Election.—Earliest Examples

of the Conclave.—Notable Conclave at Viterbo in the thirteenth

century.—First example of Election by "Compromise."—The Fifteen

. Rules for a Papal Election made by Gregory X.—Basis of Conclave

Legislation ever since 54

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